The Beau Sancy is a 34.98-carat modified "pear double rose cut" diamond found in India, owned by a number of European royal houses. In May 2012, it was sold at Sotheby's auction in Geneva for $9.57 million. The original estimated price of $2 million was lifted five times during the eight-minute battle between five buyers, before the diamond was sold to one of them who remained anonymous; the Beau Sancy diamond takes its name from Nicolas de Harlay, Lord of Sancy, who brought the diamond to France from India where he had been the French ambassador. Its larger sibling diamond, the Grand Sancy, was sold to James I of England for his Queen, Henrietta Maria; the Beau Sancy was acquired by the Queen of Marie de Medicis. From Marie de Medicis, it passed to the Dutch King William William III of England, his wife Queen Mary II. In 1701 it passed from the Dutch royal family to Frederick I of Prussia. Guardian article on the Beau Sancy BBC page on the Beau Sancy
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
The Sancy, a pale yellow diamond of 55.23 carats, was once reputed to have belonged to the Mughals of antiquity, but it is more of Indian origin owing to its cut, unusual by Western standards. The shield-shaped stone lacks any semblance to a pavilion; the Sancy's known history began circa 1570. Several sources state it belonged to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After Charles died, in 1495 it passed to his cousin King Manuel I of Portugal; when Portugal was threatened to come under Spanish rule, claimant António, Prior of Crato fled the country with the bulk of the Portuguese Crown Jewels. He spent his life trying to get allies to regain the Portuguese throne in the French and English courts, sold the diamond to Nicolas de Harlay, seigneur de Sancy. Other sources claim, he was popular in the French Court and was French Ambassador to Turkey. Something of a gem connoisseur, de Sancy used his knowledge to prosperous advantage. Henry III of France suffered from premature baldness and tried to conceal this fact by wearing a cap.
As diamonds were becoming fashionable at the time, Henry arranged to borrow de Sancy's diamond to decorate his cap. Henry IV borrowed the stone, for the more practical purpose of using it as security for financing an army. Legend has it that a messenger carrying the jewel never reached his destination, but de Sancy was convinced that the man was loyal and had a search conducted until the site of the messenger's robbery and murder was found; when the body was disinterred, the jewel was found in the faithful man's stomach. De Sancy sold the diamond to James I about 1605 when it is thought the Sancy acquired its name, it was described in the Tower of London's 1605 Inventory of Jewels as "...one fayre dyamonde, cut in fawcetts, bought of Sauncy." James had it set into the Mirror of Great Britain. The Sancy was possessed by the unfortunate Charles I and by his third son James II. Beleaguered after a devastating defeat, James took shelter under Louis XIV of France, a fickle host who tired of his exiled guest.
Facing destitution, James had no choice but to sell the Sancy to Cardinal Mazarin in 1657 for the reported sum of £25,000. The cardinal bequeathed the diamond to the king upon his death in 1661; the Sancy was thus domiciled in France but disappeared during the French Revolution when brigands raided the Garde Meuble. As well as the Sancy, other treasures stolen were the Regent diamond, the French Blue diamond, known today as the Hope diamond; the Sancy was in the collection of Vasiliy Rudanovsky until 1828 when purchased by Prince Demidoff for £80,000. It remained in the Demidov family collection until 1865 when sold to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, an Indian prince, for £100,000, he sold it only a year creating another gap in its history. It reappeared in 1867, displayed at the Paris Exposition, carrying a price tag of one million francs; the Sancy next surfaced in 1906 when bought by William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, from famous Russian collector A. K. Rudanovsky; the prominent Astor family possessed it for 72 years until the 4th Viscount Astor sold it to the Louvre for $1 million in 1978.
The Sancy now rests in the Apollo Gallery, sharing attention with the likes of the Regent and the Hortensia. Burton, E.. Legendary Gems or Gems That Made History, pp. 78–83. Chilton Book Company, Radnor, PA Fowler, M.. Hope: Adventures of a Diamond, p. 100, 151, 321. Random House Canada Shipley, R.. Famous Diamonds of the World, pp. 24–27. Gemological Institute of America, USA
Henry IV of France
Henry IV known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, he led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; as Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood."
Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith; as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby ending the Wars of Religion. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death, he was admired for his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education.
During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn, his parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre; as a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother's death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre. At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici; the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed.
Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict, he named Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years. Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574; because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. Salic law barred the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras. In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered, along with his brother, Cardinal de Guise. Henry III thought that the removal of the brothers would restore his authority. However, the populace rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized, his power was limited to Blois and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, Henry III relied on King Henry of his Huguenots; the two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of
Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully
Maximilien de Béthune, 1st Duke of Sully, Marquis of Rosny and Nogent, Count of Muret and Villebon, Viscount of Meaux was a nobleman, soldier and faithful right-hand man who assisted king Henry IV of France in the rule of France. Historians emphasize Sully's role in building a strong centralized administrative system in France using coercion and effective new administrative techniques. While not all of his policies were original, he used them well to revitalize France after the European Religious Wars. Most, were repealed by monarchs who preferred absolute power. Historians have studied his neo-Stoicism and his ideas about virtue and discipline, he was born at the Château de Rosny near Mantes-la-Jolie into a branch of the House of Béthune a noble family originating in Artois, was brought up in the Reformed faith, a Huguenot. In 1571, at the age of eleven, Maximilien was presented to Henry of Navarre and remained permanently attached to the future king of France; the young Baron of Rosny was taken to Paris by his patron and was studying at the Collège de Bourgogne at the time of the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre, from which he escaped by discreetly carrying a Catholic book of hours under his arm.
He studied mathematics and history at the court of Henry of Navarre. On the outbreak of civil war in 1575, he enlisted in the Protestant army. In 1576, he accompanied the Duke of Anjou, younger brother of king Henri III, on an expedition into the Netherlands in order to regain the former Rosny estates, but being unsuccessful he attached himself for a time to the Prince of Orange. Rejoining Henry of Navarre in Guyenne, he displayed bravery in the field and particular ability as a military engineer. In 1583, he was Henry's special agent in Paris, during a respite in the Wars of Religion he married an heiress who died five years later. On the renewal of civil war, Rosny again joined Henry of Navarre, at the battle of Ivry he was wounded, he counselled Henry IV's conversion to Roman Catholicism but steadfastly refused to become a Catholic himself. Once Henry IV of France's succession to the throne was secured, the faithful and trusted Rosny received his reward in the shape of numerous estates and dignities.
From 1596, when he was added to Henry's finance commission, Rosny introduced some order into France's economic affairs. Acting as sole Superintendent of Finances at the end of 1601, he authorized the free exportation of grain and wine, reduced legal interest, established a special court to try cases of peculation, forbade provincial governors to raise money on their own authority, otherwise removed many abuses of tax-collecting. Rosny abolished several offices, by his honest, rigorous conduct of the country's finances, he was able to save between 1600 and 1610 an average of a million livres a year, his achievements were by no means financial. In 1599, he was appointed grand commissioner of highways and public works, superintendent of fortifications and grand master of artillery, he declined the office of constable of France. Sully encouraged agriculture, urged the free circulation of produce, promoted stock-raising, forbade the destruction of the forests, drained swamps, built roads and bridges, planned a vast system of canals and began the Canal de Briare.
He strengthened the French military establishment. Abroad, Sully opposed the king's colonial policy as inconsistent with French interests, in opposition to men like Champlain who urged greater colonial efforts in Canada and elsewhere. Neither did Sully show much favor toward industrial pursuits but, on the urgent solicitation of the king, he established a few silk factories, he fought together with Henry IV in Savoy and negotiated the treaty of peace in 1602. It was Sully, who arranged the marriage between Henry IV and Marie de' Medici; the political role of Sully ended with the assassination of Henry IV on 14 May 1610. The king was on his way to visit Sully; the intervention on behalf of a Calvinist candidate would have brought the king in conflict with the Catholic Habsburg dynasty. Although a member of the Queen's council of regency, his colleagues were not inclined to put up with his domineering leadership, after a stormy debate he resigned as superintendent of finances on 26 January 1611, retiring into private life.
The queen mother gave him 300,000 livres for his long services and confirmed him in possession of his estates. He attended the meeting of the Estates-General in 1614, on the whole was in sympathy with the policy and government of Richelieu, he disavowed the Blockade of La Rochelle, in 1621, but in the following year was arrested. The baton of marshal of France was conferred on him on 18 September 1634; the last years of his life were spent chiefly at Villebon and his château of Sully. He died at Villebon at the age of 81. By his first wife, Anne de Courtenay, daughter of François, Lord of Bontin, he had one son, Marquess of Rosny, who led a lif
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website