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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN, is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as the Calvin cycle and lipid and nucleic acid syntheses, which require NADPH as a reducing agent. It is used by all forms of cellular life. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety; this extra phosphate is removed by NADP + phosphatase. In general, NADP + is synthesized; such a reaction starts with NAD+ from either the de-novo or the salvage pathway, with NAD+ kinase adding the extra phosphate group. NAD+ nucleosidase allows for synthesis from nicotinamide in the salvage pathway, NADP+ phosphatase can convert NADPH back to NADH to maintain a balance; some forms of the NAD+ kinase, notably the one in mitochondria, can accept NADH to turn it directly into NADPH. The prokaryotic pathway is less well understood, but with all the similar proteins the process should work in a similar way.

NADPH is produced from NADP+. The major source of NADPH in animals and other non-photosynthetic organisms is the pentose phosphate pathway, by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the first step; the pentose phosphate pathway produces pentose, another important part of NADH, from glucose. Some bacteria use G6PDH for the Entner–Doudoroff pathway, but NADPH production remains the same. Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, present in all domains of life, is a major source of NADPH in photosynthetic organisms including plants and cyanobacteria, it appears in the last step of the electron chain of the light reactions of photosynthesis. It is used as reducing power for the biosynthetic reactions in the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide and help turn the carbon dioxide into glucose, it has functions in accepting electrons in other non-photosynthetic pathways as well: it is needed in the reduction of nitrate into ammonia for plant assimilation in nitrogen cycle and in the production of oils. There are several other lesser-known mechanisms of generating NADPH, all of which depend on the presence of mitochondria in eukaryotes.

The key enzymes in these carbon-metabolism-related processes are NADP-linked isoforms of malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase. In these reactions, NADP+ acts like NAD+ in other enzymes as an oxidizing agent; the isocitrate dehydrogenase mechanism appears to be the major source of NADPH in fat and also liver cells. These processes are found in bacteria. Bacteria can use a NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase for the same purpose. Like the pentose phosphate pathway, these pathways are related to parts of glycolysis. NADPH can be generated through pathways unrelated to carbon metabolism; the ferredoxin reductase is such an example. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase transfers the hydrogen between NADH and NAD+, is found in eukaryotic mitochondria and many bacteria. There are ones that do not; some anaerobic organisms use NADP+-linked hydrogenase, ripping a hydride from hydrogen gas to produce a proton and NADPH. NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for biosynthetic reactions and the oxidation-reduction involved in protecting against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species, allowing the regeneration of glutathione.

NADPH is used for anabolic pathways, such as cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid chain elongation. The NADPH system is responsible for generating free radicals in immune cells by NADPH oxidase; these radicals are used to destroy pathogens in a process termed the respiratory burst. It is the source of reducing equivalents for cytochrome P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, steroids and drugs. Adrenodoxin reductase: This enzyme is present ubiquitously in most organisms, it transfers two electrons from NADPH to FAD. In vertebrates, it serves as the first enzyme in the chain of mitochondrial P450 systems that synthesize steroid hormones. In 2018 and 2019, the first two reports of enzymes that catalyze the removal of the 2' phosphate of NADP in eukaryotes emerged. First, the cytoplasmic protein MESH1 the mitochondrial protein nocturnin were reported. Of note, the structures and NADPH binding of MESH1 and nocturnin are not related

Bob Andrews (keyboardist)

Robert Charles "Bob" Andrews is an English keyboardist and record producer. He lives in New Mexico, United States. Born in the UK, just outside Leeds, Andrews grew up in the district of Kirkstall, attending a small, local church elementary school, St Stephens, he started piano lessons at age seven after his mother detected his enthusiasm for banging on his grandmother's neighbour's piano. He switched teachers at age 11 to Charles Seed. Passing the 11+-entrance exam to attend grammar school, he learned ukulele playing in a skiffle group formed at school. Andrews' earliest introductions to music came through the radio and his teenage next-door neighbor who bought Elvis and Bill Haley records. Hanging out at a local penny arcade in Blackpool while on a family holiday, he was exposed to The Everly Brothers, where he would sing along to the harmonies. At 13, he discovered Chuck Berry, the Stones, the Beatles and girls, not in that order, stopped piano lessons, learned to play bass and electric guitar.

A whole new musical world opened up when Andrews heard Howlin’ Wolf and the Chicago blues, learning those infamous guitar riffs, played underage in pubs. By 1965, At age 16, he had been kicked out of high school, secured a job as a trainee surveyor, with a newly minted Farfisa organ, was gigging five nights a week. Andrews became a professional musician in 1966, spending two years working in Germany and Spain, in nightclubs and on U. S. military bases. In these musically formative years, Andrews honed his chops on keyboards, playing six or seven nights a week, sometimes 12 hours a day; the US Army and Air Force bases provided rich musical fodder, as the enlisted men's clubs had jukeboxes packed with the latest releases from the States. During this period Andrews learned the art of improvisation, something used extensively during those long hours. In 1968 he returned to the UK, moved to London and picked up a gig playing organ for P. P. Arnold's backing band. Andrews' immaturity lost him that job, but a chance reply to an advertisement in Melody Maker, landed him a position with pop act Kippington Lodge, he moved down to Tunbridge Wells.

In 1969, the band went through personal and musical changes and named this new entity after their guitar player, Brinsley Schwarz. The band Brinsley Schwarz came to be known by a wider public audience as the musicians central to a giant publicity stunt involving flying 120 British journalists to New York's famed Fillmore East to watch their show; the stunt turned into a disaster and left the band in debt, but it galvanised them together, moving to a large house in the outskirts of London, they added a fifth member, toured continuously throughout the early seventies, including playing many free shows for good and sometimes dubious causes and supporting Paul McCartney and Wings on the Red Rose Speedway tour. Their six album releases for Capitol and United Artist Records became cult favourites on both sides of the Atlantic, their sound, at first influenced by American roots idioms like rhythm ‘n’ blues and country, was to encompass several other genres including folk and reggae. The band was central to the emergence of the pub rock genre perceived as a rejuvenation of traditional rock ‘n’ roll energy and songwriting values in the face of music scene dominated by prog-rock and glam-rock.

The band launched careers critical to the developing punk rock scene. The Brinsleys, as they were affectionately known, broke up in April 1975. Andrews and Schwarz together with guitarist Martin Belmont from the defunct Ducks Deluxe met up at the Hope and Anchor and decided to form a new band. Martin knew a bass player and drummer, Andrew Bodnar and Steve Goulding, who's band BonTemps Roulez had split up, they started to rehearse down at the Newlands Tavern in Peckham and called themselves The Rumour, after the song by The Band. Dave Robinson, soon to be Stiff Records impresario and former Brinsleys manager, introduced them to Graham Parker and Parker started rehearsing with them at the Tavern. A decision was made to keep the two acts separate for contractual purposes - publishing and record deals - and the band recorded a live record “at Marble Arch” and the first Graham Parker record, Howling Wind, at the end of 1975, at the beginning of 1976, the combo hit the road. Andrews' keyboard playing was critical to the sound and success of the Rumour.

Where bands in the developing punk genre pared their ensemble sound down to guitar and drums, the Rumour had an expansive, sophisticated way with arrangements, which traded on their immersion in the sounds of American soul music and the work of Bob Dylan and Van Morrison. In his tenure with the Rumour, Andrews recorded five albums and toured the world relentlessly, moving from warm up slots with acts such as Thin Lizzy to their own headlining tours. In addition to his work with the Rumour, Andrews played sessions throughout the 1970s, always a sought after player for his piano and organ work, he played on Maxine Nightingale's 1975 hit "Get Right Back". His jazz inflected piano playing was a highlight of his friend and former bandmate Nick Lowe's hit "I Love the Sound of Breaking Glass" in 1977. In 1979, Andrews left the Rumour following tours in support of the Squeezing Out Sparks album. During his latter time with the Rumour, Andrews started producing. In 1978, he co-produced with the first album from Carlene Carter.

In 1979, Stiff Re

Filip Verlinden

Filip Verlinden is a Belgian kickboxer who competes in the Middlewight divisions. Verlinden was introduced to the sport at an early age and came to prominence in 2008 when he won the WKA European Super Cruiserweight Muay Thai Championship, followed by the WKA World Cruiserweight title the following year, he took the gold medal at the 2010 IFMA World Championships in the +91 kg/200 lb division as an amateur before a short stint in the It's Showtime promotion where he unsuccessfully challenged Danyo Ilunga for the It's Showtime 95MAX Championship in June 2012. That year, he joined Glory. Filip Verlinden was born in Lier and raised in Heist-op-den-Berg, Belgium, his father, was a Belgian champion kickboxer who trained under Cor Hemmers and so Filip was introduced to the sport at an early age, beginning kickboxing and Muay Thai at the age of ten. He himself would go on to train under Hemmers at Golden Glory Breda in the Netherlands while being coached by his father at Bulls Gym in his homeland. After a rather unremarkable beginning to his career, in which he won fights against notables such as Rustemi Kreshnik, Dave Vader and lost a decision against Simon Marcus, Verlinden transcended the local Belgian circuit when he outpointed Marian Baryla to win the WKA European Super Cruiserweight Muay Thai Championship.

He made his debut with the It's Showtime promotion on 18 March 2009, losing on points to Rico Verhoeven in a heavyweight bout at Fights at the Border presents: It's Showtime 2009 in Antwerp, Belgium. He rebounded by winning the WKA World Cruiserweight title in Switzerland that year. In late 2010, Verlinden was recruited by United Glory to compete in the 2010-2011 World Series, an eight-man heavyweight tournament; the tournament kicked off in Amsterdam, Netherlands at United Glory 12: 2010-2011 World Series Quarterfinals on 16 October 2010 and Verlinden was eliminated when he lost to Brice Guidon by unanimous decision in a back-and-forth fight. He returned to amateur Muay Thai to compete at the 2010 IFMA World Championships in Bangkok, Thailand in December 2010, winning the gold medal in the +91 kg/200 lb division, he defeated all three of his opponents on points, Sergei Lascenko in the quarter-finals, Alexei Kudin in the semis and Christian Colombo in the final. Despite losing in his first outing in the promotion, Verlinden was invited to United Glory's next event to face Frédéric Sinistra in a non-tournament fight at United Glory 13: 2010-2011 World Series Semifinals in Charleroi, Belgium on 19 March 2011.

Verlinded outworked and outstruck Sinistra to win a unanimous decision in a bout to determine Belgium's top heavyweight kickboxer. He signed with the Muaythai Premier League in August 2011 to compete in the short-lived promotion's -95 kg/210 lb heavyweight class. In his debut appearance, he scored a one-sided victory against Martin Jahn at Muaythai Premier League: Stars and Stripes in Long Beach, United States on 2 September 2011. After hurting his German opponent with a right overhand in round one a coming close to finishing him, the ringside physician stopped the bout at the end of the opening stanza due to a cut above Jahn's eye, giving Verlinden the TKO win, he beat Chris Knowles by way of unanimous decision at Muaythai Premier League: Blood and Steel in The Hague, Netherlands on 6 November 2011. Verlinden made his return to It's Showtime three years after his first fight there to challenge Danyo Ilunga for his It's Showtime 95MAX Championship at Music Hall & BFN Group present: It's Showtime 57 & 58 in Brussels, Belgium on 30 June 2012.

He wobbled Ilunga with a knee strike in round one but it was not enough to secure victory as he lost by split decision after a scrappy, action-filled five round fight. After It's Showtime was bought out by the newly formed Glory organization, Verlinden soon transferred across and made his promotional debut in Brussels on 6 October 2012 at Glory 2: Brussels where he took a unanimous decision win over Fabiano Cyclone having scored a knockdown with a left hook in the second round, he was among the best heavyweights in the world when he competed in the sixteen man 2012 Glory Heavyweight Grand Slam at Glory 4: Tokyo - 2012 Heavyweight Grand Slam in Saitama, Japan on 31 December 2012. Although he lost to Remy Bonjasky by unanimous decision at the opening round, his stock still rose in the world of international kickboxing; the lightest fighter in the tournament at 93.1 kg/205 lb, he was able to take the second round from Bonjasky and force the fight into the third due to the "best of three" format in the tournament.

He made the drop down to Glory's -95 kg/209 lb light heavyweight division for his next fight at Glory 6: Istanbul in Istanbul, Turkey on 6 April 2013, when he was set to face Unai Unzai but his opponent was changed to Lucian Danilencu. He defeated Danilencu by unanimous decision in a rather lackluster affair. Verlinden entered his third tournament and first at his natural weight class when he competed at Glory 9: New York - 2013 95kg Slam in New York City, New York, US on 22 June 2013, he took a controversial split decision over Steve McKinnon in the quarter-finals but lost out in a technical battle to eventual champion Tyrone Spong in the semis, losing by unanimous decision. Verlinden lost to promotional newcomer Saulo Cavalari by unanimous decision at Glory 11: Chicago - Heavyweight World Championship Tournament in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, US on 12 October 2013, he dropped down to Glory's middleweight division and defeated Israel Adesanya via unanimous decision at Glory 15: Istanbul in Istanbul, Turkey on 12 April 2014.

Verlinden competed in the Glory 17: Los Angeles - Last Man Standing middleweight tournament in Inglewood, California, US on 21 June 2014. He scored a