Not to be confused with his father Antoine Arnauld or his nephew Antoine Arnauld. Antoine Arnauld was a French Roman Catholic theologian and mathematician, he was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist group of Port-Royal and had a thorough knowledge of patristics. Contemporaries called. Antoine Arnauld was born in Paris to the Arnauld family; the twentieth and youngest child of the original Antoine Arnauld, he was intended for the bar, but decided instead to study theology at the Sorbonne. Here he was brilliantly successful, his career was flourishing when he came under the influence of Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, the spiritual director and leader of the convent of Port-Royal, was drawn in the direction of Jansenism, his book, De la fréquente Communion, was an important step in making the aims and ideals of this movement intelligible to the general public. It attracted controversy by being against frequent communion. Furthermore, in the frame of the controversy around Jansenius' Augustinus, during which the Jesuits attacked the Jansenists claiming they were heretics similar to Calvinists, Arnauld wrote in defense the Théologie morale des Jésuites, which would put the base of most of the arguments used by Pascal in his Provincial Letters denouncing the "relaxed moral" of Jesuit casuistry.
Pascal was assisted in this task by Arnauld's nephew Antoine Le Maistre. The Jesuit Nicolas Caussin, former penitentiary to Louis XIII, was charged by his order of writing a defense against Arnauld's book, titled Réponse au libelle intitulé La Théologie morale des Jésuites. Other libels published against Arnauld's Moral Theology of Jesuits included the one written by the Jesuit polemist François Pinthereau, under the pseudonym of the abbé de Boisic, titled Les Impostures et les ignorances du libelle intitulé: La Théologie Morale des Jésuites, the author of a critical history of Jansenism titled La Naissance du Jansénisme découverte à Monsieur le Chancelier. During the formulary controversy which opposed Jesuits to Jansenists concerning the orthodoxy of Jansenius' propositions, Arnauld was forced to go into hiding. In 1655 two outspoken Lettres à un duc et pair on Jesuit methods in the confessional brought a motion of censorship voted against him in the Sorbonne, in quite an irregular manner.
This motion prompted Pascal to anonymously write the Provincial Letters. For more than twenty years Arnauld dared not appear publicly in Paris. Pascal, failed to save his friend, in February 1656 Arnauld was ceremonially degraded. Twelve years the so-called "peace" of Pope Clement IX put an end to his troubles, he now set to work with Pierre Nicole on a great work against the Calvinist Protestants: La perpétuité de la foi de l'Église catholique touchant l'eucharistie. Ten years however, persecution resumed. Arnauld was compelled to leave France for the Netherlands settling down at Brussels. Here the last sixteen years of his life were spent in incessant controversy with Jesuits and heretics of all kinds. Arnauld evolved away from the rigorous Augustinism professed by Port-Royal and closer to Thomism, which postulated the centrality of the "efficacious grace," under the influence of Nicole, his inexhaustible energy is best expressed by his famous reply to Nicole, who complained of feeling tired.
"Tired!" Echoed Arnauld, "when you have all eternity to rest in?" His energy was not exhausted by purely theological questions. He was one of the first to adopt the philosophy of René Descartes, though with certain orthodox reservations relating to Meditations on First Philosophy. On the whole, public opinion leant to Arnauld's side; when Malebranche complained that his adversary had misunderstood him, Boileau silenced him with the question: "My dear sir, whom do you expect to understand you, if M. Arnauld does not?" Next Arnauld was engaged in an extensive correspondence with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, regarding the latter's views detailed in his "Discourse on Metaphysics". Arnauld died, aged 82, in Brussels. Popular record for Arnauld's penetration was much increased in his L'Art de penser known as the Port-Royal Logic, which kept its place as an elementary text-book until the 20th century and is considered a paradigmatical work of term logic. Arnauld came to be regarded as important among the mathematicians of his time.
After his death, his reputation began to wane. Contemporaries admired him as a master of intricate reasoning. However, his eagerness to win every argument endeared him to no one. "In spite of myself," Arnauld once said regretfully, "my books are very short.". Despite Arnauld's achievements in various fields, his name is known because of Pascal's acclaimed writings, which were more fit for the general public than Arnauld's technical essays. Boileau wrote for him a famous epitaph, consecrating his memory as "Au pied de cet autel de structure grossière Gît sans pompe, enfermé dans une vile bière, Le plus savant mortel qui jamais ait écrit. Antoine Arnauld's complete works were published in Paris, 1775-1781. There is a study of his philosophy in Francisque Bouillie
Ferdinand Brunetière was a French writer and critic. Brunetière was born in Toulon, Provence. After school at Marseille, he studied in Paris at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Desiring a teaching career, he entered for examination at the École Normale Supérieure, but failed, the outbreak of war in 1870 prevented him trying again, he turned to literary criticism. After the publication of successful articles in the Revue Bleue, he became connected with the Revue des Deux Mondes, first as contributor as secretary and sub-editor, in 1893, as principal editor. In 1886 Brunetière was appointed professor of French language and literature at the École Normale, a singular honour for one who had not passed through the academic mill, he was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1887, became a member of the Académie française in 1893. The published works of Brunetière consist of reprinted papers and lectures, they include six series of Etudes critiques on French literature. The first volume of L'Evolution de genres dans l'histoire de la littérature, lectures in which a formal classification, founded on Darwinism, is applied to the phenomena of literature, appeared in 1890.
Among these may be mentioned Discours académiques, Discours de combat, L'Action sociale du Christianisme, Sur les chemins de la croyance. Before 1895 Brunetière was known as a rationalist, freethinking scholar; that year, however, he published an article, "Après une visite au Vatican," in which he argued that science was incapable of providing a convincing social morality and that faith alone could achieve that result. Shortly afterwards, he converted to Roman Catholicism; as a Catholic, Brunetière was orthodox and his political sympathies were conservative. He possessed unflinching courage, he was never afraid to diverge from the established critical view. The most honest, if not the most impartial, of magisterial writers, he had a hatred of the unreal, a contempt for the trivial. On the other hand, his intolerance, his sledge-hammer methods of attack and a certain dry pedantry alienated the sympathies of many who recognized his remarkable intellect, he authored the article on "Literary and Theological Appreciation of Bousset" for the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Études Critiques sur l’Histoire de la Littérature Française. Le Roman Naturaliste. Histoire et Littérature. Questions de Critique. Nouvelles Questions de Critique. Évolution de la Critique. Évolution des Genres dans l’Histoire de la Littérature. Epoques du Théâtre Français. Histoire de la Littérature Française Classique. Essais sur la Littérature Contemporaine. Évolution de la Poésie Lyrique en France au dix-neuvième Siècle. La Science et la Religion. Nouveaux Essais sur la Littérature Contemporaine. Bases de la Croyance. La Renaissance de l'Idéalisme. Manuel de l’Histoire de la Littérature Française. Discours Académiques. Les Raisons Actuelles de Croire. Victor Hugo. Variétés Littéraires. Cinq Lettres sur Ernest Renan. Sur les Chemins de la Croyance. Honoré de Balzac, 1799–1850. Discours de Combat. Lettres de Combat. Translated into English Essays in French Literature Manual of the History of French Literature. Honoré de Balzac. 2nd edition. The Law of the Drama. Science and Religion; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Brunetière, Ferdinand". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Dirk, Studien zur französischen Literaturkritik im 19. Jahrhundert. Taine - Brunetière - Hennequin - Guyau, Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg 1980. ISBN 3-533-02857-7 Babbitt, Irving. "Ferdinand Brunetière and his Critical Method," The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 79, No. 476, pp. 757–765. Bastide, Charles. "M. Brunetière," The Fortnightly Review, Vol. 66, pp. 500–509. Blaze de Bury, Yetta. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The Fortnightly Review, Vol. 64, pp. 497–511. Connolly, P. J.. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The Dublin Review, Vol. CXLI, pp. 56–73. Guerlac, Othon. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 6, pp. 323–329. Edgar, Pelham. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The University Magazine, Vol. 6, pp. 107–116. Schinz, Albert. "Ferdinand Brunetière," Modern Language Notes, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 56–57. Wendell, Barrett & Louis Allard. "Ferdinand Brunetière," Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 10, pp. 782–793.
Works by or about Ferdinand Brunetière at Internet Archive Works by Ferdinand Brunetière at LibriVox Works by Ferdinand Brunetière, at Hathi Trust Works by Ferdinand Brunetière, at Unz.org
Charles Perrault was a French author and member of the Académie Française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from earlier folk tales; the best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon Rouge, Cendrillon, Le Chat Botté, La Belle au bois Dormant and Barbe Bleue. Some of Perrault's versions of old stories have influenced the German versions published by the Brothers Grimm more than 100 years later; the stories continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Perrault was born in Paris to a wealthy bourgeois family, the seventh child of Pierre Perrault and Paquette Le Clerc, he attended good schools and studied law before embarking on a career in government service, following in the footsteps of his father and elder brother Jean. He took part in the creation of the Academy of Sciences as well as the restoration of the Academy of Painting.
In 1654, he moved in with his brother Pierre, who had purchased the position of chief tax collector of the city of Paris. When the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres was founded in 1663, Perrault was appointed its secretary and served under Jean Baptiste Colbert, finance minister to King Louis XIV. Jean Chapelain, Amable de Bourzeys, Jacques Cassagne were appointed. Using his influence as Colbert's administrative aide, he was able to get his brother, Claude Perrault, employed as designer of the new section of the Louvre, built between 1665 and 1680, to be overseen by Colbert, his design was chosen over designs by Gian Lorenzo François Mansart. One of the factors leading to this choice included the fear of high costs, for which other architects were infamous, second was the personal antagonism between Bernini and leading members of Louis's court, including Colbert and Perrault; as Perrault further describes in his Memoirs, the king harbored private resentment at Bernini's displays of arrogance.
The king was so displeased with Bernini's equestrian statue of him that he ordered it to be destroyed. In 1668, Perrault wrote La Peinture to honor Charles Le Brun, he wrote Courses de tetes et de bague, written to commemorate the 1662 celebrations staged by Louis for his mistress, Louise-Françoise de La Baume le Blanc, duchesse de La Vallière. Perrault was elected to the Académie française in 1671, he married Marie Guichon, age 19, in 1672. In 1669 Perrault advised Louis XIV to include thirty-nine fountains each representing one of the fables of Aesop in the labyrinth of Versailles in the gardens of Versailles; the work was carried out between 1672 and 1677. Water jets spurting from the animals' mouths were conceived to give the impression of speech between the creatures. There was a plaque with a caption and a quatrain written by the poet Isaac de Benserade next to each fountain. Perrault produced the guidebook for the labyrinth, Labyrinte de Versailles, printed at the royal press, Paris, in 1677, illustrated by Sebastien le Clerc.
Philippe Quinault, a longtime family friend of the Perraults gained a reputation as the librettist for the new musical genre known as opera, collaborating with composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. After Alceste was denounced by traditionalists who rejected it for deviating from classical theater, Perrault wrote in response Critique de l'Opéra in which he praised the merits of Alceste over the tragedy of the same name by Euripides; this treatise on Alceste initiated the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, which pitted supporters of the literature of Antiquity against supporters of the literature from the century of Louis XIV. He was on the side of the Moderns and wrote Le Siècle de Louis le Grand and Parallèle des Anciens et des Modernes where he attempted to prove the superiority of the literature of his century. Le Siècle de Louis le Grand was written in celebration of Louis XIV's recovery from a life-threatening operation. Perrault argued that because of Louis's enlightened rule, the present age was superior in every respect to ancient times.
He claimed that modern French literature was superior to the works of antiquity, that, after all Homer nods. In 1682, Colbert forced Perrault into retirement at the age of 56, assigning his tasks to his own son, Jules-Armand, marquis d'Ormoy. Colbert would die the next year, Perrault stopped receiving the pension given to him as a writer. Colbert's bitter rival succeeded him, François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, removed Perrault from his other appointments. After this, in 1686, Perrault decided to write epic poetry and show his genuine devotion to Christianity, writing Saint Paulin, évêque de Nôle. Just like Jean Chapelain's La Pucelle, ou la France délivrée, an epic poem about Joan of Arc, Perrault became a t
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Georges de Scudéry
Georges de Scudéry, the elder brother of Madeleine de Scudéry, was a French novelist and poet. Georges de Scudéry was born in Normandy, whither his father had moved from Provence, he served in the army for some time, though in the vein of gasconading, peculiar to him he no doubt exaggerated his services, there seems little doubt that he was a stout soldier. He conceived a fancy for literature before he was thirty, during the whole of the middle of the century he was one of the most characteristic figures of Paris, he gained the favour of Richelieu by his opposition to Corneille. He wrote a letter to the Académie française criticizing Le Cid, his play, L'Amour tyrannique, was patronized by the cardinal in opposition to Corneille; these circumstances had something to do with his appointment as governor of the fortress of Notre-Dame de la Garde, near Marseille in 1643, in 1650 he was elected to the Académie. During the troubles of the Fronde he was exiled to Normandy, where he made his fortune by a rich marriage.
He was an industrious dramatist, but L'Amour tyrannique is the only piece among his numerous tragi-comedies and pastorals that has escaped oblivion. His other most famous work was the epic of Alaric, he did little beyond correcting the proofs. Scudéry's swashbuckler affectations have been rather exaggerated by literary tradition. Although not quite sane, he had some poetical power, a fervent love of literature, a high sense of honour and of friendship. Georges de Scudéry is sketched by Théophile Gautier in his Grotesques. Guirlande de Julie Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Scudéry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Victor Cousin, La Société française au XVII' siècle, vol. ii. Works by Georges Scudéry at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Georges de Scudéry at Internet Archive
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, historical, or cultural; the heritage of the French people is of Celtic and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls, Ligures, Iberians, Franks and Norsemen. France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Catalan, Corsican, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century. Modern French society is a melting pot. From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration consisting of Arab-Berbers, Sub-Saharan Africans and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms.
Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies, in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland, the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").
The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries; the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves; the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, Germanic groups such as the Vikings, who settled in Normandy and to a lesser extent in Brittany in the 9th century. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks; the Franks were a Germanic tribe. In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes, their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE, non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians in Aquitaine. Some in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar. Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture.
In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia became home to some in-migrating populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as Alans. The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanizat
John Dryden was an English poet, literary critic and playwright, made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668. He is seen as dominating the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him "Glorious John". Dryden was born in the village rectory of Aldwincle near Thrapston in Northamptonshire, where his maternal grandfather was rector of All Saints, he was the eldest of fourteen children born to Erasmus Dryden and wife Mary Pickering, paternal grandson of Sir Erasmus Dryden, 1st Baronet, wife Frances Wilkes, Puritan landowning gentry who supported the Puritan cause and Parliament. He was a second cousin once removed of Jonathan Swift; as a boy Dryden lived in the nearby village of Titchmarsh, where it is that he received his first education. In 1644 he was sent to Westminster School as a King's Scholar where his headmaster was Dr. Richard Busby, a charismatic teacher and severe disciplinarian. Having been re-founded by Elizabeth I, Westminster during this period embraced a different religious and political spirit encouraging royalism and high Anglicanism.
Whatever Dryden's response to this was, he respected the headmaster and would send two of his sons to school at Westminster. As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained a curriculum which trained pupils in the art of rhetoric and the presentation of arguments for both sides of a given issue; this is a skill which would remain with Dryden and influence his writing and thinking, as much of it displays these dialectical patterns. The Westminster curriculum included weekly translation assignments which developed Dryden's capacity for assimilation; this was to be exhibited in his works. His years at Westminster were not uneventful, his first published poem, an elegy with a strong royalist feel on the death of his schoolmate Henry, Lord Hastings from smallpox, alludes to the execution of King Charles I, which took place on 30 January 1649 near the school where Dr. Busby had first prayed for the King and locked in his schoolboys to prevent their attending the spectacle. In 1650 Dryden went up to Cambridge.
Here he would have experienced a return to the religious and political ethos of his childhood: the Master of Trinity was a Puritan preacher by the name of Thomas Hill, a rector in Dryden's home village. Though there is little specific information on Dryden's undergraduate years, he would most have followed the standard curriculum of classics and mathematics. In 1654 he obtained his BA. In June of the same year Dryden's father died, leaving him some land which generated a little income, but not enough to live on. Returning to London during the Protectorate, Dryden obtained work with Oliver Cromwell's Secretary of State, John Thurloe; this appointment may have been the result of influence exercised on his behalf by his cousin the Lord Chamberlain, Sir Gilbert Pickering. At Cromwell's funeral on 23 November 1658 Dryden processed with the Puritan poets John Milton and Andrew Marvell. Shortly thereafter he published his first important poem, Heroic Stanzas, a eulogy on Cromwell's death, cautious and prudent in its emotional display.
In 1660 Dryden celebrated the Restoration of the monarchy and the return of Charles II with Astraea Redux, an authentic royalist panegyric. In this work the interregnum is illustrated as a time of anarchy, Charles is seen as the restorer of peace and order. After the Restoration, as Dryden established himself as the leading poet and literary critic of his day, he transferred his allegiances to the new government. Along with Astraea Redux, Dryden welcomed the new regime with two more panegyrics: To His Sacred Majesty: A Panegyric on his Coronation and To My Lord Chancellor; these poems suggest that Dryden was looking to court a possible patron, but he was to instead make a living in writing for publishers, not for the aristocracy, thus for the reading public. These, his other nondramatic poems, are occasional—that is, they celebrate public events, thus they are written for the nation rather than the self, the Poet Laureate is obliged to write a certain number of these per annum. In November 1662 Dryden was proposed for membership in the Royal Society, he was elected an early fellow.
However, Dryden was inactive in Society affairs and in 1666 was expelled for non-payment of his dues. On 1 December 1663 Dryden married the royalist sister of Sir Robert Howard—Lady Elizabeth. Dryden's works contain outbursts against the married state but celebrations of the same. Thus, little is known of the intimate side of his marriage. Lady Elizabeth outlived her husband. With the reopening of the theatres in 1660 after the Puritan ban, Dryden began writing plays, his first play The Wild Gallant appeared in 1663, was not successful, but was still promising, from 1668 on he was contracted to produce three plays a year for the King's Company in which he became a shareholder. During the 1660s and 1670s, theatrical writing was his main source of income, he led the way in Restoration comedy, his best-known work being Marriage à la Mode, as well as heroic tragedy and regular tragedy, in which his greatest success was All for Love. Dryden was never satisfied with his theatrical writings and suggested that his talents were wasted on unworthy audiences.
He thus was making a bid for poetic fame off-stage. In 1667, around the same time his dramatic career began, he published Annus Mirabilis, a lengthy historical poem which descr