- "Nicole Foote (profile)". ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).
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Triple J is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station places a greater emphasis on broadcasting Australian content compared to commercial stations. Triple J is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2JJ commenced broadcasting at 11:00 am, Sunday 19 January 1975, at 1540 kHz on the AM band. The new Australian Broadcasting Corporation station was given the official call-sign 2JJ, but soon became known as Double J; the station was restricted to the greater Sydney region, its local reception was hampered by inadequate transmitter facilities. However, its frequency was a clear channel nationally, so it was heard at night throughout south-eastern Australia. After midnight the station would use ABC networks – during their off air time slot – to increase its broadcasting range, its first broadcast demonstrated a determination to distinguish itself from other Australian radio stations.
The first on-air presenter, DJ Holger Brockmann, notably used his own name. Owing to 2SM's restrictive policies at the time, whose real name was considered "too foreign-sounding", had been forced to work using the pseudonym "Bill Drake" in prior positions. After an introductory audio collage that featured sounds from the countdown and launch of Apollo 11, Brockmann launched the station's first-ever broadcast with the words, "Wow, we're away!", cued The Skyhooks' You Just Like Me'Cos I'm Good in Bed. The choice of a Skyhooks song to introduce the station was significant, as it represented several important features of the Double Jay brand at the time. Choosing an Australian band reflected Double J's commitment to Australian content at a time when American acts dominated commercial pop stations. Most notably, the song was one of several tracks from the Skyhooks' album, banned from airplay on commercial radio by the industry's peak body; because Double J was a government-funded station operating under the umbrella of the ABC, it was not bound by commercial-radio censorship codes, was not answerable to advertisers or the station owners.
In contrast, their Sydney rival, 2SM, was owned by a holding company controlled by the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, resulting in the ban or editing of numerous songs.2JJ was a product of the progressive media policies of the Whitlam Government of 1972–75, combined influences from several earlier ABC programs, such as "Room to Move", as well as the freewheeling programming policies of British pirate radio and BBC Radio 1, created to target the pirate radio audience. The inspiration gained from the UK led to Double J adopting the tradition of weekly, live-in-the-studio performances by pop and rock bands. Gough Whitlam was unable to fulfill his aspiration for the establishment of a "National Youth Radio Network", as he was controversially sacked.2JJ presenter, the first female DJ on Australian pop radio, Gayle Austin, completing a Master of Arts on Triple J's first 16 years in 2005, explained that 2JJ staff had heard of other motivations for the founding of the station: Word was the Whitlam government wanted to set the station up to woo young voters.
We heard that the ABC was worried about its audience dying off and wanted a station for young people who would grow up to be ABC listeners. Additionally, the station was one of a series of innovations that stemmed from the recommendations in the McLean Report of 1974; these included expanding radio broadcasting onto the FM band, issuing a new class of broadcasting license which permitted the establishment of community radio stations, the creation of two new stations for the ABC — 2JJ in Sydney and the short-lived 3ZZ in Melbourne. By the time 2JJ went to air, the Whitlam government was in its final months of office. Marius Webb, one of the station's co-ordinators recalls an ABC executive informing him: "You'll be on the air by January. Thank you much, I've got another meeting." On 11 November 1975, Whitlam's commission was revoked by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, sparking a double dissolution of parliament. In the subsequent 1975 federal election, Labor was defeated by the Liberal-National Party coalition, led by Malcolm Fraser.
During the more conservative media climate that emerged in the Fraser years, 2JJ staff were accused of left-wing bias. 2JJ was intended to be the first link in Whitlam's planned national youth network. It was a historic moment in Australian radio, when the station decided to hire a female disc jockey and, excluding the first experimental FM licences, was granted the first new radio licence issued in any Australian capital city since 1932. In its early years 2JJ's on-air staff were recruited from either commercial radio or other ABC stations. In another first, the roster featured presenters who did not come from a radio industry background, including singer-songwriters Bob Hudson and John J. Francis, actor Lex Marinos. Francis commenced broadcasting in the Saturday midnight-to-dawn shift in 1975, the program became so popular that it was expanded to include Friday and Sunday nights two years later; the foundation staff of January 1975 were: Webb and Ron Moss, Ros Cheney, David Ives, Sam Collins, Holger Brockman, Caroline Pringle, Bob Hudson, Mike Parker, Iven Walker, Arnold Frolows, Di Auburn, Margot Edwards, George "
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
RMIT University is an Australian public research university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded by Francis Ormond in 1887, RMIT began as a night school offering classes in art and technology, in response to the industrial revolution in Australia, it was a private college for more than a hundred years before merging with the Phillip Institute of Technology to become a public university in 1992. It has an enrolment of around 87,000 higher and vocational education students, making it the largest dual-sector education provider in Australia. With an annual revenue of around A$1.3 billion, it is one of the wealthiest universities in Australia. It is rated a five star university by Quacquarelli Symonds and is ranked 17th in the World for art and design subjects in the QS World University Rankings, making it the top art and design university in Australia, its main campus is situated on the northern edge of the historic Hoddle Grid in the city centre of Melbourne. It has two satellite campuses in the northern suburbs of Brunswick and Bundoora and a training site, situated on the Williams base of the Royal Australian Air Force, in the western suburb of Point Cook.
Beyond Melbourne, it has a research site near the Grampians National Park in the rural city of Hamilton. Outside Australia, it has a presence in Europe. In Asia, it has two branch campuses in the Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as well as teaching partnerships in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In Europe, it has a coordinating centre in the Catalonian city of Barcelona; the antecedent of RMIT, the Working Men's College of Melbourne, was founded by the Scottish-born grazier and politician The Hon. Francis Ormond in the 1880s. Planning began in 1881, with Ormond basing his model for the college on the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution, Brighton College of Art, Royal College of Art, the Working Men's College of London. Ormond donated the sum of £5000 toward the foundation of the college, he was supported in the Victorian Parliament by Charles Pearson and in the Melbourne Trades Hall by William Murphy. The workers' unions of Melbourne rallied their members to match Ormond's donation.
The site for the college, on the corners of Bowen Street and La Trobe Street, opposite the Melbourne Public Library, was donated by the Victorian Government. The Working Men's College of Melbourne opened on 4 June 1887 with a gala ceremony at the Melbourne Town Hall, becoming the fifth tertiary education provider in Victoria, it took 320 enrollments on its opening night. It opened as a night school for instruction in "art and technology"—in the words of its founder—"especially to working men". Ormond was a firm believer in the transformative power of education and believed the college would be of "great importance and value" to the industrialisation of Melbourne during the late-19th century. In 1904, it was incorporated under the Companies Act as a private college. Between the turn of the 20th century and the 1930s, it expanded over the neighbouring Old Melbourne Gaol and constructed buildings for new art and radio schools, it made its first contribution to Australia's war effort through training of returned military personnel from World War I.
Following a petition by students, it changed its name to the Melbourne Technical College in 1934. The expanded college made a greater contribution to Australia's effort during World War II by training a sixth of the country's military personnel—including the majority of its Royal Australian Air Force communication officers, it trained 2000 civilians in munitions manufacturing and was commissioned by the Australian Government to manufacture military aircraft parts—including the majority of parts for the Beaufort Bomber. Following World War II, in 1954 it became the first Australian tertiary education provider to be awarded royal patronage for its service to the Commonwealth in the area of education and for its contribution to the war effort, it became the only higher education institution in Australia with the right of the prefix "Royal" along with the use of the Australian monarchy's regalia. Its name was changed to the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in 1960. During the mid-20th century, it was restructured as a provider of general higher and vocational education, pioneered dual sector education in Australia.
It began an engagement with Southeast Asia during this time. In 1979, the neighbouring Emily McPherson College of Domestic Economy joined with RMIT. After merging with the Phillip Institute of Technology in 1992, it became a public university by act of the Victorian Government under the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Act 1992. During the 1990s, the university underwent a rapid expansion and amalgamated with a number of nearby colleges and institutes; the Melbourne College of Decoration and Design joined RMIT in 1993, to create a new dedicated vocational design school, followed by the Melbourne College of Printing and Graphic Arts in 1995. That same year, it opened its first radial campus in Bundoora in the northern Melbourne metropolitan area. In 1999, it acquired the Melbourne Institute of Textiles campus in Brunswick in the inner-northern Melbourne metropolitan area for its vocational design schools. At the turn of the 21st century, it was invited by the Vietnamese Government
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education at a college or university. These institutions offer degrees at various levels including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees; the most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university, its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee; the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach. However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree, it was reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. At the University, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild; the traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master", "Doctor" and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university..
The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the D. D. has become less common outside theology and is now used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation; the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much time and was not introduced in England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as humanities; the University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century. The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium and the quadrivium, together known as the Liberal Arts and who had passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term used of a squire to a knight. Further study and in particular successful participation in and moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master", entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology and earn first a bachelor's and master or doctor's degrees in these subjects, thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", based on the Latin gradus. The naming of degrees became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology and law were known as "doctor".
As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts; the practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied to the original meanings of the terms; the baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed the
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ABC Local Radio stations broadcast across the continent using terrestrial transmitters and satellites, its programming consists of news, current affairs, entertainment, sport and local affairs. They are reckoned as the flagship ABC radio stations in their areas. Depending on the time of day and the day of the week, programming can either be purely local, broadcast from the state or territory capital city ABC station, or simulcast across all ABC Local Radio services across the country. Local Radio was known internally as ABC Radio 1 in metropolitan regions and ABC Radio 3 in regional areas. Radio 1 was a local format while Radio 3 was more networked and included content from the national programme, Radio 2. In the 1980s, Radio National emerged from Radio 2 and Radio 3 dropped its Radio 2 content with Radio 1 becoming ABC Metro Radio and Radio 3 becoming ABC Regional Radio.
The Regional Radio stations provided local programming in breakfast and drive but networked common content for most of their broadcasting hours. Some different, local market formats emerged, including the Darwin Metro 8DDD, FM105.7 and Gold Coast Regional, ABC Coast FM, 91.7. Up until the mid-1990s, the majority of the local radio stations identified on-air as. In the 1990s, a different convention was used as ABC Radio or FM. In 2000, these two identical networks merged as ABC Local Radio. From this point all ABC Local Radio stations ceased to identify themselves according to their callsigns or other existing names, instead use the format ABC, or ABC where there are multiple frequencies broadcasting the same service. However, as the callsigns were used continuously for up to seventy years and are much shorter than the new names, many long-term listeners still use these callsigns to refer to ABC Local Radio stations. In January 2017, ABC Local Radio rebranded with a new logo; the new round logo reflects the dropping of the call numbers of each local radio station as part of the network's multiplatform philosophy.
All stations now use the format ABC Radio with the region. There are sixty ABC Local Radio stations, including 51 regional stations and 9 metropolitan stations; the metropolitan stations are: ABC Radio Sydney ABC Radio Melbourne ABC Radio Brisbane ABC Radio Adelaide ABC Radio Perth ABC Radio Hobart ABC Radio Canberra ABC Radio Darwin The regional stations are: 999 ABC Broken Hill 92.5 ABC Central Coast ABC Central West ABC Coffs Coast 97.3 ABC Illawarra ABC Mid North Coast ABC New England North West 1233 ABC Newcastle ABC North Coast ABC Riverina ABC South East NSW ABC Upper Hunter ABC Western Plains 107.9 ABC Ballarat ABC Central Victoria ABC Gippsland ABC Goulburn Murray ABC Mildura Swan Hill 97.7 ABC Shepparton ABC South West Victoria ABC Western Victoria ABC Northern Tasmania ABC Capricornia 91.7 ABC Gold Coast ABC Far North ABC North Queensland ABC North West Queensland ABC Southern Queensland 90.3 ABC Sunshine Coast ABC Tropical North ABC Western Queensland ABC Wide Bay ABC North and West SA ABC Riverland ABC South East SA ABC West Coast SA ABC Goldfields-Esperance ABC Great Southern ABC Kimberley ABC Midwest & Wheatbelt ABC North West WA ABC South Coast ABC South West WA 783 ABC Alice Springs 106.1 ABC Katherine The metropolitan and regional stations originate most of their own programming.
Until 2015, the regional stations simulcast one of the metropolitan stations when they weren't airing local programming. They simulcast their state's capital city station. In 2015, the ABC formed a Regional Division to again split its regional stations from the metropolitan counterparts. 1233 ABC Newcastle was transferred from the metropolitan network to the new regional division and 14 of the regional network's member stations began streaming. It was announced from 2016 that the regional Local Radio stations would broadcast live each weekday and Saturday morning in a restructure of services, as well as a local Country Hour program at midday and afternoon drive time. During the mid-afternoon and evening, the regional stations will act as satellites of the nearest metropolitan station the capital city station. Despite the loss of 100 websites from the ABC, the Regional network introduced local news websites for its 48 stations containing a mix of news and lifestyle content for regional audiences.