Otley is a market town and civil parish at a bridging point on the River Wharfe, in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. A part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the population was 13,668 at the 2011 census, it is in two portions – south of the river is the historic town of Otley and to the north is Newall, a separate township. The town is in lower Wharfedale on the A660 road; the town sits in the Otley and Yeadon of Leeds City Council and the Leeds North West parliamentary constituency. Otley's name is derived from Otto, Othe, or Otta, a Saxon personal name and leah, a woodland clearing in Old English, it was recorded as Ottanlege in 972 and Otelai or Othelia in the Domesday Book of 1086. The name Chevin has close parallels to the early Brythonic Welsh term Cefn meaning ridge and may be a survival of the ancient Cumbric language. There are pre-historic settlement finds alongside both sides of the River Wharfe and it is believed the valley has been settled at this site since the Bronze Age.
There are Bronze Age carvings on rocks situated on top of The Chevin, one such example is the Knotties stone. West Yorkshire Geology Trust has reference to Otley Chevin and Caley Crags having a rich history of human settlement stretching back into Palaeolithic times. Flint tools, Bronze Age rock carvings and Iron Age earthworks have been found. In medieval times the forest park was used as common pasture land, as a source of wood and sandstones for buildings and walls; the majority of the early development of the town dates from Saxon times and was part of an extensive manor granted by King Athelstan to the see of York. The Archbishops of York were lords of the manor, their palace was located on the site occupied by the Manor House. Otley may have formed part of the kingdom of Elmet. Remains of the Archbishop's Palace were found during the construction of St Joseph's School; as in other areas of the north, the Norman conquest laid waste this area. The Saxon church was replaced by a Norman one, thus in the 11th and 12th century Otley would have been a loose congregation of buildings around the two focal points of the manor house by the bridge and the church.
An important reason for the town's location was a water supply, the Calhead Beck which ran down from Otley Chevin over Whitley Croft, a little East of the church and to the river near the bridge. The town grew in the first half of the 13th century when the archbishops laid out burgage plots to attract merchants and tradespeople; the burgage plots were on Boroughgate and Kirkgate. This began to create the layout of today, based on a triangle of these plots forming the streets. Bondgate was for the workers: tenants. A leper hospital was founded on the road to Harewood beyond Cross Green; as well as farming and use of woodland, important local activities were quarrying stone, the manufacture of potash from bracken, used to make a soap which therefore supported a community carrying out fulling, the cleansing and finishing of woollen cloth on Watergate. The Chevin provided stone for building as well as bracken and common grazing, while the river provided reeds for thatching houses; the woollen industry developed as a cottage industry but during the Industrial Revolution and the mechanisation of the textile industry, mills were built using water steam power.
A cotton mill and weaving shed. Woolcombing and worsted spinning were introduced. By the mid 19th century 500 inhabitants were employed in two worsted-mills, a paper-mill, other mills. A tannery was established in the 19th century. At this time the opening of the new Leeds Road and Bradford Road increased access for trade. Many houses were built from the middle of the 19th century onwards, including the first row of terraces by the newly formed Otley Building Society from 1847. Otley railway station opened in 1865 connecting goods and people to Leeds, with a connection to Bradford in 1875. At its peak it had 50 trains a day. Kirkgate was the first street to be paved in 1866, followed by sewers in 1969; the Wharfedale Printing Machine was developed in Otley by David Payne. An early example can be seen in Otley Museum. By 1900 the printing machinery trade, with over 2,000 people employed in seven machine shops, was Otley's most important industry. After the First World War there was a general shortage of housing in Britain, much of it was crowded slums.
Otley Council prepared one of the first subsidized housing schemes, commencing with open land in Newall on the North of the river in 1920. The 1920s saw the beginnings of the conversion of properties to a sewer drainage system, electric lighting instead of gas on the streets. Further estates followed and by 1955 there were more than 1000 council houses. Private housing was expanded during this time, but was reduced the Second World War. House building revived in the 1960s to 1980s, but industry declined, with many factories closing, including the printing machine works in 1981. Otley was a market-town and the centre of a large ecclesiastical parish in the wapentakes of Skyrack and Claro in the West Riding of Yorkshire; the various chapelries and townships in the ancient parish became separate civil parishes in 1866. The local authority was the lord of the manor until 1864 when Otley Board was formed and many public buildings date from on. From 1894 Otley formed an Urban District, in 1897 and 1903 expanded north of the River Wharfe to include Newall.
Since local govern
Jervaulx Abbey in East Witton near the city of Ripon, was one of the great Cistercian abbeys of Yorkshire, dedicated to St. Mary in 1156, it is a Grade I listed building. The place-name Jervaulx is first attested in 1145; the name means'the Ure valley', in French, is a translation of the English'Ure-dale', aka Yoredale. The valley is now called Wensleydale. A Savigniac foundation out of Normandy, the abbey was taken over by the Cistercian order from Burgundy and responsibility for it was taken by Byland Abbey. Founded in 1145 at Fors near Aysgarth, it was moved ten years to a site a few miles away on the banks of the River Ure. In 1145, in the reign of King Stephen, Akarius Fitz Bardolph, Lord of Ravensworth, gave Peter de Quinciano, a monk from Savigny, land at Fors and Worton, in Wensleydale to build a monastery of their order; the monastery there was successively called the Abbey of Fors and Charity. Grange, 5 miles west-north-west of Aysgarth, a hamlet in the township of Low Abbotside, in the parish of Aysgarth is the original site of Fors Abbey.
After it was abandoned it was known now by that of the Grange alone. Serlo Abbot of Savigny, disapproved of the foundation, as it had been made without his knowledge and consent, he refused to supply it with monks from his abbey because of the great difficulties experienced by those he had sent into England. He therefore, in a general chapter, proposed that it should be transferred to the Abbey of Belland, closer and would be able to lend the necessary assistance required by the new foundation. Monks were sent from Byland and after undergoing great hardships because of the meagreness of their endowment and sterility of their lands, son to Alan, 1st Earl of Richmond increased their revenues and, in 1156, removed their monastery to a better location in East Witton, the present situation. Here the monks erected a new church and monastery, like most of the Cistercian order, was dedicated to St Mary. At the height of its prosperity the abbey owned half of the valley and was renowned for breeding horses, a tradition that remains in Middleham to the present day.
It was the original home of Wensleydale cheese. In 1279 Abbot Philip of Jervaulx was murdered by one of his monks, his successor, Abbot Thomas, was accused of the crime, but a jury determined that he was not to blame, another monk fled under outlawry. According to John Speed, at the dissolution it was valued at £455 10s. 5d. The last abbot, Adam Sedbergh, joined the Pilgrimage of Grace, suffered death by hanging at Tyburn in June 1537, when the monastic property was forfeited to the king; the pulpitum screen with part of the stalls can now be seen at St Andrew's Church, while a window was reused at St. Gregory's parish church in Bedale; as the monasteries kept people employed and from starving, the regional disturbances were occasioned by desperation, since the monastic system was not diocesan or provincial to make a swift transition within the nationalized episcopal system, there was no immediate resolution to tenant sufferings. Jervaulx and other Cistercian houses were as much attached to Savigny and Citeaux Abbey in the Duchy of Burgundy, as Richmondshire and the Honour of Richmond were to the Duchy of Brittany, both establishments based in France but cut off due to the Hundred Years' War and after the loss of the Pale of Calais.
The standing remains of the abbey include part of the church and claustral buildings, as well as a watermill. The lordship of East Witton, with the site of the abbey, was granted by Henry VIII to Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, Margaret, his wife, the king's niece, after passing through various hands, the property came into the possession of the Bruce family, one of whom was created Earl of Ailesbury in 1805; the estate was purchased from the trustees of Ernest Brudenell-Bruce, 3rd Marquess of Ailesbury, in 1887, by S. Cunliffe Lister, Esq. of Swinton Park, for £310,000. It was purchased by Major and Mrs W V Burdon in 1971, their youngest son, now runs the abbey, the ruins of which are open to the public. List of monastic houses in North Yorkshire List of monastic houses in England Official site
Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward within the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council. 12 miles north of Bradford and 17 miles northwest of Leeds, the town lies on the south bank of the River Wharfe in Wharfedale, one of the Yorkshire Dales. Ilkley's spa town heritage and surrounding countryside make tourism an important local industry; the town centre is characterised by wide streets and floral displays. Ilkley Moor, to the south of the town, is the subject of a folk song described as the unofficial anthem of Yorkshire, "On Ilkla Moor Baht'at"; the song's words are written in Yorkshire dialect, its title translated as "On Ilkley Moor without a hat." The earliest evidence of habitation in the Ilkley area is from flint arrowheads or microliths, dating to the Mesolithic period, from about 11,000 BC onwards. The area around Ilkley has been continuously settled since at least the early Bronze Age, around 1800 BC.
A druidical stone circle, the Twelve Apostles Stone Circle, was constructed 2,000 years ago. Serious interest in the rock art of Ilkley began after the publication in 1879 of the "Prehistoric Rock Sculptures of Ilkley" by Romilly Allen in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association; the remains of a Roman fort occupy a site near the town centre. Some authorities believe it is Olicana, dating to 79 AD. A number of Roman altars have been discovered from the reigns of Antoninus Pius, Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla. Three Anglo-Saxon crosses from the 8th century that stood in the churchyard of All Saints' Church have been moved inside to prevent erosion; the church site, as a centre for Christian worship, extends to 627 AD, the present Victorian-era church incorporates medieval elements. The Domesday Book, of 1086, records Ilkley as being in the possession of William de Percy 1st Baron Percy; the land was acquired by the Middelton family of Myddelton Lodge, from about a century after the time of William the Conqueror.
The family lost possession through a series of land sales and mortgage repossessions over a period of about a hundred years from the early 19th century. The agents of William Middelton were responsible for the design of the new town of Ilkley to replace the village which had stood there before. In the 17th and 18th centuries the town gained a reputation for the efficacy of its water. In the 19th century it became established as a fashionable spa town, with the construction of Ben Rhydding Hydro, a hydropathic establishment at Wheatley, a mile to the east, between 1843 and 1844. Charles Darwin underwent hydropathic treatment at Wells House when his book On the Origin of Species was published on 24 November 1859, whilst staying with his family at North View House. Tourists flocked to bathe in the cold-water spring. Wheatley was renamed Ben Rhydding after the Hydro, demolished. Development based on the Hydro movement, on the establishment of convalescent homes and hospitals, was accelerated in August 1865 by the construction of the Otley and Ilkley Joint Railway, which linked to the Leeds and Bradford Railway and the North Eastern Railway.
The Midland Railway built a connection to Skipton via Bolton Abbey in May 1888. Other Victorian visitors to the town included Madame Tussaud; the only remaining hydro building is the white cottage known as White Wells House. The cottage can be visited on the edge of the moor overlooking the town; the town has a parish council and although it is a town and has a town hall, the parish council has not exercised its right to be called a town council. The parish consists of four wards and elects 14 councillors: Ilkley North, Ilkley South, Ilkley West and Ben Rhydding; the parish council precept is collected with the annual Council Tax to fund its running and to aid the development of local projects. Ilkley is in the Keighley UK Parliament constituency whose seat is held by John Grogan, Labour MP, he replaced Conservative MP, in the 2017 election. Kris Hopkins was elected in the 2010 general election. Ann Cryer was elected in the General Election of 1997, her late husband Bob Cryer held the seat between 1974 and 1983.
Ilkley is in the Humber European constituency. Before 1974 Ilkley was a type of local government district. Ilkley Urban District Council shared local government responsibilities with the West Riding County Council; the Local Government Act 1972 dissolved urban districts and in 1974 Ilkley adopted its current status as a ward of the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford. Services provided by the urban district council are now run centrally by the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council; until 2006 Ilkley civil parish consisted of Ilkley ward, which includes Ben Rhydding, the north half of Rombalds ward. The latter ward housed the villages of Menston; the population of the parish in 2001 was therefore higher than it is today, consisting of 24,954 residents. In 2006 Burley-in-Wharfedale and Menston established their own parishes and today Ilkley consists only of Ilkley ward. CouncillorsThe parish is a ward in the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford and is represented by two Conservative councillors, Mike Gibbon
Great Whernside is a fell in the Yorkshire Dales, not to be confused with Whernside, some 17 miles to the west. Its summit is the highest point of the eastern flank of Wharfedale above Kettlewell. Great Whernside forms the watershed between Wharfedale and Nidderdale, is on the boundary between the Yorkshire Dales National Park and Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the River Nidd rises above Angram Reservoir. The name Whernside means "hillside where millstones were got"; the upper part of the hill is composed of millstone grit, there were once quarries on the Wharfedale side. According to one source the name was applied to the hillside on the Wharfedale side, extended to the whole hill as seen from Wharfedale; the hill as seen from Nidderdale was known as Blackfell. The addition of Great was first recorded in 1771 to distinguish the hill from Little Whernside; until 1997 no public right of way was established to the summit of Great Whernside. In that year two public footpaths were registered, one from Kettlewell in Wharfedale to the summit and one along the summit ridge.
Following the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 large parts of the fell became open access land. Great Whernside can be ascended from Kettlewell, or by a shorter route from Park Rash Pass on the minor road from Kettlewell to Coverdale, it can be ascended by a longer, less popular, route from Scar House Reservoir. Routes from the East are boggy after prolonged dry weather. Little Whernside, 2.5 miles northeast of Great Whernside, forms the watershed between Coverdale and Nidderdale. Hag Dyke, halfway between Kettlewell and the summit, is a hostel run by 1st Ben Rhydding Scout Group in Ilkley; the fell is the site of several aircraft crashes. Tor Dike is an earthwork with rampart constructed in the limestone, it appears to have been built either by Iron Age tribes in the 1st century AD, to protect themselves from the invading Romans, or in the Dark Ages. Media related to Great Whernside at Wikimedia Commons
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th
Grewelthorpe is a village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England situated three miles south of Masham and six miles north of Ripon. It is located in the Nidderdale area of outstanding natural beauty; the name Grewelthorpe derives from the words Gruel and Thorpe, Gruel being a family name and thorpe meaning "outlying farmstead". Grewelthorpe was mentioned in the Domesday Book when it was known as Torp and was in the ownership of Gospatric. In 2009 Grewelthorpe has a pub, the Crown, it has a duck pond, a distinctive feature of the village, it is populated by ducks which people come from surrounding villages to feed. The local primary school is known as Grewelthorpe Church of England Primary school, it takes children from four years old to eleven years old, the current school building was opened in June 2003, is located at cross hills in Grewelthorpe. However, Grewelthorpe has had a school since 1876. Unlike many Yorkshire villages Grewelthorpe does not have a cricket club.
It last had one in the 1950s, but it folded as a result of the failure to find a suitable playing field. On the edge of the village of Grewelthorpe is Hackfall, sometimes called Hackfall Wood, a Grade I Garden in English Heritage's Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Although it appears to be a natural wood, the landscape that can be seen today was in large part a result of design and work undertaken by the Aislabies of Studley Royal. In Victorian times it was a popular attraction: there are grottos, surprise views, waterfalls, a fountain and several follies, including Mowbray Castle, a ruin in a prominent hill-top position. After a long period of neglect, restoration has been undertaken by the Hackfall Trust and the Woodland Trust, with the help of a grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. Hackfall is open to the public. A seventeen and a half mile walking circuit has been created that links Hackfall with Studley Royal called the Aislabie Walk. Grewelthorpe North Yorkshire Village Web Site Hackfall Wood The Aislabie Walk St James Church