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Nicolaism was an early Christian sect mentioned twice in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. The adherents were called Nicolaitanes, or Nicolaites, they were considered heretical by the mainstream Church. According to Revelation 2:6 and 15, they were known in the cities of Pergamum. In this chapter, the church at Ephesus is commended for " the works of the Nicolaites, which I hate". Several of the early church fathers mentioned this group, including Irenaeus, Hippolytus and Theodoret, stating that deacon Nicolas was the author of the heresy and the sect; the New Testament mentions the Nicolaites in the second chapter of the Book of Revelation. Yet this is to your credit: you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I hate. — Revelations 2:6 NRSVBut I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold to the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the people of Israel, so that they would eat food sacrificed to idols and practice fornication. So you have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans.

Repent then. If not, I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. — Revelation 2:14-16 NRSV The last Western Church Father was Isidore of Seville, who finished the Etymologies, or the Origins, in the year 636 A. D. In Book VIII titled "The Church and sects" he wrote, "The Nicolaites are so called from Nicolas, deacon of the church of Jerusalem, along with Stephen and the others, was ordained by Peter, he abandoned his wife because of her beauty, so that whoever wanted to might enjoy her. Jesus condemns them in the Apocalypse, saying: "But this thou hast, that thou hates the deeds of the Nicolaites." John Henry Blunt points out that the Bible condemns the false teachings, the use of a name to describe a group "shows that there was a distinct heretical party which held the doctrine." The letters which Jesus dictates for the churches in Revelation 2 "show that these heretics had neither formally separated themselves from the Church nor had been excommunicated." A common view holds that the Nicolaitans held the antinomian heresy of 1 Corinthians 6, although this has not been proved.

One scholar who espouses this interpretation, John Henry Blunt, maintains that the comparison between the Nicolaitans and Balaam "proves that the fornication spoken of is not that crime under ordinary circumstances, but fornication connected with religious rites". Blunt points out that the Hebrews had a long history of preaching against or alternatively using cult prostitutes, he points out that the early Christians lived in a pagan culture where the worship of Aphrodite included hierodoule who engaged in ritual prostitution in her shrines and temples, that the Dionysian Mysteries used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques to remove inhibitions and social constraints of believers to enter into an animalistic state of mind. Blunt holds that the Nicolaitans either believed that the command against ritual sex was part of the Mosaic law and it was licit for them, or that they went too far during Christian "love-feasts". Blunt sees echoes of this behavior in the admonitions which Paul gives the Corinthians, though he does not name them as such.

Blunt believes that similar echoes can be found in the admonitions of Jude 4-16 and 2 Peter 2:2-21. The trend began early in Christianity of applying the term "Nicolaitans" to describe other antinomian groups with no attachment to the historical Nicolaitans. Tertullian in his Prescription Against Heretics, 33, is such an example: "John, however, in the Apocalypse is charged to chastise those'who eat things sacrificed to idols,' and'who commit sexual immorality.' There are now another sort of Nicolaitans. Theirs is called the Gaian heresy." Irenaeus in Adversus Haereses III. Xi. 1. 3 holds that the Gospel of John was written to counter the teachings of Cerinthus, which he holds was spread by the Nicolaitans. But when Irenaeus focuses on them he only presents them as the Book of Revelation did, with no explanation how they can be held to have the doctrines of Cerinthus. Augustine of Hippo ascribed to them Cerinthian doctrines concerning the creation of the world. Victorinus of Pettau held that the error of the Nicolaitans was that they ate things offered to idols.

Bede states. Thomas Aquinas believed that Nicolas supported the holding of wives in common. Eusebius claimed. A number of authors favor another opinion: that the mention of the Nicolaitans is a symbolic manner of reference, because of the allegorical character of the Apocalypse; as a symbolic reference, the "teaching of the Nicolaitans" refers to dominating the people, compared to the "teaching of Balaam" which refers to seducing the people. John discusses domination within the church in 3 John 9-11; such a teaching would contradict "whoever would be great among you must be your servant". Those who view the account in Revelation 2 as not literal treat the wor

Carlos VĂ©liz

Carlos Véliz is a male shot putter from Cuba. His personal best throw is 21.40 metres, achieved on 12 June 2011 in Brazzaville. However the mark had to be declared irregular because of the use of a light implement. 2006Véliz's international career began with the World Junior Championships in Beijing, where he finished in a respectable 6th Place. 2007Véliz competed at the Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro, throwing 19.75m for the bronze medal. 2008Véliz improved his personal best on 13 May in Havana, with a throw of 20.72m. In Havana, he took the Central American and Caribbean Championships Shot Putt title, with a throw of 20.10m. These throws ensured his qualification for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. In the Shot Putt competition, he finished 12th in Qualifying Group A with a throw of 19.58m, not enough to ensure his progression to the final. 2009Again, Véliz qualified for a major championships, the World Championships in Berlin, but once again disappointed on the day, throwing 19.62m, over a metre behind his personal best, just shy of a metre behind his season best throw of 20.40m 2010Véliz added to his international medal tally with a bronze medal at the 14th Ibero-American Championships, with an effort of 20.20m.

His season's best throw was 20.41m. 2011Véliz made a significant improvement on his personal best, throwing 21.40m at Brazzaville, catapulting him into the World Top 10. Véliz was a promising discus thrower as a junior athlete, has a personal best throw with the 1.75 kg discus of 55.03m Carlos Véliz at World Athletics Carlos Véliz at the International Olympic Committee Carlos Véliz at Olympics at Tilastopaja biography Ecured biography

Operation Crusader (video game)

Operation Crusader is a 1994 computer wargame developed by Atomic Games and published by Avalon Hill. Operation Crusader was among the first titles released in Avalon Hill's push to revive its computer game division during the 1990s, in an attempt to diversify its business because of falling board wargame sales; the company hired Atomic Games as a key to this initiative, Crusader acted as the spiritual success to its earlier V for Victory wargame series and updating much of the game design and code from those titles. Starting with the hire of producer Jim Rose in December 1992, Avalon Hill began an effort to revive its computer game branch in response to flagging board wargame sales during the 1990s. Rose signed developer Atomic Games in 1993 as a key part of this initiative; the Atomic team was known for the V for Victory series with Three-Sixty Pacific, but had left that publisher, after a period of financial problems that culminated in a lawsuit for unpaid royalties. While Avalon contracted Atomic to create a computer version of Advanced Squad Leader, Alan Emrich of Computer Gaming World reported rumors in 1993 that "Avalon Hill will be publishing a second game from Atomic" centered on the North African Campaign.

He speculated that this was "what would be the next V for Victory game in an Avalon Hill wrapper". By January 1994, Atomic Games had revealed the World at War series as the successor to its V for Victory line under Avalon, its first entry was entitled Operation Crusader. Alongside Kingmaker, Operation Crusader was one of the first two titles released as part of Avalon Hill's new initiative; the computer game division had been known for low-quality titles, a problem that Avalon Hill's Don Greenwood blamed on his and the company's "hubris" and favoritism toward board products. Ross Hetrick of the Baltimore Sun reported that the company's first venture ran from 1983 to 1986, ended "when its games began to lag those of competitors." For Operation Crusader, Zabalaoui noted that Avalon Hill's president had informed him that "'good' isn't good enough". Atomic and Avalon Hill experienced creative friction during the development of Operation Crusader. Computer Gaming World columnist Alan Emrich wrote in 1995, "To say there was no love lost between Jim Rose and Atomic's Keith Zabalaoui would be a gracious understatement."

However, the magazine's Terry Coleman noted that the "tensions" between the companies' design philosophies "worked positively" on Operation Crusader. Operation Crusader was released between April and June. In PC Gamer US, William R. Trotter called Operation Crusader "a thoroughbred and a champion", awarded it a score of 94%. Czech magazine Score rated the game 6 out of 10. Trotter went on to name Operation Crusader one of his favorite titles of 1994, wrote that it "captured all the sweep and sudden reversals-of-fortune that characterized the desert war." The game was a runner-up for Computer Gaming World's 1994 "Wargame of the Year" prize, which went to Panzer General. The editors remarked that Crusader "one-ups Atomic Games' V for Victory series in terms of both graphics and gameplay." In 1996, the magazine declared it the 110th-best computer game released. Operation Crusader

Toni Dreher-Adenuga

Oluwatoniloba "Toni" Dreher-Adenuga is a German fashion model who became known as the winner of the thirteenth cycle of Germany's Next Topmodel in 2018. She is sometimes referred to as Toni. Dreher-Adenuga was born in Stuttgart, she has a younger brother. Her parents migrated from Nigeria to Germany in 1986, she attended the Stuttgart girl Gymnasium St. Agnes where she got her Abitur in 2017, she performs as a slam poet and leads a youth church service of the free church Body of Christ Church. In 2018, she took part in the thirteenth season of Germany's Next Topmodel and was designated as the winner during the finale, which took place on 24 May 2018 in the ISS Dome of Düsseldorf; as such, she earned a modelling contract with the agency ONEeins fab Management, a car, a price of 100,000 euros

Mark Alan Hershkovitz

Mark Alan Hershkovitz is an American biochemist and taxonomist. The standard author abbreviation Hershk. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. In 1981 he received his Bachelor of Science from Illinois State University, he received his Master of science and PhD degrees from University of California, Davis in 1986 and 1990. Afterwards, he worked for the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics at the Smithsonian Institution as a postdoctoral scientist, circa 1996 he joined the National Center for Biotechnology Information as a fellow under the Postdoctoral Intramural Research Training Award; as of 2005 he is a professor at the University of Chile. Cistanthe amaranthoides Carolin ex Hershk. C. arenaria Carolin ex Hershk. C. calycina Carolin ex Hershk. C.celosioides Carolin ex Hershk. C.cephalophora Carolin ex Hershk. C.coquimbensis Carolin ex Hershk. C.cymosa Hershk. C. densiflora Hershk. C. monandra Hershk. Hershkovitz, M. A. & Zimmer, E. A. 2000. Ribosomal DNA evidence and disjunctions of western American Portulacaceae Mol.

Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 419–439. Hershkovitz M. A. Arroyo M. T. K, Bell C. and Hinojosa L. F 2006Phylogeny of Chaetanthera reveals both ancient and recent origins of the high elevation lineages Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 594-605. Hershkovitz, M. A.. "Leaf Morphology and Taxonomic Analysis of Cistanthe tweedyi". Systematic Botany. 17: 220–238. Doi:10.2307/2419519. JSTOR 2419519. Hershkovitz, M. A.. "Phylogenetic Studies in Centrospermae: A Brief Appraisal". Taxon. Wiley. 38: 602–608. Doi:10.2307/1222636. JSTOR 1222636

Potrero Chico

El Potrero Chico is an internationally renowned rock climbing area in the Mexican state of Nuevo León, 3 kilometres outside the town of Hidalgo, within Sierra del Fraile protected area. El Potrero Chico is a unique geological formation of limestone cliffs and spires, some as high as 2,000 feet. There is a large range of most of them in the 5.8 to 5.13 grade. The type of climbing can range from steep overhanging face to easy slab; the rock is quite sharp. The climbs are situated in a canyon at the entrance of the park, while the interior offers undeveloped mountain terrain with many mountain biking routes, ranging from easy to expert options. El Potrero draws rock-climbers from around the world, it is considered one of the top 10 locations to sport climb in the world. In addition to well over 500 routes, the area boasts the second longest sport route in North America, Timewave Zero, with 23 pitches and over 2,000 feet. New routes are continually being developed. Rock climbers from Austin, notably, Jeff Jackson, Kevin Gallahger, Craig Pacinda, Alex Catlin, along with Colorado climber Kurt Smith started developing the area in the 1990s.

Development continued in the 21st century, notably by first accentionists Alex Catlin, Ed Wright, Dane Bass. Many climbers have attempted to build bridges with the local community, but there remains much work to be done. There are multiple guide books covering the area, some of which are linked under External Links below; the eventual status of the land is uncertain. Much of the area is a legal classification of little actual consequence. After the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the land within the park was divided amongst the townspeople as per the ejido system; this means that the Hidalgo ejido commission owns and controls 99% of the climbing area. The temperature can vary quite a lot from day from sunny to shady areas. During the summer months however, it is recommended to climb in the shade only. Due to the shape of the canyon, the weather outside may be cloudy and raining, but sunny inside the potrero, it is always possible to find a shady area. In the winter months, the daily high is about 18 degrees C° yet some days it can reach close to 25 C°.

The low is about 5-10 C°, but snow is always possible. Las Estrellas: Located on the east side of the main canyon. 5.9 to 5.12. Single pitch climbs. Club Mex: Home to a number of hard, single pitch climbs as well as the 8 pitch classic, Supernova. Mini super Wall: Directly across from the Central Scrutinizer Wall; the first handful of climbs encountered here are good warm up routes ranging from 5.8 to 5.9+. The route El Volvo Scorcho is named after the car accident that killed the first ascentionist, Dane Bass. Mota Wall: One of the most popular walls located on the Lower Sense of Religion. Mota Wall houses many of the classic climbs at El Potrero such as Double Cherry Pie. Accessed area. Lots of easy to medium range climbs. Mileski Wall: Above the Mota Wall. Hard overhanging climbs; the spires: Very popular areas. Two rock horns about 200' tall on the west side of the canyon. Outrage Wall: Lots of beautiful climbs in the mid 10s to 12 range; the Surf: 15 minutes walk from the spires, hard overhanging from 5.12a to 5.13b.

Central Srutinizer, Virgin canyon: West of the canyon. El Sendero Luminoso: This area is found before entering the main canyon, on the west side, it is where the climb El Sendero Luminoso a long difficult route with 10 pitches of 5.12, is situated. Wonder Wall: This new wall is located inside the swimming pool complex; these routes are up the stairs by the B-BQ grills. They range from 5.6 to 5.11 b. Yankee Clipper - 15 Pitches Snott Girlz - 7 Pitches Timewave Zero - 23 Pitches Pancho Villa Rides Again - 5 Pitches Treasure of Sierra Madre - 7 Pitches Estrellita - 12 Pitches Agua De Coco - 3 Pitches Black Cat Bone - 9 Pitches Space Boyz - 11 Pitches The Devil's Tongue - 3 pitches Supernova - 8 pitches Access Denied - 4 Pitches Dope Ninja - 6 Pitches There are quite a few campgrounds/ranches just outside the climbing area.

Free camping is available in the area. Most of the campgrounds offer rooms for rent and there are several rental houses in the area. La Huasteca El Salto Culo de Gato Puente de Dios Cubia Cave Potrero House and room rentals Potrero Chico Online Guide Potrero Chico Climbing Guidebook AMGA Certified Climbing Guide for El Potrero Mountain Project: Potrero Chico Potrero Chico Climbing Guides