Achenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The village, in the arrondissement of Strasbourg and the canton of Lingolsheim lies close to the Canal de la Bruche and to the departemental road connecting Soultz-les-Bains to Strasbourg; the oldest traces of human habitation in Alsace – tools used by Homo erectus in the Paleolithic era some 700,000 years ago – have been found in loess deposits at Achenheim. In 1264 the village was burnt down by forces from Strasbourg during the war between the city and its bishop, Walter de Geroldseck. Canal de la Bruche Bruche River Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Bernardswiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in northeastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Benfeld is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is situated on the river Ill. In the nearby hamlet Ehl there is an archaeological site with the remains of the Gallo-Roman city Ellelum or Helvetum; the handsome 1846 synagogue survived the Nazi occupation. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Barembach is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barembachoises. Barembach is located in a valley perpendicular to the Bruche valley some 25 km west by south-west of Illkirch and 30 km north-west of Sélestat at 350 metres above sea level; the Barembach Forest covers most of the commune with several summits including Pépinière, Barraque des Bœufs, Ordon Saxe, Haut de la Brûlée. Access to the commune is by the D204 road from Grendelbruch in the north-east which passes through the north-eastern corner of the commune and continues to Schirmeck. Access to the village is by the D193; the D1420 from Muhlbach-sur-Bruche in the north-east passes along the northern border as it goes south-west to Fouday. The Barembach river rises in the south-east of the commune and flows north-west to join the Bruche just north-west of the commune; the Bornichon river rises in the south of the commune and flows north to join the Barembach at the village.
Barembach was destroyed in 1875 by a violent fire. After the reconstruction of the village immediately after the disaster, the economy first restarted with livestock and forestry. There were mills and sawmills producing galoshes which changed to weaving. An enterprise was set up by Camille Glaszmann; the company was continued by Mecatherm who extended the buildings. Shortly before Liberation the village was the headquarters of Marshal Jean de Lattre de Tassigny and served as a springboard to free the region. Barembach included part of the commune of Rothau on the north shore of the Rothaine. Barembach appears as the same on the 1790 version; the name Barembach originated from the German Bach meaning "stream" and Bär meaning "bear". List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 868 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has many buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: Houses and Farmhouses The War Memorial at Route du Maréchal-De-Lattre-de-Tassigny A School at 14 Rue Principale The Town Hall / School at 15 Rue Principale The Town Hall / School contains several items that are registered as historical objects: A Heating Stove A Monumental Cross: Christ on the Cross and the Virgin and child The commune has several religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Barembach Cemetery on the D204 The Cemetery contains several items that are registered as historical objects: A Cemetery Cross Funeral Monuments The Schirmeck Cemetery at Rue du Douar The Cemetery contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Funeral Monuments Funeral Crosses A Monumental Cross A Monumental Cross: Christ on the Cross A Cemetery Cross: Christ on the Cross The Chartier Family Funeral Chapel on the D204 The Vogt Family Funeral Chapel at Rue du Douar The Church of Saint-Georges at Place de l'Eglise The Church contains several items that are registered as historical objects: A Chalice with Paten A Monstrance The Furniture in the Church The Church Organ A Presbytery at 16 Rue du Presbytère 3 Wayside Crosses are registered as historical objects.
Marshal Jean de Lattre de Tassigny had his headquarters in the village. The street from the cemetery to the church bears his name. There is a monument to him on this street near the church. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department "Barembach", in The Upper Valley of the Bruche, Alsace Heritage, General Inventory of Monuments and artistic riches of France, Éditions Lieux Dits, Lyon, 2005, p. 38-39, ISBN 978-2-914528-13-9 Barembach official website
Berstett is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. In 1972, the communes of Berstett, Gimbrett and Rumersheim were merged into the present commune. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Community of Communes of the Kochersberg Kochersberg INSEE commune file Official site
Bernardvillé is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in northeastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file