At 581 m, the Grand Wintersberg is the highest hill in the North Vosges in Alsace, France. The Grand Wintersberg lies about four kilometres northwest of Niederbronn-les-Bains; the massif separates the valleys of the Schwarzbach. At its summit, made of Bunter Sandstone, stands a 25-metre-high observation tower, which offer hikers an outstanding panoramic view over the North Vosges, the Palatine Forest and the Upper Rhine Plain across to the Black Forest. At the 514-metre-high saddle between Grand and Petit Wintersberg is a hut, the Chalet du Wintersberg, managed by the Vosges Club, as well as the Liese, a Gallo-Roman, sphinx-like sandstone relief. Celtic relicts may be found on the hill of Ziegenberg to the southeast. Grand Wintersberg in the Pässelexikon at quaeldich.de
Asswiller is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Asswilleroises; the commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Asswiller is in the Northern Vosges Regional Natural Park some 27 km south-east of Sarralbe and 38 km south-west of Bitche. Access to the commune is by the D9 road from Durstel in the north-west passing through the heart of the commune and the village and continuing south-east to Petersbach; the D309 road goes south-west from the village to Drulingen. There is a large forest in the west with strips of forest along the borders with the remainder of the commune farmland; the Isch forms the south-western boundary of the commune as it flows west to join the Sarre west of Wolfskirchen. The Ottwillergraben forms the eastern border of the commune as it flows north to join the Eichel at Tieffenbach.
718: Asco vilare 1793: Asveiller 1801: AsswilerIn German the commune name is Aßweiler. Asswiller was a small lordship dependent on the Counts of La Petite-Pierre; when the Count palatine of Bavaria, Georg Johann I of Bavaria, took possession of the county, he granted Asswiller as a hereditary fief to the Dalheim family, who were soon succeeded by the Steinkallenfels family: senior officials of the palatine counts. These Protestant lords introduced the Reformation and remained in Asswiller from the 16th century to 1819. In 1789 Asswiller belonged to the Lord of Carbiston who had acquired it in 1771 by marriage with the heiress of the Steincallenfels family. After the French Revolution Asswiller was attached to France in 1793 by decree of the National Convention which overrode the rights of princes holding possessions. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 285 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Many buildings and structures in Asswiller are registered as historical monuments: A Farmhouse at 2 Rue du Cimetière A Chateau at 6 Rue de Drulingen The Town Hall/School at 10 Rue de Durstel A Farmhouse at 18 Rue de Durstel A Courthouse at 2 Rue de Durstel A Farmhouse at 26 Rue de Durstel A Farmhouse at 5 Rue de Durstel A Farmhouse at 5 Bis Rue de Durstel A Farmhouse at 14 Rue de Petersbach A Farmhouse at 8 Rue de Petersbach A Mill called Jaegermuhle Several religious buildings and structures are registered as historical monuments: A Cemetery at Rue du Cimetière A Protestant Church at Rue de Durstel A Protestant Presbytery at 4 Rue de Durstel A Lutheran Church at Rue de l'Eglise The Cemetery contains two items that are registered as historical objects: The Rauscher family tomb 3 SculpturesThe Lutheran Church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: The Furniture in the church The Organ Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Asswiller on the old IGN website Asswiller on Lion1906 Asweiller on the 1750 Cassini Map Asswiller on the INSEE website INSEE
The Migration Period was a period that lasted from 375 AD to 538 AD, during which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns. This period has been termed in English by the German loanword Völkerwanderung and—from the Roman and Greek perspective—the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Hunnic and other peoples into the territory of the declining Roman Empire, with or without accompanying invasions or war. Historians give differing dates regarding the duration of this period, but the Migration Period is regarded as beginning with the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia in 375 and ending either with the conquest of Italy by the Lombards in 568, or at some point between 700 and 800. Various factors contributed to this phenomenon, the role and significance of each one is still much discussed among experts on the subject. Starting in 382, the Roman Empire and individual tribes made treaties regarding their settlement in its territory.
The Franks, a Germanic tribe that would found Francia—a predecessor of modern France and Germany—settled in the Roman Empire and were given a task of securing the northeastern Gaul border. Western Roman rule was first violated with the Crossing of the Rhine and the following invasions of the Vandals and Suebi. With wars ensuing between various tribes, as well as local populations in the Western Roman Empire and more power was transferred to Germanic and Roman militaries. There are contradicting opinions whether the fall of the Western Roman Empire was a result or a cause of these migrations, or both; the Eastern Roman Empire was less affected by migrations and survived until the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. In the modern period, the Migration Period was described with a rather negative connotation, seen more as contributing to the fall of the empire. In place of the fallen Western Rome, Barbarian kingdoms arose in the 5th and 6th centuries and decisively shaped the European Early Middle Ages.
The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD; the first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths, the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks. Invasions—such as the Viking, the Norman, the Varangian, the Hungarian, the Moorish, the Turkic and the Mongol—also had significant effects. Germanic peoples moved out of southern Scandinavia and northern Germany to the adjacent lands between the Elbe and Oder after 1000 BC; the first wave moved westward and southward, moving into southern Germany up to the Roman provinces of Gaul and Cisalpine Gaul by 100 BC, where they were stopped by Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar.
It is this western group, described by the Roman historian Tacitus and Julius Caesar. A wave of Germanic tribes migrated eastward and southward from Scandinavia between 600 and 300 BC to the opposite coast of the Baltic Sea, moving up the Vistula near the Carpathians. During Tacitus' era they included lesser known tribes such as the Tencteri, Cherusci and Chatti; the first phase of invasions, occurring between AD 300 and 500, is documented by Greek and Latin historians but difficult to verify archaeologically. It puts Germanic peoples in control of most areas of what was the Western Roman Empire; the Tervingi entered Roman territory in 376. Some time thereafter in Marcianopolis, the escort to Fritigern was killed while meeting with Lupicinus; the Tervingi rebelled, the Visigoths, a group derived either from the Tervingi or from a fusion of Gothic groups invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410, before settling in Gaul, 50 years in Iberia, founding a kingdom that lasted for 250 years. They were followed into Roman territory first by a confederation of Herulian and Scirian warriors, under Odoacer, that deposed Romulus Augustulus on 4 September 476, by the Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy.
In Gaul, the Franks entered Roman lands during the fifth century, after consolidating power under Childeric and his son Clovis’s decisive victory over Syagrius in 486, established themselves as rulers of northern Roman Gaul. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of what would become France and Germany; the initial Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain occurred during the fifth century, when Roman control of Britain had come to an end. The Burgundians settled in northwestern Italy and Eastern France in the fif
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Wissembourg is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is situated on the little River Lauter close to the border between France and Germany 60 km north of Strasbourg and 35 km west of Karlsruhe. Wissembourg is a sub-prefecture of the department; the name Wissembourg is a Gallicized version of Weißenburg in German meaning "white castle". The Latin place-name, sometimes used in ecclesiastical sources, is Sebusium; the town was annexed by France after 1648 but incorporated into Germany in 1871. It was returned to France in 1919, but reincorporated back into Germany on 1940. After 1944 it again became French. Weissenburg Abbey, the Benedictine abbey around which the town has grown, was founded in the 7th century under the patronage of Dagobert I; the abbey was supported by vast territories. Of the 11th-century buildings constructed under the direction of Abbot Samuel, only the Schartenturm and some moats remain; the town was fortified in the 13th century. The abbey church of Saint-Pierre et Paul erected in the same century under the direction of Abbot Edelin was secularized in the French Revolution and despoiled of its treasures.
At the abbey in the late 9th century the monk Otfried composed a gospel harmony, the first substantial work of verse in German. In 1354 Charles IV made it one of the grouping of ten towns called the Décapole that survived annexation by France under Louis XIV in 1678 and was extinguished with the French Revolution. On 25 January 1677 a great fire destroyed the Hôtel de Ville. Many early structures were spared: the Maison du Sel, under its Alsatian pitched roof was the first hospital of the town. There are many 15th and 16th-century timber-frame houses, parts of the walls and gateways of the town; the Maison de Stanislas was the retreat of Stanisław Leszczyński, ex-king of Poland, from 1719 to 1725, when the formal request arrived, 3 April 1725 asking for the hand of his daughter in marriage to Louis XV. The First Battle of Wissembourg took place near the town in 1793; the “Lines of Wissembourg,” made by Villars in 1706, were famous. They were a line of works extending to Lauterbourg nine miles to the southeast.
Like the fortifications of the town, only vestiges remain, although the city wall is still intact for stretches. Austrian General von Wurmser succeeded in capturing the lines in October 1793, but was defeated two months by General Pichegru of the French Army and forced to retreat, along with the Prussians, across the Rhine River. Wissembourg formed the setting for the Romantic novel L’ami Fritz co-written by the team of Erckmann and Chatrian, which provided the material for Mascagni's opera L'Amico Fritz. Another Battle of Wissembourg took place on 4 August 1870, it was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. The Prussians were nominally commanded by the Crown Prince Frederick, but ably directed by his Chief of Staff, General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal; the French defeat allowed the Prussian army to move into France. The Geisberg monument commemorates the battle. Otfrid of Weissenburg Jean-Gotthard Grimmer, pastor at Wissembourg deputy to the National Convention on 10 ventôse year III to replace Philibert Simond.
Louis Moll, born in Wissembourg in 1809 and died in 1880. Joseph GuerberJoseph Guerber Stanisław Leszczyński, king of Poland from 1704 to 1709, exiled in Wissembourg and lived from 1719 to 1725; the school in the city now bears his name. Charles de Foucauld Auguste Dreyfus Jean Frédéric Wentzel, famous photos of Wissembourg Jean-François Kornetzky, football goalkeeper Martin Bucer was a Protestant reformer based in Wissembourg/Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Drew Heissler aka Pokey LaFarge, is songwriter, his family emigrated from Wissembourg/Alsace. Jean-Pierre Hubert, a science-fiction writer. Julie Velten Favre and educator The town, set in a landscape of wheat fields, retains a former Augustinian convent with its large-scale Gothic church, now the parish of Saints-Pierre-et-Paul, its Grenier aux Dîmes belonging to the Abbey is 18th-century but an ancient foundation. Noteworthy houses are the medieval "Salt house", the Renaissance "House of l'Ami Fritz" and the classicist City Hall, a work by Joseph Massol.
Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Château Saint-Rémy d'Altenstadt INSEE commune file Tourist information Accessed 11 May 2014. Saints Peter and Paul Church at Structurae Virtual tour picture gallery Interactive map of the property of abbey Wissembourg, based on Liber donationum and Liber possessionum, in Traditiones possessionesque Wizenburgenses, edited by Zeuss, Johann Caspar, Speyer 1842
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Wasenbourg, located 400 metres in height on the northwest hillside of Reisberg, is a ruined castle in the North Vosges. It is a recognized historical monument since 1898. Although its origins are obscure, the historians attribute its construction, by 1273, to Conrad de Lichtenberg bishop of Strasbourg; the castle is located on the territory of the commune of Niederbronn-les-Bains. The castle is quoted first time in a charter dated 1335 during a division of the Licthenberg family possessions, it is enfeoffed by these last ones to Guillaume de Born in 1378. In 1398, during a Fehde, Wasenbourg is besieged by the gathered troops of the bishop and the city of Strasbourg. Afterward, it will be used as residence by the vassals of the Lichtenberg, notably Hofwart de Kirchheim and Simon de Zeiskam. With the extinction of the Lichtenberg lineage in 1480, it passes by inheritance to Simon Wecker IV of Two Deux-Ponts-Bitche. Damaged during the Peasants' War in 1525, it will be raised from its ruins by Jacques de Deux-Ponts-Bitche in 1535.
In 1570, a quarrel of inheritance sets Linange against Hanau-Lichtenberg, both of them successors of Deux-Ponts-Bitche. Jean-Jacob Niedheimer, baillif of Hanau, takes advantage of it to occupy the place and assumes the title of nobility "of Wasenbourg"; the castle seems to have been saved during the War of Thirty Years but will be dismantled by the troops of Louis XIV in 1677. The site was outstandingly emphasized of restoration; the castle presents the peculiarity not to possess a keep. An 18 metre high, 14 metre long and 3 metre thick shield walloverhanging a deep ditch is enough to protect the lodging house towards the attack. A plate overhanging the entrance of the castle commemorates the visit of Goethe of 1771. East of the lower yard raises a rock known as "le Wachtfelsen", testimony of a Roman worship dedicated to the god Mercury. Having crossed the lower yard, we penetrate into the enclosure wall itself. An oriel window overhangs the East wall of the castle; the access to the lodging house is made by a door in broken bow overhung by a sculptured head integrated into a Gothic frieze