Court of Auditors (France)
Under the French monarchy, the Courts of Accounts were sovereign courts specialising in financial affairs. The Court of Accounts in Paris was the forerunner of today's French Court of Audit, they oversaw public spending, handled finances, protected crown estates, audited the accounts of crown officials, adjudicated any related matters of law. To oversee the Kingdom's revenues and expenditure, the French King first relied on his King's Court or Curia Regis, court officials who assisted him in governing. However, by the mid-12th century, the Crown entrusted its finances to the Knights Templar, who maintained a banking establishment in Paris; the royal Treasury was henceforth organized like a bank and salaries and revenues were transferred between accounts. Royal accounting officers in the field, who sent revenues to the Temple, were audited by the King's Court, which had special clerks assigned to work at the Temple; these financial specialists came to be called the Curia in Compotis and sat in special sessions of the King's Court for dealing with financial business.
From 1297, accounts were audited twice yearly after Midsummer Christmas. In time, what was once a simple Exchequer of Receipts developed into a central auditing agency, branched off, specialized into a full-time court. In 1256, Saint Louis issued a decree ordering all mayors and town councilmen to appear before the King's sovereign auditors of the Exchequer in Paris to render their final accounting; the King's Court's general secretariat had members who specialized in finance and accountancy and could receive accounts. A number of Barons were commissioned to sit as the King's Exchequer. In or around 1303, the Paris Court of Accounts was established in the Palais de la Cité where it remained until the French Revolution, its auditors were responsible for overseeing revenue from Crown estates and checking public spending. It audited the Royal Household, royal commissioners and lower court justices. In 1307, the Philip IV definitively removed royal funds from the Temple and placed them in the fortress of the Louvre.
Thereafter, the financial specialists received accounts for audit in a room of the royal palace that became known as the Camera compotorum or Chambre des comptes, they began to be collectively identified under the same name, although still only a subcommittee within the King's Court, consisting of about sixteen people. The Vivier-en-Brie Ordinance of 1320, issued by Philip V, required the Chambre to audit finances, judge cases arising from accountancy, maintain registers of financial documents, they were assisted by eleven clerks. This complement grew by 50% in the next two decades but was reduced to seven masters and twelve clerks in 1346; the office of churchman Chief Baron was created by the Ordinance of 1381, a second lay Chief Baron was appointed in 1400. Clerks of court were added to the Court's composition. Examiners were created to assist the Barons. Other court officers appointed by the King were created to act alongside the puisne Barons. Lastly, the Ordinance of 26 February 1464 named the Court of Accounts as the "sovereign, primary and sole court of last resort in all things financial".
While gaining in stability in the 14th century, the Court lost its central role in royal finances. First, currency was moved to a separate body the regular "extraordinary" taxes became the responsibility of the généraux of the Cour des aides; the Crown's domainal revenues, still retained by the Court of Accounts, fell in importance and value. By 1400, the Court's role had been much reduced. However, with the gradual englargement of the Realm through conquest, the need for the Court remained secure; the oldest provincial Court of Accounts was in Dauphiné and established in 1368. Other courts sprang up in Normandy, Burgundy, Nantes in Brittany, Navarre and Roussillon, the cities of Nancy and Bar-le-Duc. Toward the end of the French monarchy and excluding the Paris Court of Accounts, out of 12 other regional courts of accounts, some continued to exercise as financial courts presiding over tax and estate cases; some sovereign courts of account were raised from grand feudal estates existing in certain provinces, did not therefore form a cohesive whole.
It was not until the French Revolution that the Courts of Accounts would be abolished between 17–29 September 1791. At any given time, a Court of Accounts may have included any of a number of officers: premier président - Chief Baron président - Presiding Baron maître des comptes - puisne or ordinary Baron auditeur des comptes - auditor correcteur des comptes - examiner of accounts conseiller contrôleur des restes - comptroller conseiller sécrétaire - judicial secretary sécrétaire du roi - Secretary to the King procureur du roi - King's attorney-general avocat général - King's deputy attorney substitut - King's solicitor-general greffier en chef - Chief Clerk of Court greffier au plumitif - Clerk of the Dockets greffier à la pe
Joseph Addison was an English essayist, poet and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison, his name is remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend Richard Steele, with whom he founded The Spectator magazine. Addison was born in Millstone, but soon after his birth his father, Lancelot Addison, was appointed Dean of Lichfield and the family moved into the cathedral close, he was educated at Charterhouse School, where he first met Richard Steele, at The Queen's College, Oxford. He excelled in classics, being specially noted for his Latin verse, became a fellow of Magdalen College. In 1693, he addressed a poem to John Dryden, his first major work, a book of the lives of English poets, was published in 1694, his translation of Virgil's Georgics was published in the same year. Dryden, Lord Somers and Charles Montague, 1st Earl of Halifax, took an interest in Addison's work and obtained for him a pension of £300 a year to enable him to travel to Europe with a view to diplomatic employment, all the time writing and studying politics.
While in Switzerland in 1702, he heard of the death of William III, an event which lost him his pension, as his influential contacts and Somers, had lost their employment with the Crown. Addison returned to England at the end of 1703. For more than a year he remained unemployed, but the Battle of Blenheim in 1704 gave him a fresh opportunity to distinguish himself; the government Lord Treasurer Godolphin, commissioned Addison to write a commemorative poem about the battle, he produced The Campaign, received with such satisfaction that he was appointed Commissioner of Appeals in Halifax's government. His next literary venture was an account of his travels in Italy, Remarks on several parts of Italy, &c. in the years 1701, 1702, 1703, published in 1705 by Jacob Tonson. In 1705, with the Whigs in power, Addison was made Under-Secretary of State and accompanied Lord Halifax on a diplomatic mission to Hanover, Germany. A biography of Addison states: "In the field of his foreign responsibilities Addison's views were those of a good Whig.
He had always believed that England's power depended upon her wealth, her wealth upon her commerce, her commerce upon the freedom of the seas and the checking of the power of France and Spain."In 1708 and 1709, Addison was a Member of Parliament for the borough of Lostwithiel. He was soon appointed secretary to the new Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Wharton. Under the direction of Wharton, he was an MP in the Irish House of Commons for Cavan Borough from 1709 until 1713. In 1710, he represented Malmesbury, in his home county of Wiltshire, holding the seat until his death in 1719, he met Jonathan Swift in Ireland and remained there for a year. He helped form the Kitcat Club and renewed his friendship with Richard Steele. In 1709, Steele began to publish the Tatler, Addison became a regular contributor. In 1711 they started The Spectator; the first issue appeared on 1 March 1711. This paper, a daily, was published until 20 December 1714, interrupted for a year by the publication of The Guardian in 1713.
His last publication was The Freeholder, a political paper, in 1715–16. He wrote the libretto for Thomas Clayton's opera Rosamond, which had a disastrous premiere in London in 1707. In 1713 Addison's tragedy Cato was produced, was received with acclamation by both Whigs and Tories, he followed this effort with a comedic play, The Drummer. In 1712, Addison wrote his most famous work, Cato, a Tragedy. Based on the last days of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, it deals with conflicts such as individual liberty versus government tyranny, Republicanism versus Monarchism, logic versus emotion, Cato's personal struggle to retain his beliefs in the face of death, it has a prologue written by Alexander Pope and an epilogue by Samuel Garth. The play was a success throughout the British Empire, it continued to grow in popularity in the America, for several generations. It is cited by some historians as a literary inspiration for the American Revolution, being known to many of the Founding Fathers. General George Washington sponsored a performance of Cato for the Continental Army during the difficult winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge.
According to John J. Miller, "no single work of literature may have been more important than Cato" for the leaders of the American revolution. Scholars have identified the inspiration for several famous quotations from the American Revolution in Cato; these include: Patrick Henry's famous ultimatum: "Give me liberty or give me death!". Nathan Hale's valediction: "I regret that I have but one life to give for my country.". Washington's praise for Benedict Arnold in a letter: "It is not in the power of any man to command success. In 1789, Edmund Burke quoted the play in a letter to Charles-Jean-François Depont entitled Reflections on the revolution in France, saying that the French people may yet be obliged to go through more changes and "to pass, as one of our poets says,'through great varieties of untried being,'" before their state obtains its final form; the poet referred to is Addison and the passage quoted is from Cato: "Through what variety of untried being, through what new scenes and changes must we pass!"
Though the play has fallen from popularity and is now performed, it was popular and cited i
Council of Frankfurt
The Council of Frankfurt, traditionally the Council of Frankfort, in 794 was called by Charlemagne, as a meeting of the important churchmen of the Frankish realm. Bishops and priests from Francia, Aquitaine and Provence gathered in Franconofurd; the synod, held in June 794, allowed the discussion and resolution of many central religious and political questions. The chief concerns of the council were the Frankish response to the Adoptionist movement in Spain and the Second Council of Nicaea, held by the Byzantine Empress Irene of Athens and had dealt with iconoclasm and with which Charlemagne took issue because no Frankish churchmen had been invited; the council condemned the Adoptionist heresy and revoked the Nicene Council's decrees regarding holy icons, condemning both iconodulism and iconoclasm, "allowing that images could be useful educational devices, but denying that they were worthy of veneration." The participants in the Frankfurt synod included, among others, Paulinus II the Patriarch of Aquileia, Archbishop of Milan, the Benedictine Abbot Benedict of Aniane, the Abbot Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel, as well as many bishops of England, Aquitaine, the Spanish March, the County of Roussillon, the lower Languedoc.
Theophylactus and Stephen of Rome took part as representatives of Pope Hadrian I and bearers of his epistula dogmatica. The French church historian Émile Amann counts the Council of Frankfurt among the "crucial synods of the whole church" The topics and items of discussion at the Council of Frankfurt were gathered together in 56 chapters, covering a number of points of varying theological and legal significance; the first five points of this agenda have been granted the greatest historical significance in historical research: Discussion of the Christological teachings of the Adoptionists which had arisen in Spain. This position was notably supported at that time by Elipando, the Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain, by Felix, the Bishop of Urgell, was condemned as heresy by the council. Both Elipando and Felix had been censured for this position when it was classed as a false doctrine at the Council of Regensburg, but had continued to teach it. In its decision, the Council of 794 made reference to the rulings of previous councils of the Council of Chalcedon, which had laid down "the pure teaching of the consubstantiality of the savior" in the patristic tradition.
In the course of its condemnation of Adoptianism, the council touched on the addition of Filioque to the Nicene creed. Discussion about the Byzantine Iconoclasm; the rulings of the Council of Nicaea had brought an end to the iconoclastic controversy between the Popes and the Byzantine emperors. The Council of Frankfurt rejected the rulings of the Council of Nicaea, although Charlemagne, just as the Byzantines before the ruling at Nicaea, wished to see the veneration of icons expressly permitted; the rejection derived from the loss of prestige Charlemagne had suffered at not being represented at the Council of Nicaea, which led him to consider the council unecumenical. The Council of Frankfurt possessed a memorandum about iconodulism, produced by Frankish theologians on the order of Charlemagne concerning the Byzantine iconoclastic controversy: the Libri Carolini; because the Pope had to take account of Byzantium as well as the Franks in his decisions, he had allowed the rulings of Nicaea to be accepted but only with reservations.
In the capitulary summarising the conclusions of the Council of Frankfurt, the rejection of image worship was formulated as "complete" and "unanimous". The final deposition of Tassilo III, the last Agilolfing Duke of Bavaria; the Duke had refused to aid the Frankish king Pippin the Younger in his campaign in Aquitaine in 763 and had thereby broken his allegiance. In 787 he did not attend Charlemagne's Hoftag in Worms. At the following Hoftag in Ingelheim am Rhein in 788, Tassilo was sentenced to death for these crimes – commuted to withdrawal to a monastery, he was required to come out of sequesterment in the French Jumièges Abbey and attend the Council of 794 in order to perform atonement once more. The deposed duke asked Charlemagne for forgiveness for his earlier resistance to him and for his pacts with the Lombards. Tassilo renounced all right to rule and all his property and was sent back to the monastery, where he died in 796, his humiliation at the council of 794 sealed Carolingian control of the stem duchy of Bavaria.
Establishment of fixed prices for grain and bread in the Frankish realm to prevent overcharging. This chapter stressed the responsibility of all liege lords to ensure that their vassals not suffer from famine. Edict on the Carolingian monetary reform introduced a short time before, declaring this system binding. In the report of the Council of Frankfurt it appears that new silver pennies bearing the monogram of Charlemagne were to be minted throughout the realm; therefore the Carolingian monetary reform and the creation of the Carolingian pound can be dated to the years 793 and 794. The fifty one chapters following these first five dealt, among other things, with synodal decrees for several Spanish bishops on various topics, with a ban on collecting money for entrance to monasteries and other decisions pertaining to ecclesiastical law, as well as with minutiae of tax regulations relating to the collection of the tithe; the rulings of the Council of 794 were compiled by hand and published in the form of a capitulary written in Medieval Latin.
This Capitulary of the Council does not survive in the original manuscript, but handwr
Saint-Jean-de-Luz is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Saint-Jean-de-Luz is part of the Basque province of Labourd. Saint-Jean-de-Luz bay is a natural harbour in the south-east of the Bay of Biscay, it is the only sheltered bay between Spain. Thanks to its strong sea walls or dykes that protect the town from the full savagery of the Atlantic Ocean, it has become a favorite for bathers across the Basque Coast. Although the seaside resort itself is recent, the port itself is several centuries old, with the most prominent point in its history being the marriage in 1660 of Louis XIV and the Spanish princess Maria Teresa. Water from the area flows into the town from the Nivelle and its smaller tributaries, the Etxeberri and Xantako streams. There is the Basarun, its smaller tributary the Mendi, which passes directly through Saint-Jean-de-Luz; the river has been made accessible to boats and it joins the sea by the Erromardia beach. A branch of the Uhabia, an emblematic river in the neighbouring Bidart district, its smaller Amisola tributary pass to the sea through St Jean de Luz.
Saint-Jean-de-Luz straddles Route départementale D810, the old Route nationale 10. The town can be reached from the A63 motorway, Exit 3 and Exit 2; the Saint-Jean-de-Luz-Ciboure railway station is served by the SNCF Bordeaux–Irun railway. Biarritz Airport is the closest airport to Saint-Jean-de-Luz. Saint-Jean-de-Luz is located on the Atlantic coast of France, just a few kilometres from the border with Spain, its wealth stems from its port and its past, with the town being associated with both fishing, with the capture of vessels by its own Basque corsaires, or pirates. This prosperity reached its height during the 17th Century, still considered as the town's "Golden Age." During this period, Saint-Jean-De-Luz became the second largest town in the Labourd region with a population or around 12,000, just behind Bayonne. Saint-Jean-de-Luz is known for its royal wedding connection. In 1659, Cardinal Mazarin spent several months in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, from where he would embark on daily trips to the island of Bidassoa for Franco-Spanish meetings that resulted in the Treaty of the Pyrenees, one clause of, the marriage of Louis XIV to Maria Theresa, the Infanta of Spain.
Saint-Jean-de-Luz and its church were chosen to host the royal wedding on 9 June 1660. The marriage is one of the most important political marriages in history that brought an end to a bitter war. Today, visitors of the cathedral can see. Two legends circulate this oddity: First, it has been said that the door the couple passed through was closed to represent the closing of the troubles between France and Spain. A more popular theory among the locals is that the king, Louis XIV, ordered the door to be closed off, so no other couple could walk into the church to be married in his footsteps; the Duke of Wellington set up his winter headquarters in the town during the Peninsular War, 1813–14. To the end of the nineteenth century, Saint-Jean-de-Luz became a popular beachside resort town for the surrounding high-society. Like Biarritz, Saint-Jean-de-Luz was appreciated by the French and Spanish aristocracy. By the early 1900s, it turned into the scene of Carlist conspiratorial activities; the composer Maurice Ravel, a native of the nearby town of Ciboure vacationed at Saint-Jean-de-Luz from Paris, where he was centered for his entire life.
Following Marshal Pétain's call for an armistice on the outset of World War II, a coastal fringe of the Basque Country fell in the German occupation area. Before the agreement was enforced, a retreating Polish Army was evacuated from the town in mid June 1940. After 1945, some of the traditional fishing-based industries of the Fargeot district disappeared by overfishing and competition from elsewhere; the change strengthened the transformation of the town towards more tourism industries. In Saint-Jean-de-Luz over 40% of dwellings of the town are second homes. In the 1960s, the town expanded northwards and southwards in the direction of. Since the 1970s, St Jean de Luz has been connected to Bordeaux to the north and Spain to the south by the motorway, more by the TGV railway. St-Jean-de-Luz boasts extensive and attractive land and scenery, as well as a well-preserved coastline which has so far escaped urbanisation. Indeed, some of the Basque coast has seen a degree of development, but the area between Fort Socoa and the Abbadia nature reserve and castle remains well protected.
Saint-Jean-de-Luz is a fishing port on the Basque coast and now a famous resort, known for its architecture, sandy bay, the quality of the light and the cuisine. The town is located south of Biarritz, on the right bank of the river Nivelle opposite to Ciboure; the port lies on the estuary. The summit of Larrun is about 8 km south-east of the town; the summit can be reached by the Petit train de la Rhune, which starts from the Col de Saint-Ignace, 10.5 km east of the town on the D4 road to Sare. It is in the traditional province of Lapurdi of the Basque Country; the town features a large number of residences built in the 17th and 18th centuries along the Quai de L'Infante, Rue Mazarin, Rue Gambetta and at the Place Louis XIV. In some respects this is testament to the families
Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes
Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes, was a French statesman and minister in the ancien régime, counsel for the defense of Louis XVI. He is known for his vigorous criticism of royal abuses as President of the Cour des Aides and his role, as director of censorship, in the publication of the Encyclopédie. Despite his committed monarchism, his writings contributed to the development of liberalism during the French Age of Enlightenment. Born in Paris to a famous legal family which belonged to the noblesse de robe, Malesherbes was educated for the legal profession; the young lawyer's career received a boost when his father, Guillaume de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil, was appointed Chancellor in 1750. This latter office entailed supervision of all French censorship, in this capacity Malesherbes maintained communication with the literary leaders of Paris, including Diderot and Rousseau, he was instrumental in the publication of the Encyclopédie, to the consternation of the Church and the Jesuits.
In 1771, the Cour des Aides was dissolved by order of Cardinal Richelieu for its opposition to a new method of administering justice devised by Maupeou, who planned to diminish its powers and those of the parlements in general. Malesherbes, as President of the cour des aides, criticized the proposal for over-centralizing the justice system and abolishing the hereditary "nobility of the robe," which he believed had been a defender of the people and a check on royal power due to its independence, he published a strong remonstrance against the new system, was banished to his country seat at Malesherbes. For the next three years, Malesherbes dedicated himself to travel and gardening. Indeed, he had always been an enthusiastic botanist. Malesherbes was recalled to Paris with the reconstituted cour des aides on the accession of Louis XVI. Louis XVI was so impressed with the plan -- and fearful for the future of his government -- that Malesherbes was appointed minister of the maison du roi in 1775.
During the same year, Malesherbes was elected to the Académie française. He held office as a royal minister only nine months. On retiring from the ministry with Turgot in 1776, he again spent some time at his country seat, but the state of pre-Revolutionary France made it impossible for Malesherbes to withdraw from political life. In 1787, he authored an essay on Protestant rights that did much to procure civil recognition for them in France. In December 1792, with the King imprisoned and facing trial, Malesherbes volunteered to undertake his legal defense, he argued for the King's life, together with François Tronchet and Raymond Desèze, before the Convention, it was his painful task to break the news of his condemnation to the king. After this effort he returned once more to the country, but in December 1793 he was arrested with his daughter, his son-in-law M. de Rosanbo, his grandchildren. The family was imprisoned in the Prison Portes-Libres, in April 1794 they were guillotined in Paris. Although he remained a committed royalist until his death, Malesherbes was hardly untouched by the radical Enlightenment currents that transformed France.
He was influenced by his reading of Fenelon and Montesquieu and his friendships with Rousseau and Turgot. On multiple occasions throughout his career, he recognized the grievances cited by revolutionaries when he criticized the monarchy for its unfair and arbitrary taxation policies and profligate spending. Although he believed hierarchy was natural and desirable, he was concerned about its distortionary effects on administration and justice. Malesherbes stressed the importance of communication in governing, believing the King should be more engaged with public opinion and grievances. Malesherbes' moderate and reformist tendencies were on full display during his tenure at the Librairie; when he retired from his post, Voltaire wrote that “M. de Malesherbes tirelessly served the human spirit by giving to the press more liberty than it has had.” Indeed, censorship at the time was not perceived. Although he believed that books attacking governmental authority and religion should be suppressed, Malesherbes frequently overruled censors to permit the publication of philosophical works, flagged as dangerous.
In one notable case, Malesherbes granted royal privilege, meaning official sanction and exclusive publication rights, to a radical work by Helvétius that caused a public scandal upon its release. The Court revoked the royal privilege and the Parliament ordered the book to be burned. On another occasion, when he was impressed with Rousseau'
John Milton was an English poet, man of letters, civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost, written in blank verse. Writing in English, Latin and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, his celebrated Areopagitica, written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship, is among history's most influential and impassioned defences of freedom of speech and freedom of the press, his desire for freedom extended into his style: he introduced new words to the English language, was the first modern writer to employ non-rhymed verse outside of the theatre or translations. William Hayley's 1796 biography called him the "greatest English author", he remains regarded "as one of the preeminent writers in the English language", though critical reception has oscillated in the centuries since his death. Samuel Johnson praised Paradise Lost as "a poem which...with respect to design may claim the first place, with respect to performance, the second, among the productions of the human mind", though he described Milton's politics as those of an "acrimonious and surly republican".
Poets such as William Blake, William Wordsworth and Thomas Hardy revered him. The phases of Milton's life parallel the major political divisions in Stuart Britain. Milton studied, wrote poetry for private circulation, launched a career as pamphleteer and publicist under the personal rule of Charles I and its breakdown into constitutional confusion and war; the shift in accepted attitudes in government placed him in public office under the Commonwealth of England, from being thought dangerously radical and heretical, he acted as an official spokesman in certain of his publications. The Restoration of 1660 deprived Milton, now blind, of his public platform, but this period saw him complete most of his major works of poetry. Milton's views developed from his extensive reading, as well as travel and experience, from his student days of the 1620s to the English Civil War. By the time of his death in 1674, Milton was impoverished and on the margins of English intellectual life, yet famous throughout Europe and unrepentant for his political choices.
John Milton was born in Bread Street, London on 9 December 1608, the son of composer John Milton and his wife Sarah Jeffrey. The senior John Milton moved to London around 1583 after being disinherited by his devout Catholic father Richard "the Ranger" Milton for embracing Protestantism. In London, the senior John Milton married Sarah Jeffrey and found lasting financial success as a scrivener, he lived in and worked from a house on Bread Street, where the Mermaid Tavern was located in Cheapside. The elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, this talent left his son with a lifelong appreciation for music and friendships with musicians such as Henry Lawes. Milton's father's prosperity provided his eldest son with a private tutor, Thomas Young, a Scottish Presbyterian with an M. A. from the University of St. Andrews. Research suggests. After Young's tutorship, Milton attended St Paul's School in London. There he began the study of Latin and Greek, the classical languages left an imprint on both his poetry and prose in English.
Milton's first datable compositions are two psalms done at age 15 at Long Bennington. One contemporary source is the Brief Lives of John Aubrey, an uneven compilation including first-hand reports. In the work, Aubrey quotes Christopher, Milton's younger brother: "When he was young, he studied hard and sat up late till twelve or one o'clock at night". Aubrey adds, ""His complexion exceeding faire—he was so faire that they called him the Lady of Christ's College."In 1625, Milton began attending Christ's College, Cambridge. He graduated with a B. A. in 1629, ranking fourth of 24 honours graduates that year in the University of Cambridge. Preparing to become an Anglican priest, Milton stayed on and obtained his Master of Arts degree on 3 July 1632. Milton may have been rusticated in his first year for quarrelling with his tutor, Bishop William Chappell, he was at home in London in the Lent Term 1626. Based on remarks of John Aubrey, Chappell "whipt" Milton; this story is now disputed, though Milton disliked Chappell.
Historian Christopher Hill cautiously notes that Milton was "apparently" rusticated, that the differences between Chappell and Milton may have been either religious or personal. It is possible that, like Isaac Newton four decades Milton was sent home because of the plague, by which Cambridge was badly affected in 1625. In 1626, Milton's tutor was Nathaniel Tovey. At Cambridge, Milton was on good terms with Edward King, for whom he wrote "Lycidas", he befriended Anglo-American dissident and theologian Roger Williams. Milton tutored Williams in Hebrew in exchange for lessons in Dutch. Despite developing a reputation for poetic skill and general erudition, Milton experienced alienation from his peers and university life as a whole. Having once watched his fellow students attempting comedy upon the college stage, he observed'they thought themselves gallant men, I thought them fools'. Milton was disdainful of the university curriculum, which consisted of
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde