Daniel Mark Nestor CM is a Canadian professional tennis player from Toronto, Ontario. He is one of the foremost doubles players in history due to his longevity. As of October 2016, he is 11th for most mens ATP titles in Open Era history, in January 2016, Nestor became the first doubles player in ATP history to win 1000 matches. His 91 mens doubles titles make him the third most decorated champion among doubles players and he was named ATP Doubles Team of the Year in 2002 and 2004 and 2008. He became the World No.1 ranked doubles player in the world in August 2002, Nestors career-high singles ranking is World No. 58, which he reached in August 1999, Nestor won his first doubles title in Bogotá, Colombia with Mark Knowles in 1994. They defeated French Open champions Luke and Murphy Jensen in the final and he has been a member of the Canadian Davis Cup team since 1992. He first came to prominence in the eye that year by defeating world number one Stefan Edberg in a hard-fought singles match in Vancouver.
He was part of the squad who made history for Canada in 2013 as they were the first Canadian team in the Open Era to reach the World Group semifinals. At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia and partner Sébastien Lareau won a gold medal, the duo won four more titles together during their career, which was highlighted by an ATP Masters 1000 win in Canada. After the Olympics, Nestor won one title with Kevin Ullyett in November 2000, on July 5,2006, he participated in the second-longest match in Wimbledon history, lasting 6 hours and 9 minutes. Nestor won three Grand Slam doubles titles together with longtime partner Mark Knowles of the Bahamas, the tandem won the 2002 Australian Open, the 2004 US Open and the 2007 French Open. He and Knowles reached the final of the 1995 Australian Open, the 1998 French Open and US Open, the 2002 French Open and Wimbledon, in mixed doubles, he reached his first final at the 2003 US Open with Lina Krasnoroutskaya. He made it to the 2006 Australian Open and 2006 French Open finals,2007 was a year of change for Nestor.
He and long-time doubles partner Knowles announced that they were parting ways after the 2007 US Open and Zimonjić had actually won an ATP World Tour 250 Series event together back in 2001. Nestor and Knowles partnered once more at the 2007 Tennis Masters Cup after having qualified for the event as the top seed. Nestor had chosen to partner with Zimonjić because he felt as though the game had transformed into a more powerful and physical version of doubles. The New York Times reported that on the tour, its known that they joined up, after years in the top 5 with other partners, in 2008, Nestor and Zimonjić won the first major title of their partnership at the Hamburg Masters
Jo-Wilfried Tsonga is a French professional tennis player currently ranked World No.7 as of the 27th of February 2017. He was born in Le Mans, to a Congolese father, Didier Tsonga, who moved to France in the 1970s to play handball, Tsonga is a member of the Tennis Club de Paris. His career-high singles ranking is world No,5, which he achieved in February 2012. 2 Rafael Nadal in the semifinals, Tsonga eventually lost to world No.3 Novak Djokovic in the final in four sets, after winning the first set, it was the only set Djokovic dropped during the tournament. Tsonga followed this up by winning his first ATP Masters Series championship at the 2008 Paris Masters, thus qualifying for the 2008 Tennis Masters Cup in Shanghai, China. His best performances in a tournament since 2008 are semifinal appearances in the 2010 Australian Open, the 2013 and 2015 French Opens. He reached the final of the 2011 ATP World Tour Finals and he achieved his second Masters Series win at the 2014 Canadian Open, defeating four top 10 players on the way to victory, including those over Djokovic and Federer.
As well as his victories in Toronto and Paris, Tsonga has reached the final of the 2011 Paris Masters and he won the 2009 Shanghai Masters doubles title with partner Julian Benneteau. He has reached the stage of all four Grand Slams. He is the first and one of three players to have Grand Slam wins against each of the Big Four. Tsongas father, handball player Didier Tsonga, is from Congo, jos father moved to France during the 1970s to fulfill his own dreams of becoming a handball great, where he eventually met Évelyne and they married. Tsonga is nicknamed Ali, because of his resemblance to the boxer. Jo-Wilfried Tsonga has a brother who, much like Jo, has been inspired to play sports and is part of the French basketball program. He has a sister who is less involved with sporting ventures. His footballing cousin is Maël Lépicier who plays for Congo, Tsonga and Gaël Monfils developed a good friendship from a young age, when they enjoyed mimicking all the tennis greats of the past. As a junior, Tsonga reached a ranking of No.2 in the world and he reached four other semifinals of junior Grand Slam events.
Marcos Baghdatis was a rival of Tsonga on the junior tour, since late 2014, Tsonga has been dating Noura El Shwekh of Swiss nationality, who frequently accompanies him on the ATP tour. In November 2016, Tsonga announced the couple were expecting their first child, Tsonga had a successful junior career, winning the US Open Juniors title in 2003 by defeating Marcos Baghdatis in the final, and reached the semifinals of the other three Grand Slam events
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
US Open (tennis)
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hardcourt tennis tournament. The tournament is the version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world. The US Open is held annually, starting on the last Monday in August, the main tournament consists of five event championships and womens singles and womens doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association, net proceeds from ticket sales and television deals are used to promote the development of tennis in the United States. The US Open is the only Grand Slam that employs tiebreakers in every set of a match, the first edition was won by Richard Sears, who went on to win seven consecutive singles titles. In the first years of the U. S. National Championship only men competed and this was followed by the introduction of the U. S.
Womens National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U. S. The womens tournament used a system from 1888 through 1918. This view was opposed by another group of players which included eight former national singles champions, the contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5,1915 and with 128 votes in favor and 119 against it was decided to relocate. From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia and it returned to Forest Hills in 1924 following the completion of the newly constructed 14,000 seat concrete Forest Hills Stadium. Though regarded unofficially by many as a major championship beforehand, the tournament was officially designated as one of the tournaments by the ILTF commencing in 1924. At the 1922 U. S. National Championships the draw for the first time included seeded players in order to avoid leading players drawing against each other in the early rounds. Open era The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, the 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time.
That year,96 men and 63 women entered the event, from 1970 to 1974 the US Open used a best-of-nine point, sudden death tiebreaker before moving to the ITF best-of-twelve point system. In 1973 the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women with that years singles champions John Newcombe, another US Open innovation came in 1975 when floodlights enabled night play for the first time. In 1978 the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills, Queens to the larger USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, three miles to the north. In the process, the tournament switched the court surface from clay, jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces, while Chris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces. The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has played every year since its inception
Miami Open (tennis)
The Miami Open, known as the Miami Masters, is an annual tennis tournament for men and women held in Key Biscayne, Florida, an island town just off the coast of Miami. The tournament is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the mens tour, the event is held annually in March. The tournament has had multiple sponsorships in its history, in 2000, the event was renamed the Ericsson Open. In 2002, the event became known as the NASDAQ-100 Open, in 2007, the tournament was renamed the Sony Ericsson Open, in a deal by which Sony Ericsson would pay $20 million total over the next four years, until 2014. From 2015–2019, the international bank Itaú became the presenting sponsor, in 2010, a record 300,000 visitors attended matches at the 12-day Sony Ericsson Open, making it one of the largest tennis tournaments outside the four Majors. In 2011,316,267 visitors attended the Open, the court has been criticized as the slowest hardcourt on the tour, subjecting players to endless grinding rallies in extreme heat and humidity.
The tournament was founded by former player Butch Buchholz and his original aim was to make the event the first major tournament of the year, and he dubbed it the Winter Wimbledon. The first tournament was held in February 1985 at Lavers International Tennis Resort at Delray Beach, Florida. Buchholz brought in Alan Mills, the tournament referee at Wimbledon, as the referee, and Ted Tinling. At the time, the money of US$1.8 million was surpassed only by Wimbledon. In 1986, the tournament relocated to Boca West, in keeping with the ambitions of its founder, the tournament has been maintained as one of the premier events in tennis. In 1999, Buchholz sold the tournament to IMG.96 men and 96 women compete in the singles competition, as of 2012, ESPN televises early-round coverage in the U. S. and CBS broadcasts the mens and womens finals. In 2006, the tournament became the first event in the United States to use Hawk-Eye to allow players to close line calls. Players were allowed two challenges per set, with an additional challenge allowed for tiebreaks, the first challenge was made by Jamea Jackson against Ashley Harkleroad in the first round.
As an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event, the tournament will distribute up to 1000 ATP Rankings points to the singles and doubles champions. This is a table detailing the points and prize money allocation for each round of the 2016 Miami ATP Masters 1000 and WTA Premier Mandatory event, the mens final has been abandoned three times since the tournaments inception. In 1989, Thomas Muster was hit by a driver just hours after his semifinal victory, severing left knee ligaments. He won the eight years later
Italian Open (tennis)
The Italian Open is an annual tennis tournament held in Rome, Italy. The two events were combined in 2011, the tournament is played on clay courts, currently during the second week of May. The event is known as the Rome Masters and the Italian Championships. Rafael Nadal has won the title a record seven times, the official technical sponsor of the Italian Open is Australian Lalpina. The Italian tennis championship was first held in 1930 in Milan at the Tennis Club Milano and was initiated by Count Alberto Bonacossa, the tournament was won by Bill Tilden and Lilí de Álvarez and it was played in Milan until 1934. The next year,1935, the event moved to the Foro Italico in Rome, no edition was held between 1936 and 1949. In 1961 the tournament was held in Torino at the Sporting Club and it became open to professional players in 1969. Between 1970 and 1989 it was a tournament of the Grand Prix Tennis Tour and was part of the Grand Prix Super Series top tier events. In 1990 it became an ATP Championship Series Single Week tournament, in 1979 the womens event was held two weeks before the mens event.
The womens event was played in Perugia from 1980 though 1984, roger Federer, 6–7, 7–6, 6–4, 2–6, 7–6 Shortest final, Rafael Nadal def
German Open Tennis Championships
The German Open Hamburg, established in 1892, is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Hamburg and part of the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour. The tournament is played on clay courts at the tennis center Am Rothenbaum, in the past, it was contested in May, as a precursor to the French Open. Currently, it is held in July instead, the inaugural edition was held at the Eisenbahnverein auf der Uhlenhorst and was played in a best-of-three sets format. From the second edition in 1893 onward the tournament was a best-of-fives sets event until 2007 when it was switched back to best-of-three, the first five editions, from 1892 to 1896, were exclusively open to German and Austrian players. From 1898 to 1901 the German Championships were held in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, a mens doubles event was added to the tournament in 1902. Originally a Grand Prix Tennis Tour event, between 1978 and 1989 it was part of the Grand Prix Super Series, from 1990 to 2008 it was part of the ATP Masters Series.
In 2009 the tournament was downgraded to an ATP World Tour 500 event, according to tournament officials, this seriously hinders its ability to attract top-ranking players, who are more likely to participate in tournaments that earn them more points. Tournament officials sued the ATP in 2007 to stop the downgrade, after a court-ordered mediation the tournament saw its appeal to the verdict rejected in 2010. As the tournament stands now with its new position in the ATP calendar, it is an attractive event for many players who dislike playing on faster surfaces. S
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Roger Federer is a Swiss professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No.4 by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Many players and analysts have called him the greatest tennis player of all time, Federer turned professional in 1998 and was continuously ranked in the top 10 from October 2002 to November 2016. Federer has won 18 Grand Slam singles titles, the most in history for a tennis player. In majors, Federer has won seven Wimbledon titles, five Australian Open titles, five US Open titles and he is among the eight men to capture a career Grand Slam. He has reached a record 28 mens singles Grand Slam finals, Federers ATP tournament records include winning a record six ATP World Tour Finals and playing in the finals at all nine ATP Masters 1000 tournaments. He won the Olympic gold medal in doubles with his compatriot Stan Wawrinka at the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, representing Switzerland, he was a part of the 2014 winning Davis Cup team. He was named the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year for a four consecutive years from 2005 to 2008.
Federer was born at the Basel Cantonal Hospital in Basel, Federer has one sibling, his older sister Diana, who is the mother of a set of twins. He holds both Swiss and South African citizenship, Federer was raised as a Roman Catholic and met Pope Benedict XVI while playing the 2006 Internazionali BNL dItalia tournament in Rome. Like all male Swiss citizens, Federer was subject to military service in the Swiss Armed Forces. However, in 2003 he was ruled unsuitable and was not required to fulfil his military obligation. Instead, he served in the protection force and was required to pay 3% of his taxable income as an alternative. He grew up supporting F. C. Basel and the Swiss National Football Team, Federer credits the range of sports he played as a child—he played badminton and basketball—for his hand-eye coordination. Federer is married to former Womens Tennis Association player Mirka Vavrinec and he met her while both were competing for Switzerland in the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Vavrinec retired from the tour in 2002 because of a foot injury and they were married at Wenkenhof Villa in Riehen near Basel on 11 April 2009, surrounded by a small group of close friends and family.
In July 2009, Mirka gave birth to twin girls, Myla Rose. The Federers had another set of twins in 2014, this time boys whom they named Leo and Lennart, in 2003, he established the Roger Federer Foundation to help disadvantaged children and to promote their access to education and sports. In 2005, he auctioned his racquet from his US Open championship to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina, at the 2005 Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, Federer arranged an exhibition involving several top players from the ATP and WTA tour called Rally for Relief
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period