Nicotinamide known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication. As a supplement, it is used by mouth to treat pellagra. While nicotinic acid may be used for this purpose, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing; as a cream, it is used to treat acne. Side effects are minimal. At high doses liver problems may occur. Normal amounts are safe for use during pregnancy. Nicotinamide is in the vitamin B family of medications the vitamin B3 complex, it is an amide of nicotinic acid. Foods that contain nicotinamide include yeast, meat and green vegetables. Nicotinamide was discovered between 1935 and 1937, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Nicotinamide is available over the counter. In the United Kingdom a 60 g tube costs the NHS about £7.10. Commercially, nicotinamide is made from nicotinonitrile. In a number of countries grains have nicotinamide added to them.
Nicotinamide is the preferred treatment for pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency. While niacin may be used, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing. Nicotinamide cream is used as a treatment for acne, it has anti-inflammatory actions. Nicotinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo; the application of 2% topical nicotinamide for 2 and 4 weeks has been found to be effective in lowering the sebum excretion rate. Nicotinamide has been shown to prevent Cutibacterium acnes-induced activation of toll-like receptor 2, which results in the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 production. Nicotinamide at doses of 500 to 1000mg a day decreases the risk of skin cancers, other than melanoma, in those at high risk. Nicotinamide has minimal side effects. At high doses liver problems may occur. Normal doses are safe during pregnancy; the structure of nicotinamide consists of a pyridine ring to which a primary amide group is attached in the meta position.
It is an amide of nicotinic acid. As an aromatic compound, it undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions and transformations of its two functional groups. Examples of these reactions reported in Organic Syntheses include the preparation of 2-chloronicotinonitrile by a two-step process via the N-oxide, from nicotinonitrile by reaction with phosphorus pentoxide, from 3-aminopyridine by reaction with a solution of sodium hypobromite, prepared in situ from bromine and sodium hydroxide; the hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile is catalysed by the enzyme nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1, producing 3500 tons per annum of nicotinamide for use in animal feed. The enzyme allows for a more selective synthesis as further hydrolysis of the amide to nicotinic acid is avoided. Nicotinamide can be made from nicotinic acid. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, worldwide 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were sold in 2014. Nicotinamide, as a part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is crucial to life.
In cells, nicotinamide is incorporated into NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions, most notably glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain. If humans ingest nicotinamide, it will undergo a series of reactions that transform it into NAD, which can undergo a transformation to form NADP+; this method of creation of NAD+ is called a salvage pathway. However, the human body can produce NAD+ from the amino acid tryptophan and niacin without our ingestion of nicotinamide. NAD+ acts as an electron carrier that helps with the interconversion of energy between nutrients and the cell's energy currency, adenosine triphosphate. In oxidation-reduction reactions, the active part of the coenzyme is the nicotinamide. In NAD+, the nitrogen in the aromatic nicotinamide ring is covalently bonded to adenine dinucleotide; the formal charge on the nitrogen is stabilized by the shared electrons of the other carbon atoms in the aromatic ring.
When a hydride atom is added onto NAD+ to form NADH, the molecule loses its aromaticity, therefore a good amount of stability. This higher energy product releases its energy with the release of a hydride, in the case of the electron transport chain, it assists in forming adenosine triphosphate; when one mole of NADH is oxidized, 158.2 kJ of energy will be released. Nicotinamide occurs as a component of a variety of biological systems, including within the vitamin B family and the vitamin B3 complex, it is a critically important part of the structures of NADH and NAD+, where the N-substituted aromatic ring in the oxidised NAD+ form undergoes reduction with hydride attack to form NADH. The NADPH/NADP+ structures have the same ring, are involved in similar biochemical reactions. Nicotinamide occurs in trace amounts in meat, fish and mushrooms, as well as to a lesser extent in some vegetables, it is added to cereals and other foods. Many multivitamins contain 20–30 mg of vitamin B3 and it is available in higher doses.
British Pharmacopoeia Japanese Pharmacopoeia A 2015 trial found nicotinamide to reduce the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in a group of people at high risk for the conditions. Nicotinamide has been investigated for many additional disorders, including treatment of bullous pemphigoid nonmelanoma skin cancers. Niacinamide may be beneficial in treating psoriasis. There is tentative evidence for a potential
"Rapture" is the twelfth episode of the third season from the science fiction television series Battlestar Galactica. Aired on January 21, 2007, this episode marked the return of regular broadcasting after the Christmas mid-season hiatus. Survivor Count: 41,401 Apollo holds Samuel Anders at gunpoint when he demands that Apollo do something to rescue Starbuck. Apollo radios Dee who says she sees the smoke from Starbuck's crash site and Apollo orders her to intercept it and rescue Starbuck, which puts Anders at ease for the moment. Anders threatens to kill Apollo if Starbuck dies, Apollo responds that if that happens he'll let him; the Cylons fear that Admiral Adama will carry out the threat of nuking the planet and is not bluffing. They decide to recall their ships; the sixth, which has Gaius Baltar, D'anna Biers, Brother Cavil on board, stays on course to the planet. Down on the planet and Anders prepare to defend the camp from approaching Cylon Centurions. At the same time, Dee finds Starbuck whose hands are burned, but her raptor is intact.
While repairing the raptor, a drugged Starbuck muses on her relationship with Apollo to Dee, well-aware of their affair as is Anders. After the raptor is repaired, Dee is forced to fly it and Starbuck back to Galactica herself due to Starbuck's injuries. Back aboard Galactica, Captain "Helo" Agathon and his wife Athena discuss rescuing their child Hera from the Cylons. Athena has a dangerous plan to resurrect her way onto the Cylon ship, but Helo is hesitant to go through with killing her - he relents and shoots her. Adama reminds Helo that Athena knows sensitive information that the Cylons could use against them, but Helo insists that Athena will not betray them. Back on the planet, unable to hold the enemy off indefinitely, Apollo calls Tyrol, with the Eye of Jupiter, tells him to get ready to blow up the temple. At the same time, Baltar, D'anna and Cavil arrive at the temple, discover the explosives around the Eye of Jupiter's column and disable them, while Baltar takes note of the spiral symbol on the floor.
At that moment the sun the planet orbits around goes nova, anticipated as a danger by Gaeta. The nova resembles the Eye of Jupiter drawings in the temple; the light from the nova enters the temple, is deflected by the crystals on the roof and column and shines a light on the spiral symbol on the floor. D'anna enters the light and sees five hooded figures, dressed in white and bathed in a brilliant light, she moves closer to see their faces and recognizes one of them saying, "You! Forgive me, I had no idea." The being, whose identity remains hidden from the viewer, reaches out to take D'anna's hand, but the scene fades with Baltar taking the figure's place. Baltar agonisingly asks what the five faces were and if he is a Cylon, but D'anna can only say it was beautiful and dies. Tyrol and the rest of the humans arrive and arrest Baltar. Aboard a Basestar and Six arrive in the nursery where Boomer, is caring for Hera. Athena urges Boomer to come with them saying Tyrol and Adama still have love for her, but Boomer says that part of her life is over.
Athena decides Hera needs a human doctor and pleads to Six and Boomer to let her take Hera back to Galactica. Boomer is reluctant and seems ready to kill the baby herself, but Caprica-Six kills Boomer and leaves with Athena and Hera for Galactica; as the nova expands, the Cylon Basestars jump away and Adama orders a rescue mission launched. The raptors rescue the people on the planet and Galactica jumps away just in time. On the flight deck and Starbuck reunite along with Apollo and Dee. Helo and Athena are reunited with their daughter and take her to Doctor Cottle for treatment while Caprica-Six is taken to the brig. Helo remembers seeing a painting in Starbucks's apartment that looked just like the Eye of Jupiter drawing in the temple and asks her why she made it, but Starbuck is uncertain, saying she liked the pattern. D'anna resurrects and is greeted by a Brother Cavil, she smiles, having seen the five remaining Cylon models, but before she can elaborate, Cavil tells her that her model series has been determined to be fundamentally flawed and the entire line will be put in cold storage.
Her last words are that he will see the five soon too. Grace Park submitted this episode for consideration in the category of "Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series" on her behalf for the 2007 Emmy Awards. "Rapture" at the Battlestar Wiki "Rapture" at Syfy.com "Rapture" on IMDb "Rapture" at TV.com
Dick Yin Wong was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. Wong was born on September 1920, in Honolulu, Hawaii, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Hawaii in 1942. He received a Master of Arts degree from the University of Hawaii in 1944, he received a Juris Doctor from Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law in 1950. He was in the United States Army as a staff sergeant from 1945 to 1947, he was an accountant in Chicago, from 1947 to 1949. He was in private practice of law in Honolulu, from 1950 to 1951, from 1960 to 1961, from 1962 to 1968 and from 1973 to 1975, he was an accountant in Honolulu, from 1951 to 1961 and from 1962 to 1968. He was a Judge of the Hawaii Tax Appeal Court, from 1960 to 1968, he was a Judge of the First Circuit Court of Hawaii, from 1968 to 1973. Wong was nominated by President Gerald Ford on March 17, 1975, to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii vacated by Judge Martin Pence.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 24, 1975, received his commission on April 25, 1975. His service was terminated on December 1978, due to his death. Dick Yin Wong at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Hirst Courtney is a village and civil parish in the Selby District of North Yorkshire, England. The name derives from Old English Hyrst and possession by the Courtney family in the thirteenth century. In 1825 the population was 144, in 23 households. In 2011 the population was 287; the village formally had a public house called the The Royal Oak Inn. It closed in 2017; until 2014, the Hirst Courtney shared a community primary school with neighbouring village Temple Hirst. In 2012 the school received a requires improvement rating from Ofsted. In November 2013, the school had less than 14 pupils enrolled, a decrease from the previous inspection when there was 26; the school closed on 22 April 2014, the remaining pupils were transferred to Chapel Haddlesey CE VC School. Hirst Courtney Village Website
Nishi-Okazaki Station is a railway station in the city of Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture, operated by Central Japan Railway Company. Nishi-Okazaki Station is served by the Tōkaidō Main Line, is located 330.1 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Tokyo Station. The station has two opposed side platforms, with an elevated station building built at a right angle above the tracks and platforms.. The station building is staffed. Nishi-Okazaki Station was established as a passenger train station on March 13, 1988. Automated turnstiles using the TOICA IC Card system came into operation from November 25, 2006. In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 1983 passengers daily. Yasaku Minami Elementary School List of Railway Stations in Japan Yoshikawa, Fumio. Tokaido-sen 130-nen no ayumi. Grand-Prix Publishing ISBN 4-87687-234-1. Media related to Nishi-Okazaki Station at Wikimedia Commons
Esme Ross-Langley, was a British writer, best known as the founder of the Minorities Research Group and Arena Three. She died on 20 August 1991 in St Albans City Hospital. Esme was the only child of Ivy George, her father William Gwyn Thomas was an international rugby player. He emigrated to the US in 1923 but Esme's mother declined his invitation to follow later. Esme was brought up by her maternal grandparents Charles Henry George and Annie George in Preston, Lancashire, she enjoyed swimming. At school Esmé took an interest in English in particular. After passing her Matriculation in 1935 at the age of 16 her formal education ended. According to her semi-autobiographical novel, Esmé was enjoying life in London with a friend's family and refused to return to school for her final year of English Honours; the son of the family proposed marriage but his mother did not approve. At the age of 17 she was on her own and working in London, through necessity living a frugal life, she volunteered to serve in the Army in 1939 and after the war, as a single mother, was unable to take up her university place.
Esmé studied Italian for fun and Chichewa while working in Malawi, Spanish during her retirement in Spain and, just before her final illness at the age of 72, she was studying Russian. Esmé served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service during teaching typing and shorthand. While grateful that her typing prowess kept her in work, she was irritated by employers who ignored her other skills. For example, she completed difficult crosswords like Ximenes and Azed, but when she applied to join the Bletchley Park team working on the German Enigma cipher, her military unit would not release her. After her release from the British Army in November 1945 Esmé was penniless and pregnant, her book, Why should I be dismayed?, about life as a single parent was recommended reading for social workers at the time. Esmé got a job with the BBC Monitoring unit at Caversham Park near Reading and spent several years exploring languages and playing squash and chess with the Russian monitors there, she never wanted to live with him.
In 1956 she arranged a mortgage, bought a house in Bromley and took in lodgers. There she met. Esmé was a strong supporter of minorities of all kinds, not afraid to speak her mind. In 1963 after learning new skills working for Sylvester Stein on the London Property Letter, she founded her own magazine publishing enterprise, the Minorities Research Group, from her basement flat in Hampstead. On legal advice she was the sole proprietor so that she could not be charged with statutory conspiracy, she published Mainland which flopped and Arena Three which took over her life for many years. When Esmé considered that Arena Three had accomplished most of its aims, she moved to Malawi in 1971 with an Austin Champ and took a two-year secretarial assignment in the Office of the President. While there she learned basic Chichewa and Swahili, she named her dog St Leonards as a derogatory but deniable reference to Hastings Banda and his repressive regime. After an outspoken friend of hers disappeared, Esmé resigned her post a few months early and with her eldest son's fianceé set off on a six-week tour of Southern Africa, smuggling a Jehovah's Witness to safety over the border on the way.
Her Austin Champ broke down early in the journey but they continued on foot and hitchhiking through Mozambique and South Africa before returning home to England. After decades of smoking, Esmé had emphysema. For health reasons she moved in 1986 from Hertfordshire to Torrevieja and pursued her hobbies of Mozart and gardening for her remaining years. Family photos of Esmé Obituary: Esme Langley by Antony Grey published in The Independent on 28 August 1992