Beenleigh is a town and a suburb in the City of Logan, Australia. At the 2016 Australian Census, Beenleigh recorded a population of 8,252. A government survey for the new town was conducted in 1866; the town is the terminus for the Beenleigh railway line, which first opening in 1885 and a stop on the South Coast railway line, which reached Southport in 1889. Beenleigh was the administrative centre of the former Shire of Albert, it is known for the heritage-listed tourist attraction called the Beenleigh Artisan Distillery. Beenleigh and adjoining suburbs are located near the confluence of the Albert Rivers; the residential and urban suburb lies southwest of the Pacific Motorway after it crosses the Logan River and is crossed by the Gold Coast railway line. Logan River Parklands contain a boat ramp, a picnic area. Whilst it was once a stand-alone town built on sugar and home to Australia's oldest rum distillery built in 1864, increasing development in South East Queensland since the 1980s has seen it enveloped by Brisbane and the Gold Coast.
In the 2011 census, Beenleigh recorded a population of 8,244 people, 50.5 % male. The median age of the Beenleigh population was 34 years, compared to the national median age of 37; the other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 8.1%, England 3.4%, the Philippines 1.1%, Brazil 0.6%, Germany 0.5%. About 81.5% of people spoke only English at home. This is the Yugambeh People's country, their Yugambeh language and heritage survive and is a testament to the Yugambeh Museum located in the town. Beenleigh was first colonised in the 1860s, with the first permanent European settlement occurring by John Davy and Frank Gooding, who named their sugarcane plantation Beenleigh in memory of their family estate in Devonshire, England; the first sugarcane mill was built in 1867, by 1885, another 29 were operational. Beenleigh Post Office opened on 1 August 1867. Commercial dairying in the area began in 1889. Beenleigh State School was opened on 6 February 1871; the Beenleigh Memorial Park was dedicated on 21 August 1925.
The abattoir was established in 1952 for beef production, is still one of the largest industries in Beenleigh. Beenleigh State High School opened on 29 January 1963. Beenleigh Special School opened on 1 January 1981. Beenleigh was the centre of the Shire of Albert, which included the suburbs of Eagleby, Alberton, Mt Warren Park, Edens Landing, Holmview and Jacobs Well. In 1995, Albert Shire was dissolved and Beenleigh and the surrounding suburbs were amalgamated into City of Gold Coast. In 2008, these suburbs were transferred from Gold Coast City to City of Logan. Beenleigh has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Distillery Road: Beenleigh Rum Distillery Main Street: St George's Anglican Church Still predominately a self-sufficient town with expanding retail and commercial areas close by, Beenleigh is home to three shopping centres with Coles Supermarkets, Big W, a Mitre 10 MEGA. At the heart of Beenleigh stands the Southern District Court complex, first established in 1871. For many years, the court was constituted of three magistrates.
The first presiding district court judge in Beenleigh was Judge O'Brien. The Southern District Court complex has played an integral role in the development of the progressive Drug Court. Beenleigh Mitre 10 MEGA opened in 2004. Day care facilities are available at the Lutheran Beenleigh Family Day Care Scheme. Beenleigh is situated on the Pacific Motorway. Queensland Rail City network provides frequent services to Brisbane and the Gold Coast via the Beenleigh railway line at the centrally located Beenleigh railway station. Three major high schools are within the immediate area of Beenleigh, including Beenleigh State High School, as well as many primary schools; the town has two theatres. The Logan City Council operate a public library at Crete Street; the Beenleigh branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the Beenleigh Neighbourhood Centre at 10 James Street. The Beenleigh Historical Village preserves 20 historic buildings and houses a number of collections of historic material from the region.
The town is home to the Beenleigh Artisan Distillers, Australia's oldest rum distillery, Yugambeh Language and Research Centre, Poppy's Chocolates and Windaroo Organic Cottage just 5 minutes out of town. Social events of note are the annual Rum and Rhumba Festival and Beats Food Trucks, the Beenleigh Show. Sporting facilities that are represented in Beenleigh cover baseball, soccer, BMX, tennis, swimming and roller derby. Beenleigh enjoys access to the Logan River via a boat ramp located near the northern bridge on the Pacific Motorway. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Beenleigh "BEENLEIGH AND DISTRICT"; the Brisbane Courier. 7 January 1905. P. 12. Retrieved 4 August 2015 – via National Library of Australia. — 1905 description of Beenleigh
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the
Caloundra is the southernmost town in the Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland, Australia. Caloundra is 90 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district. Caloundra is accessible from Landsborough railway station, 21 km away, the Caloundra bus station. In 1875, Robert Bulcock, an English immigrant who founded a Brisbane newspaper and represented the Brisbane suburb of Enoggera in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1885 until 1888, bought 277 acres of land in the region. A town was surveyed in the 1870s, land sales commenced in 1883. With its proximity to beaches, the area became popular with tourists and a number of hotels and guest houses were set up to accommodate them. In 1917, Bulcock's son, Robert Bulcock Jr, a councillor in the Shire of Landsborough, subdivided part of the land into 404 lots; this area became known as Bulcock Beach. By 1933, Caloundra had a population of 271; the Caloundra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association was established in July 1937.
The first female councillor was who represented Division 5 from 29 April 1961 to 30 March 1973. She was one of the first teachers at Caloundra State School, she was active in community groups such as the RSL Women's Auxiliary and a founder of the Caloundra Branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association and the local branch of the Red Cross. During World War II, the area became key to Australian defence due to defensive positions along the beaches. Radar stations and machine gun pits were mounted, Australian and US armed forces came to the area. From the early 1950s onwards, Caloundra experienced a boom in development and population, by 1968, it had come to dominate the Shire of Landsborough so that the council chambers were relocated to Caloundra; the Caloundra Library opened in 1986 with a major refurbishment in 2017. Caloundra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bowman Road: Tripcony Hibiscus Caravan Park 6 Arthur Street and 3 Canberra Terrace, Kings Beach: Caloundra Lighthouses Ormonde Terrace, Kings Beach: Kings Beach Bathing Pavilion Caloundra is not defined, but the boundary used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for census purposes and the urban zone defined by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council exactly coincide.
This region is bounded by Currimundi Creek, Rainforest Drive and the Mooloolah River to the north, Beerwah State Forest and Bruce Highway to the west, the Pumicestone Passage and the ocean to the east, Bells Creek to the south. The central business district for the area is located on Caloundra; the Caloundra urban centre consists of the following suburbs: The region of the Sunshine Coast, including Caloundra, is serviced by the Sunshine Coast Airport, located at Marcoola. A smaller regional airport is located at Caloundra. Caloundra's suburbs are served by Sunbus Sunshine Coast, who operate the Caloundra bus station in Cooma Terrace in the CBD. Bus routes 600, 602, 603, 605, 607, 609 connect Caloundra to Kawana Waters, Maroochydore and Landsborough. Landsborough railway station on the Sunshine Coast line has regular services to Roma Street railway station in Brisbane, operated by Queensland Rail. There are several bus companies providing coach services from Caloundra to Brisbane Airport. Census populations for the Caloundra urban centre have been recorded since 1933.
Since the 2001 census, it is divided between the Caloundra North and Caloundra South statistical local areas. The drop between 1981 and 1986 reflects an adjustment of the boundary with the Kawana Waters urban centre. Caloundra has a variety of beaches, providing amenity to the local tourists. Golden Beach is protected by Bribie Island to the east, is used for swimming, windsurfing and fishing. At low tide, Golden Beach and Bribie Island are close. Bulcock Beach, a still water beach, has board-walks and numerous restaurants, is situated opposite the northern end of Bribie Island; the Des Dywer walking track is an oceanway that starts at Bulcock beach and follows the coastline on cliffs and boardwalks. The walking track ends at Moffat Beach north-east of Bulcock, is about a one-hour walk. Bulcock Beach is patrolled by volunteer lifesavers from Ithaca–Caloundra City Life Saving Club. Kings Beach, named for Allan King who ran a guest house in the area in 1888, is the main beach of Caloundra. Kings is patrolled all year round by Metropolitan – Caloundra Surf Life Saving Club and has a picnic and children's play area.
Kings Beach has a swimming pool which, whilst built to be separate from the ocean, is fed directly from seawater. Shelly Beach is not a swimming beach, with the danger of rocks. However, the northern and southern ends are safer for more supervised swimmers. Locals find these places appropriate as, not only is it remote from the crowds of the adjacent King's beach, but local council laws allow dogs on the sand. On low tide and rock pools can be found along the beach. Shelly is surrounded by residential housing with a maximum of five storeys. Moffat Beach is not a patrolled beach, but Dicky Beach, located one kilometre north, has a surf lifesaving club and is patrolled year-round. Moffat Beach is surrounded by residential housing, cafes, a post office, a newsagent and apartments; the surf beaches are Kings Beach and Dicky Beach which commence at the eastern end of Bulcock Beach, namely Happy Valley – Officially Happy Valley is part of and shown on maps as Bulcock Beach. Kings Beach Shelly Beach Moffat Beach Dicky Beach On Caloundra's outskirts is Aussie World, located at the Glenview turnoff on th
Burleigh Head National Park
Burleigh Head is a small national park at Burleigh Heads in the City of Gold Coast in South East Queensland, Australia. The park is 81 kilometres southeast of Brisbane; the park is tiny. Tallebudgera Creek enters the ocean directly south of the park. No camping is permitted in the park. Access is via the Gold Coast Highway. An information centre is available. Burleigh Head National Park is a popular place for hiking and joggers because it located in a cool climate and provides great views. There are two walking tracks in the national park, one climbing the hill to the summit, about 88 m above sea level, called the Rainforest circuit and another leading around the headland just above sea level called the Ocean view circuit. Watching migrating whales from within the park is another popular activity; the headland is 80 m in height. The formation of the Burleigh headland began between 25 million years ago. At this time the Tweed Volcano was active. Molten basalt lava from the volcano eroded them all; the valleys were covered in hardened sedimentary rocks before reaching what is now the Burleigh headland.
Along Tallebudgera Creek there are sandy beaches. On the seaside part of the park are black boulders at the base of a cliff. Upstream tidal Tallebudgera Creek has a mangrove environment; the headland is an important cultural site for the local Aboriginal tribe known as the Minjungbal people. The park preserves remnant areas of mangrove forests. Western parts are dominated by dry eucalypt forest containing species such as brush box, forest red gum and grey ironbark. On the seaward facing slopes are Swamp she-oak, native hibiscus tree and Pandanus palms. There are areas of heathland and tussock grassland; the Australian brush-turkey, brahminy kites, sea eagles and koalas can be found in the park. There are lace monitors, mountain brushtail possums, common brushtail possums and common ringtail possums. Rainbow lorikeets are seen feeding on blossoms in the park; the park contains a popular walking track, known as the Oceanview Track, which connects Burleigh Heads and Tallebudgera Creek. In December 2014, the track was closed due to boulders smashing into the path as they cascaded down the slopes.
The track was re-opened in mid-2015. Protected areas of Queensland
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.
Lamington National Park
The Lamington National Park is a national park, lying on the Lamington Plateau of the McPherson Range on the Queensland/New South Wales border in Australia. From Southport on the Gold Coast the park is 85 kilometres to the southwest and Brisbane is 110 kilometres north; the 20,600 hectares Lamington National Park is known for its natural environment, birdlife, ancient trees, walking tracks and mountain views. Protected areas to the east in Springbrook National Park and south along the Tweed Range in the Border Ranges National Park around Mount Warning in New South Wales conserve similar landscapes; the park is part of the Shield Volcano Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The park is part of the Scenic Rim Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of several species of threatened birds. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Lamington National Park was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".
Most of the park is situated 900 metres above sea level only 30 kilometres from the Pacific's ocean shores. The plateaus and cliffs in Lamington and Springbrook National Parks are the northern and north western remnants of the huge 23-million-year-old Tweed Volcano, centered around Mount Warning. Elevation in the south of the park is above 1,000 metres in some parts; the land declines to under 700 metres in the north. Some of the mountains in the park include Mount Hobwee, Mount Widgee, Mount Toolona, Mount Cominan, Mount Roberts and Mount Bithongabel, containing much of Australia's few cloud forests; the Nerang River, Albert River and Coomera River all have their source in Lamington National Park. Eastern parts of the park feature high cliffs; the park is within the City of Gold Scenic Rim Region local government areas. Southern Lamington and sections of O'Reilly, Binna Burra and Natural Bridge are protected with Lamington National Park. For at least 6000 years, Aboriginal people visited these mountains.
The Wangerriburras and Nerangballum tribes claimed home to the plateau territory. 900 years ago the indigenous population began to decline. Bushrangers Cave, close to Mount Hobwee and is 60 metres long, was once an aboriginal camp; this site shows Aboriginal occupation going back 10,000 years. Captain Patrick Logan and Allan Cunningham were the first European explorers in the area; the timber cutters soon followed, including the Lahey family who owned one of Queensland's largest timber mills at the time. In 1863 a survey of the Queensland/New South Wales border was conducted; the task was carried out by Francis Edward Roberts and Isaiah Rowland, both surveyors, who had to define the border along the highest points in dense rainforest where there were few clear lines of sight. Robert Collins campaigned for the protection of the area from logging from the 1890s. Collins entered state parliament and saw a bill passed that preserved state forests and national parks but he died before the McPherson Range was protected.
It was another local, Romeo Lahey who recognised the value of preserving the forests. He campaigned to make it one of the first protected areas in Queensland; the O’Reilly family established a guesthouse near the park in 1926, now named O'Reilly's Rainforest Retreat, founding members of the National Parks Association of Queensland built Binna Burra Lodge next to the park in the 1930s. Lamington National Park was established in 1915; the park was named after Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1902. In 1937, Bernard O'Reilly became a hero when he rescued the survivors from the Airlines of Australia Stinson Model A airliner City of Brisbane, which had crashed in the remote Lamington wilderness. In typical Australian bushman fashion he embarked on his rescue mission taking only onions and bread to eat. Only a small portion of the original wreck remains today, 10 km south of the O'Reilly's guesthouse. Rugged mountain scenery, caves, wildflower heaths, tall open forests, varied wildlife and some of the best bushwalking in Queensland are protected in Lamington National Park.
One of Queensland’s best-loved parks, Lamington is the core of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves Australia World Heritage Area along the adjoining Border Ranges National Park in New South Wales. David Attenborough visited and filmed the park while making the 1979 television series Life on Earth in which beech trees and bowerbirds were featured; the national park protects one of the most diverse areas of vegetation in the country. The park’s lush rainforests include one of the largest upland subtropical rainforest remnants in the world and the most northern Antarctic beech cool temperate rainforests in Australia; the roots of the oldest Antarctic beech trees are over 5,000 years old. Around Mount Widgee numbers of Antarctic beech appear to be increasing; the park protects one of the country's largest remaining forests of hoop pine which are found on the drier slopes. Below 880 metres the white booyong and black booyong are found. In higher elevations the yellow carabeen, red carabeen, pigeonberry ash and soft corkwood trees predominate.
Many of Lamington's plants are found nowhere else on earth, such as O’Reilly's pittosporum, the Lamington peach myrtle, the Mt Merino eyebright and everlasting daisy which are subalpine relics from the last ice age. In 2006 it was realised that an old collection of the eastern underg
Shire of Noosa
The Shire of Noosa is a local government area about 130 kilometres north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. The shire covers an area of 868.7 square kilometres. The shire existed as a local government entity from 1910 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region, again from 1 January 2014, when it was re-established; the Noosa area was home to several Aboriginal groups. These include the Undumbi tribe to the south, the Dulingbara to the north, the Kabi Kabi to the west. In 2003 the Australian Federal Court determined that the native title holders for the Noosa area are the Kabi Kabi First Nation. Although much of the culture and presence of the traditional owners of the Noosa district has been lost during the short period of white settlement, there still exist many subtle reminders; these include: bora rings, used during rituals. Canoe trees, marks on trees where bark was removed for canoes.
Border/navigation trees, marks on trees tribal borders. Stone carvings burial trees middens, shell mound created by thousands of years of discarded shells. Stone axes spoken legends, many local legends which were traditionally passed through the generations survive today. Place names, many local names are versions of the original Aboriginal names, it is represented that the name Noosa comes from the local Aboriginal word for shadow or shady place. An 1870 map of Noosa shows the Noosa River as Nusa River; the word Nusa is derived from the Indonesian word for island. A Keeping Place of indigenous cultural and sacred objects is maintained at the Noosa Shire Museum, Pomona. Although reports of the area can be traced back to Captain Cook's voyages in May 1770, European settlement in the region did not proceed for a century; this early settlement was driven firstly by timber logging and secondly a gold rush in the Gympie area, north of Noosa. The difficulty of transport in the region, which persisted to the 1920s and beyond, was one major reason for this.
In 1871, the Government laid out a port at Tewantin, duly surveyed and by 1877 contained two hotels, a boarding house, police station and telegraph office. In 1872, the Noosa Heads and coastal region south to Peregian Beach was set aside as an Aboriginal Mission, however this was cancelled in 1878 and land was opened for selection on 15 January 1879. With the advent of the railway, Tewantin declined in importance. Noosa is a region, not a town, it contains beaches and a beach national park, the cleanest river in South-East Queensland and an extensive trail network inland, linking a number of lifestyle villages, including Cooroy and Pomona. In the last 50 years Noosa has been transformed from an isolated fishing village to a tourist destination. Although this has had its costs the shire is known for its greener approach to development. Most development in Noosa has been restrained. Noosa has no high rise buildings, due both to local community pressure and to council planning action, much remaining native forest.
34.8% of the Noosa district consists of National Parks, Conservation Parks, State Forests, other protected land. The popularity of Noosa Heads comes from the fact, it one of Australia's few North facing beaches located on the East Coast, hence Noosa Beach is protected from on-shore wind and storms; the area was incorporated as part of the Widgee Divisional Board on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. Noosa was created as a separate shire under the Local Authorities Act 1902 in 1910, with an initial population of 2,000; the first elections were held on 22 April 1910 and resulted in James Duke becoming the first shire chairman. The original headquarters for the Shire were constructed in Pomona in 1911. On Saturday 8 September 1917, a Honour Roll was unveiled at the Noosa Shire Hall in Pomona, it was to honour and commemorate those from the district who had left Australia to serve in the armed forces during World War I. In the early 1970s, development commenced in the area around Noosa Sound with Queensland Government backing.
In December 1980, the Shire Chambers moved to Tewantin. The former shire hall in Pomona became. Following the election of Noosa's first green mayor, Noel Playford, in 1988, Noosa's first strategic plan was gazetted, in 1990 development was limited to four storeys. In 1993, a major Council and community complex covering 9 hectares opened at Wallace Park, Noosaville. In 1995, the mayor Noel Playford controversially announced a "population cap" of 56,500 people for Noosa Shire; the population cap was the expected population under the planning scheme if all available land was developed in accordance with the planning scheme. Noosa had performed the calculations for all land in the shire and provided the results in the strategic planning documents. Noosa was the first Council in Australia to do so. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Noosa merged with the Shire of Maroochy and the City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region.
Noosa's mayor, Bob Abbot, won the mayoralty of the new Council over Maroochy's Joe Natoli with 70% of the combined vote. The amalgamation occurred despite the 2007 referendum in Noosa Shire by the Australian Electoral Commission where 95% of voters rejected amalgamation. In 2012, following a change of state government, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. O