Nielsen Audio

Nielsen Audio is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences. It was founded as the American Research Bureau by Jim Seiler in 1949 and became national by merging with Los Angeles-based Coffin and Clay in the early 1950s; the company's initial business was the collection of broadcast television ratings. The company changed its name to Arbitron in the mid‑1960s, the namesake of the Arbitron System, a centralized statistical computer with leased lines to viewers' homes to monitor their activity. Deployed in New York City, it gave instant ratings data on. A reporting board lit up to indicate. On December 18, 2012, The Nielsen Company announced that it would acquire Arbitron, its only competitor, for US$1.26 billion. The acquisition closed on September 30, 2013, the company was re-branded as Nielsen Audio; as a condition of the deal to allow a monopoly, Nielsen must license its ratings data and technology to a third party for eight years.

Arbitron's syndicated radio ratings service collects data by selecting a random sample of a population throughout the United States in 294 metropolitan areas, using a paper diary service 2‑4 times a year and the Portable People Meter electronic audience measurement service 365 days a year. The term used in the radio industry for these ratings is Arbitron book, a carryover from the era when ratings were published in a softcover report, mailed to clients. More in the diary-measured markets these reports were called the "Spring book", "Summer book", "Fall book", "Winter book". Between these "books", Arbitron releases interim monthly reports called "Arbitrends", which contain data from the previous three months known as "rolling average" reports; the two interim reports would be known, for example, as "Spring, Phase I" and "Spring, Phase II". Arbitron recruits diary survey respondents to note their listening habits in a seven-day paper diary and mail it back to Arbitron; the respondents are paid a small cash incentive for their participation.

Turnaround time for release of data from the end of the survey period is three weeks. After collection, the data is marketed to radio broadcasters, radio networks, cable TV companies, advertising agencies, out-of-home advertising companies, the online radio industry. Major ratings products include cume, average quarter hour, time spent listening, market breakdowns by age and race/ethnicity, it is important to understand that the "cume" only counts a listener once, whereas the AQH is a product of "cume" and time spent listening. For example, if you looked into a room and saw Fred and Jane 15 minutes saw Fred with Sara; the "cume" would be 3 and the AQH would be 2. Responding to requests from its customers — radio broadcasters, ad agencies and advertisers — that expressed their interest in the collection of more accurate ratings data, Arbitron introduced the Portable People Meter service in 2007; the PPM is a wearable portable device, much like a pager or mobile phone, that electronically gathers subaudible codes that identify the source of a broadcast, such as a radio station.

Arbitron recruits and compensates a cross-section of consumers to wear the meter for an average of one year and up to two years. The audience estimates generated from each monthly survey is used as the buy/sell currency for radio stations and advertisers/agencies; as of December 2009, the PPM was measured in 33 media markets, including Houston, Pittsburgh, New York City, Detroit, Long Island, Middlesex-Somerset-Union, Los Angeles, Riverside-San Bernardino, San Francisco, Jacksonville and San Jose. By 2010, 48 markets are being measured using the PPM. ComScore, an internet analytics company with which Arbitron is partnering to analyze cross-media management List of most-listened-to radio programs List of United States radio markets Nielsen ratings Radio & Records, periodical that published Arbitron data for commercial stations Radio Research Consortium, non-profit corporation which publishes Arbitron data for non-commercial stations The Media Audit Time spent listening, one of the metrics measured Official website Arbitron SEC Filings Ratings - Persons 12+ from Arbitron for commercial stations Ratings - Persons 12+ from FMQB for commercial stations Ratings - Persons 12+ from Radio and Records for commercial stations List of U.

S. Radio Markets Audio interview of Ernest H. Clay, ARB's Research and Production Director on WGN's discussion show Your Right To Say It

Yidiny language

Yidiny is a nearly extinct Australian Aboriginal language, spoken by the Yidinji people of north-east Queensland. Its traditional language region is within the local government areas of Cairns Region and Tablelands Region, in such localities as Cairns and the Mulgrave River, the southern part of the Atherton Tableland including Atherton and Kairi. Yidiny forms a separate branch of Pama–Nyungan, it is sometimes grouped with Djabugay as Yidinyic, but Bowern retains Djabugay in its traditional place within the Paman languages. Yidiny has the typical Australian vowel system of /a, i, u/. Yidiny displays contrastive vowel length, it is not clear if the two rhotics are trill and flap, or approximate. Dixon gives them as a "trilled apical rhotic" and a "retroflex continuant." The Yidiny language has a number of particles. These, unlike other forms in the language, such as nouns and gender markers, have no grammatical case and take no tense inflections; the particles in the Yidiny language: nguju -'not', giyi -'don't', biri -'done again', yurrga -'still', mugu -'couldn't help it', jaymbi / jaybar -'in turn'.

E.g.'I hit him and he jaymbi hit me','He hit me and I jaybar hit him'. Dixon states that "pronouns inflect in a nominative-accusative paradigm… deictics with human reference have separate cases for transitive subject, transitive object, intransitive subject… whereas nouns show an absolutive–ergative pattern." Thus three morphosyntactic alignments seem to occur: ergative–absolutive, nominative–accusative, tripartite. Pronoun and other pronoun-like words are classified as two separate lexical categories; this is for morphosyntactic reasons: pronouns show nominative-accusative case marking, while demonstratives and other nominals show absolutive-ergative marking. In common with several other Australian Aboriginal languages, Yidiny is an agglutinative ergative-absolutive language. There are many affixes which indicate a number of different grammatical concepts, such as the agent of an action, the ablative case, the past tense and the present and future tenses. There are two affixes which lengthen the last vowel of the verbal root to which they are added, -Vli- and -Vlda.

For example: magi-'climb up' + ili + -nyu'past tense affix', magi-'climb up' + ilda + -nyu'past tense affix'. The affix -Vli- means'do while going' and the affix -Vlda- means'do while coming', it is for this reason that they cannot be added to the verbs gali-'go' or gada-'come'. Therefore, the word magiilinyu means'went up, climbing' and magiildanyu means'came up, climbing'. One morpheme, - ŋa, is a causative in others. For example, maŋga-'laugh' becomes applicative maŋga-ŋa-'laugh at' while warrŋgi-'turn around' becomes causative warrŋgi-ŋa-'turn something around'; the classes of verbs are not mutually exclusive however, so some words could have both meanings, which are disambiguated only through context. There is a general preference in Yidiny that as many words as possible should have an number of syllables, it is for this reason. For example: the past tense affix is -nyu when the verbal root has three syllables, producing a word that has four syllables: majinda-'walk up' becomes majindanyu in the past tense, whereas with a disyllabic root the final vowel is lengthened and -Vny is added: gali-'go' becomes galiiny in the past tense, thus producing a word that has two syllables.

The same principle applies when forming the genitive: waguja- + -ni = wagujani'man's', bunya- + -Vn- = bunyaan'woman's'. The preference for an number of syllables is retained in the affix that shows a relative clause: -nyunda is used with a verb that has two or four syllables, giving a word that has four syllables whereas a word that has three or five syllables takes -nyuun, giving a word that has four syllables. Bunggu.'Knee,' but more extensively:'That part of the body of anything which, in moving, enables the rest of the body or object to be propelled.' This is used of the hump in a snake's back as it wriggles, the swish point of a crocodile's tail, or the wheel of a car or tractor. Jilibura.'Green ant'. It was squeezed, the'milk' it yielded was mixed with the ashes of a gawuul, or from a murrgan or a bagirram tree, the concoction drunk to clear headaches; the classifier used for ants,munyimunyi was used for all species, such as the gajuu and burrbal, but never for a jilibura because it was different, having a medicinal use.

R. M. W. Dixon.. A Grammar of Yidiny. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. R. M. W. Dixon.. Searching for Aboriginal Languages. University of Chicago Press. Ethnologue: Yidiny

1920s Berlin

The Golden Twenties was a vibrant period in the history of Berlin, Germany and the world in general. After the Greater Berlin Act the city became the third largest municipality in the world and experienced its heyday as a major world city, it was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, film, higher education, diplomacy and military affairs. The Weimar Republic era began in the midst of several major movements in the fine arts. German Expressionism had begun before World War I and continued to have a strong influence throughout the 1920s, although artists were likely to position themselves in opposition to expressionist tendencies as the decade went on. A sophisticated, innovative culture developed in and around Berlin, including developed architecture and design, a variety of literature, film and music, philosophy/psychology, fashion; this culture was considered to be decadent and disruptive by rightists. Film was making huge technical and artistic strides during this period of time in Berlin, gave rise to the influential movement called German Expressionism.

"Talkies", the sound films, were becoming more popular with the general public across Europe, Berlin was producing many of them. The so-called mystical arts experienced a revival during this time-period in Berlin, with astrology, the occult, esoteric religions and off-beat religious practices becoming more mainstream and acceptable to the masses as they entered popular culture. Berlin in the 1920s proved to be a haven for English writers such as W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender and Christopher Isherwood, who wrote a series of'Berlin novels', inspiring the play I Am a Camera, adapted into a musical, an Academy Award winning film of the same name. Spender's semi-autobiographical novel The Temple evokes the atmosphere of the time; the University of Berlin became a major intellectual centre in Germany and the World. The sciences were favored — from 1914 to 1933. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921, he served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin, only leaving after the anti-Semitic Nazi Party rose to power.

Physician Magnus Hirschfeld established the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft in 1919, it remained open until 1933. Hirschfeld believed. Hirschfeld was a vocal advocate for homosexual and transgender legal rights for men and women petitioning parliament for legal changes, his Institute included a museum. Politically, Berlin was seen as a left wing stronghold, with the Nazis calling it "the reddest city after Moscow." Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels became his party's "Gauleiter" for Berlin in the autumn of 1926 and had only been in charge a week before organizing a march through a communist-sympathizing area that devolved into a street riot. The communists, who adopted the motto "Beat the fascists wherever you encounter them!" had their own paramilitary organization called the Roter Frontkämpferbund to battle the Nazis' Sturmabteilung. In February 1927 the Nazis held a meeting in the "Red" stronghold of Wedding that turned into a violent brawl. "Beer glasses and tables flew through the hall, injured people were left lying covered with blood on the floor.

Despite the injuries, it was a triumph for Goebbels, whose followers beat up about 200 communists and drove them from the hall." The government began printing tremendous amounts of currency to pay reparations. However, economic expansion resumed after mid-decade, aided by U. S. loans. It was that culture blossomed especially; the heyday of Berlin began in the mid-1920s when it was the most industrialized city of the continent. Tempelhof Airport was opened in 1923 and a start was made on S-Bahn electrification from 1924 onwards. Berlin was the second biggest inland harbor of Germany. During the interwar period high-quality architecture was built on a large scale in Berlin for broad sections of the population, including poorer people. In particular the Berlin Modernism housing estates built before the beginning of National Socialism set standards worldwide and therefore have been added to the UNESCO World-heritage list in 2008; as a result of the economically difficult situation during the Weimar Republic, housing construction, which up to that time had been privately financed and profit-oriented, had found itself at a dead end.

Inflation was on the up and for citizens on low incomes decent housing was becoming unaffordable. The search was on to find new models for state-initiated housing construction, which could be implemented with a passion from 1920 on following the creation of Greater Berlin and the accompanying reform of local and regional government; the requirements for the type of flats to be built and the facilities they were to have were defined, the city was divided into different building zones. Following some basic ideas of the Garden city movement two- to three-storey housing estates that were well integrated into the landscape of the suburbs of the city were planned; the first large estate of this type with more than 2,000 resi