Michael Bryan (art historian)
Michael Bryan was an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art, selling it on to a British syndicate, Bryan was born in Newcastle upon Tyne and educated at the Royal Grammar School under Dr. Moyce. In June 1784, he married Juliana Talbot, the sister of Charles Talbot, the 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, Bryan moved back to London in 1790 establishing himself as an authority and dealer in Fine Art. In 1793 or 1794, he went to the continent in search of fine pictures. Among other places he visited Holland, and remained there until an order arrived from the French government to stop all English citizens resident there and he was, amongst many others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here that he met Jean-Joseph de Laborde who, in 1798, Bryan, in effect, became a middleman for the purchase, and contacted the Duke of Bridgewater, who authorised him to open negotiations. The collection was displayed in Bryans private art gallery in Pall Mall, London, in 1801 Bryan obtained, through the Duke of Bridgewater, the kings permission to visit Paris in order to purchase art from the cabinet of Monsieur Robit to bring back to England.
Among other fine pictures, he returned with two by the baroque Spanish artist Murillo - The infant Christ as the Good Shepherd, in 1804 Bryan retired from the art world, and settled at his brothers home in Yorkshire, where he remained until 1811. In 1812 Bryan again visited London, and commenced writing his magnum opus - the Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers in 2 volumes, the first part appeared in May 1813, and concluded in 1816. He owned a gallery in Londons Savile Row, which became a gathering place for artists. In 1818 he became involved with some speculative art purchases which proved a failure, on 14 February 1821, Bryan suffered a severe paralytic stroke, dying at Portman Square, London on 21 March of the same year. Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers ( London, New York and Bombay Edition of 1903 -1905, Volume 11903 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 51905 Bryan, Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers revised and enlarged by George C
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km southeast of Paris and this area is known as the Champagne region of Northern France. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town, Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa. It was the civitas of the Tricasses, who had separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, by the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, and referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes. In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII, the Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, the Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes.
In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429. In medieval times Troyes was an important international centre, centring on the Troyes Fair. The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement evolving here, the great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the citys numerous canals. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town Hôtels Particuliers of the old town The Hôtel de Ville and they include, Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. The Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica, with a covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, very early Gothic, with east end rebuilt around 1500. Remarkably elaborate stone screen of 1508-17 in Flamboyant Gothic style, sculpted by Jean Gailde.
The Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the altar by Giraudon. On the portal, coat of arms of Charles IX, the Gothic Saint-Nicolas Church, dating to the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a calvary chapel shaped rostrum is reached by a monumental staircase. On the south portal, two sculptures by François Gentil and Isaiah, saint-Pantaléon Church, with numerous statuary from the sixteenth century. It includes a spire, from a height of 60 m, its external clock with only one hand
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Charles Audran was a French engraver Charles Audran was the first of the Audran family who became eminent in the art of engraving. He was born in Paris in 1594, in his boyhood he showed a great disposition for the art. He received some instruction in drawing, and when still young went to Rome to complete his studies, there he produced some plates that were admired. He adopted that species of engraving that is performed with the graver. On his return to France he lived for time in Lyons, but finally settled in Paris. The following are his principal prints, Henri of Condé, with the Four Cardinal Virtues, K. Audran, andre Laurent, physician to Henry IV, oval. Pierre Séguier, with ornaments, after Chauveau, an allegorical subject, of two Portraits, with a Genius painting a third Portrait, inscribed on the pallet, unus ex duobus, signed C. The title for the Gallery of the Great Women, representing Anne of Austria and nineteen other eminent women, with a subject from their life in the background, after Pietro da Cortona.
The Annunciation, inscribed Spiritus Sanctus, fe. after Lodovico Carracci, incorrectly attributed on the plate to Annibale, very fine, the Baptism of Christ, small oval, after Ann. St. Francis de Paula, after Mellin, marked Carl, the Stoning of Stephen, after Palma the younger. The Conception of the Virgin Mary, after Stella, the Holy Family, with St. Catharine and Angels, after the same, fine. The Virgin and Infant Jesus, St. John presenting an Apple, the Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus treading on the Serpent, after G. L. Valesio. A Thesis, representing Religion as the true Knowledge, inscribed Non judiciamus, &c, St. Francis de Paula in ecstasy before the Sacrament, after S. Vouet. Frontispiece for a Book, Fame holding the Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin, the Assumption of the Virgin, after Domenichino. Meyers Künstler-Lexikon lists 223 of his works
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerism, Paolo Veronese developed a naturalist style of painting, influenced by Titian. His most famous works are elaborate narrative cycles, executed in a dramatic and colorful style, full of architectural settings. Nonetheless, many of the greatest artists, may be counted among his admirers, including Rubens, Tiepolo and Renoir. Veronese took his name from his birthplace of Verona, the largest possession of Venice on the mainland. The census in Verona attests that Veronese was born sometime in 1528 to a stonecutter, or spezapreda, named Gabriele and it was common for surnames to be taken from a fathers profession, and thus Veronese was known as Paolo Spezapreda. He changed his name to Paolo Caliari, because his mother was the daughter of a nobleman called Antonio Caliari. He was often called Paolo Veronese before the last century to him from another painter from Verona, Alessandro Veronese. By 1541, Veronese was apprenticed with Antonio Badile, who was to become his father-in-law, although trained in the culture of Mannerism popular in Parma, he soon developed his own preference for a more radiant palette.
In 1552 Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, great-uncle of the ruling Guglielmo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, commissioned an altarpiece for Mantua Cathedral and his panel of Jupiter Expelling the Vices for the former is now in the Louvre. He painted a History of Esther in the ceiling for the church of San Sebastiano and it was these ceiling paintings and those of 1557 in the Marciana Library that established him as a master among his Venetian contemporaries. Already these works indicate Veroneses mastery in reflecting both the subtle foreshortening of the figures of Correggio and the heroism of those by Michelangelo. By 1556 Veronese was commissioned to paint the first of his monumental banquet scenes, the Feast in the House of Simon, owing to its scattered composition and lack of focus, however, it was not his most successful refectory mural. In the late 1550s, during a break in his work for San Sebastiano, Veronese decorated the Villa Barbaro in Maser, Veroneses decorations employed complex perspective and trompe loeil, and resulted in a luminescent and inspired visual poetry.
The encounter between architect and artist was a triumph, the Wedding at Cana, painted in 1562–1563, was collaboration with Palladio. It was commissioned by the Benedictine monks for the San Giorgio Maggiore Monastery, on an island across from Saint Marks. The contract insisted on the size, and that the quality of pigment. For example, the contract specified that the blues should contain the precious mineral lapis-lazuli, the contract specified that the painting should include as many figures as possible. There are a number of portraits staged upon a canvas surface nearly ten meters wide
Adam Frans van der Meulen
Adam Frans van der Meulen was a Flemish Baroque painter specialising in battle scenes. He was active first in Brussels, where he was a pupil of Pieter Snayers, van der Meulen was trained by the Belgian court painter Pieter Snayers of Brussels. His first work as an independent artist was done in Brussels and he painted genre and history pieces. He joined the guild in his native city, Brussels. His paintings during the campaigns of Flanders in 1667 so delighted Louis that from that date van der Meulen was ordered to him in all his expeditions. In 1673 he was received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, attained the grade of councillor in 1681, according to Houbraken, he was famous for his battle scenes, before being invited to France. After his first wife died, Le Bruns cousin fell in love him and he dared not refuse her. He was buried in the St. Hippolyte church in Gobelins and he is best represented by the series of twenty-three paintings, mostly executed for Louis XIV, now in the Louvre.
They show that he retained his Flemish predilections in point of color. Adam Frans van der Meulen ran a workshop that assisted him in completing private commissions for patrons that did not belong to the court of Louis XIV. He designed tapestries for the Gobelins factory that depicted accurate historical details of the battles and he was appointed to a high position in the Royal Academy. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Meulen. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Adam Frans van der Meulen on Artnet
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records