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Nielsen SoundScan

Nielsen SoundScan is an information and sales tracking system created by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett in 1991. SoundScan is a method of tracking sales of music and music video products throughout the United States and Canada. Data is collected weekly and made available every Sunday and every Monday to subscribers, which include record companies, publishing firms, music retailers, independent promoters, film and TV companies, artist managers; the Nielsen SoundScan is the sales source for the Billboard music charts, making it the largest source of sales records in the music industry. Nielsen SoundScan began tracking sales data for Nielsen on March 1, 1991; the May 25 issue of Billboard published Billboard 200 and Country Album charts based on SoundScan "piece count data," and the first Hot 100 chart to debut with the system was released on November 30, 1991. Billboard tracked sales by calling stores across the U. S. and asking about sales – a method, inherently error-prone and open to outright fraud.

Indeed, while transitioning from the calling to tracking methods, the airplay and sales charts and the Hot 100 did not match. Although most record company executives conceded that the new method was far more accurate than the old, the chart's volatility and its geographical balance caused deep concern, before the change and the market shifts it brought about were accepted across the industry. Tower Records, the country's second-largest retail chain, was not included in the sample because its stores are equipped with different technology to measure sales. At first, some industry executives complained that the new system — which relied on high-tech sales measurement rather than store employee estimates — was based on an inadequate sample, one that favored established and mainstream acts over newcomers; the Recording Industry Association of America tracks sales on a long-term basis through the RIAA certification system. The first Billboard Hot 100 number-one song via Nielsen SoundScan was "Set Adrift on Memory Bliss" by P.

M. Dawn. Other changes would largely impact the Hot 100 in the future, consisting of radio-only songs being able to chart in 1998, YouTube views playing part of how a Hot 100 is decided in 2013. Sales data from cash registers is collected from 14,000 retail, mass merchant, non-traditional outlets in the United States, Canada, UK and Japan; the requirements for reporting sales to Nielsen SoundScan are that the store has Internet access and a point of sale inventory system. Submission of sales data to Nielsen SoundScan must be in the form of a text file consisting of all the UPCs sold and the quantities per UPC on a weekly basis. Sales collected from Monday-Sunday or Sunday-Saturday are reported to SoundScan every Monday and made available to SoundScan subscribers every Wednesday. Nielsen SoundScan clients include these: many independent labels. Anyone selling a music product with its own UPC or ISRC may register that product to be tracked by Nielsen SoundScan. SoundScan is a subscription-based service with many packages available for varying levels of access.

Subscriptions must be negotiated with SoundScan. Billboard publishes music charts on a weekly basis which use SoundScan data, but do not give sales figures; the incorporation of Soundscan tracking by the Billboard charting system was noted by the industry as being a possible cause of the early'90s popularization of alternative music in the United States. Under Soundscan, exact data about alternative music sales allowed these acts to appear higher in the Billboard charts than before, this chart success fed back into increasing the genre's perceived popularity in popular culture. In addition, Soundscan data found use in the promotion departments at major record labels, as a way to use sales data to persuade radio station music directors to add tracks by high-selling alternative artists such as Nirvana. Music recording certification List of best-selling albums in the United States of the Nielsen SoundScan era DigiListanSwedish radio programme using Nielsen SoundScan to create its statistics <-- Moved official link to the company infobox Nielsen Music Sales Measurement -->

Odesos Buttress

Odesos Buttress is the ice-covered buttress rising to 1600 m in the southwest foothills of Detroit Plateau on Nordenskjöld Coast in Graham Land. It is situated between south-southwest-flowing tributaries to Drygalski Glacier, has precipitous ice-free west and southeast slopes; the feature is named after the ancient town of Odesos in Northeastern Bulgaria. Odesos Buttress is located at 64°32′40″S 60°54′40″W, 4 km northwest of Konstantin Buttress, 4 km east-northeast of Molerov Spur, 4.15 km south of The Catwalk. British mapping in 1978. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 64 60. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, UK, 1978. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Odesos Buttress. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Odesos Buttress. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's 470

The Men's 470 was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics program in Qingdao International Sailing Centre. Eleven races were completed. 38 sailors, on 19 boats, from 19 nations competed. Ten boats qualified for the medal race. For the 470 course areas A and D were used; the location points to the center of the 0.6nm radius Yellow course area and the location points to the center of the 0.75nm radius Orange course area. The target time for the course was 30 minutes for the medal race; the race management could choose from several course configurations. O1: START – 1 – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3p – FINISH O2: START – 1 – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3p – FINISH O3: START – 1 – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3s/3p – 2 – 3p – FINISH I1: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 2 – 3p – FINISH I2: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 2 – 3p – FINISH I3: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 2 – 3p – FINISH W2: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – FINISH W3: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – FINISH W4: START – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – 4s/4p – 1 – FINISH In the lead up to the Olympics many questioned the choice of Qingdao as a venue with little predicted wind.

During the races the wind was pretty light and quite unpredictable but the Women’s 470 competition was executed as scheduled. Legend: – Qualified for next phase. "Digital Library Collection". Digital Library Collection at la84.org. La84foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014. "Beijing 2008". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee

Kanghaenggun-class locomotive

The Kanghaenggun-class is a class of electric locomotives for freight trains operated by the Korean State Railway on mainlines the important P'yŏngŭi Line. They were converted to 3,000 V DC electric operation by the Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works from Soviet-built K62-class diesel locomotives. A similar project has been undertaken by the Azerbaijan Railways, who have converted a number of their M62 locomotives to electric operation as well. Through the 1990s, North Korea suffered through a severe economic crisis, made worse by severe floods in 1995 and 1996, a drought in 1997; this period is known as the "Arduous March" or "Forced March". The economic crisis made obtaining diesel fuel difficult, so the Korean State Railways decided to convert a number of diesel locomotives to electric operation, as intensive efforts have been made to restore as much generation of electricity as possible, with fair success over the past years; as a result, in 1998 the Kim Chong-t'ae works began a program to convert the more decrepit M62-type diesels in the KSR's inventory to electric operation.

This was achieved by removing the diesel engine, fuel tanks and other unneeded equipment, the installation of the necessary transformers and related gear to convert the power collected from the overhead lines, via newly-installed pantographs, to the traction motors. The resulting unit is lighter than the diesel version, sound like oversized streetcars. Like the original diesels, these produce 1,470 kilowatts, making suitable for the same services as the diesels. At least 21 Kanghaenggun-class locomotives have been rebuilt so far, numbered 강행군1.5-01 through 강행군1.5-21. The previous identity of one unit is known - 1.5-13 was rebuilt from the former 632. In addition to the units numbered in the 1.5-xx range, two others of this class have been noted, numbered 309 and 399, which are distinctly different from the 1.5-series. Unlike those, which were rebuilt from original Soviet-built M62s, the bodies of these have all the distinctive features of the Kŭmsong-class, domestically built copies of the M62

La Noblette Aerodrome

La Noblette Aerodrome, was a temporary World War I airfield in France. It was located 1.6 miles Southeast of the commune of Mourmelon-le-Grand, in the Marne department in north-eastern France. The airfield of La Noblette was used by the French Air Services since summer 1915, on the northeast side of the village. At the end of 1917, the French SPA 124 escadrille which had hosted the American volunteer pilots since April 1916, was part of the "Groupe de Combat no 13", working for the French fourth army, in the Champagne area, it became "Escadrille Lafayette", while a new SPA 124 with French pilots was created, but was soon disbanded sometime in February 1918 and its pilots joined the 103rd Aero Squadron arriving at La Noblette on 13 February after its ground troops had been at Issoudun Aerodrome where they had arrived on Christmas Eve, 1917. The 103rd was incorporated in the French "Groupe de Combat no 21", still working for the French fourth army, until 10 April, when it moved further west at La Bonne Maison Aerodrome near Fismes, this time flying missions for the French sixth army.

La Noblette was used by the French Air Services until March 1919 returned to agricultural use. Today it is a series of cultivated fields located southeast of Mourmelon-le-Grand, with no indications of its wartime use. List of Air Service American Expeditionary Force aerodromes in France This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/

Mir Masjidi Khan

Sahibzada Mir Masjidi Khan was a celebrated Afghan resistance leader who opposed the installation of Shuja Shah Durrani as Emir of Afghanistan by the Government of British India during the First Anglo-Afghan War. He kept up a fierce struggle against the occupation forces in and around Kabul and Northern Afghanistan, until his death. Mir Masjidi Khan was born in a saintly Sayyid family, resident in Khwaja Khizri village near Charikar, in the Kohistan region of Northern Afghanistan, his father, Sahibzada Ishaq Jan Khan, was a well-to-do landowner of the locality and the family were venerated in the area for their Islamic learning and integrity in public affairs. Mir Masjidi's childhood years were spent in idyllic rural surroundings, in acquiring equestrian and martial skills, in addition to the study of the Quran and Shariah and of Persian literature. Since his family was an influential one, he possessed an innate dignity and wisdom from early on, he rose to early prominence and in due course became one of the most respected of the Afghan chiefs and notables of the period.

Like most Afghans, Mir Masjidi viewed the return of Shuja Shah with mixed feelings: glad to have a'legitimate' Sadozai Durrani ruler yet suspicious of the motives of the British forces which forcefully enthroned him. Soon, however, it became apparent that the Shah was a mere figurehead, with real policy control with Sir William Hay Macnaghten and other British officers. In addition, the British garrison in Kabul offended Afghan sensibilities with their excesses, in particular their liberties with Afghan women, the populace, inflamed by the mullahs and other religious, spiritual leaders including Mir Masjidi, came out in open revolt, declaring themselves for the exiled ex-Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. Due to his personal prowess in arms and his influential spiritual-social position, Mir Masjidi soon became one of the main leaders of the Afghan revolt at this time, he fortified the Nijrab valley and other areas of Kohistan against the British troops and refused allegiance to Shuja Shah and organised resistance in and around Kabul town.

One of the first triumphs of this resistance, under Mir Masjidi's command, was when they wiped out an expedition sent out to reduce Charikar, in which the commander of this British troop, Major Eldred Pottinger was severely wounded. For a brief time, Mir Masjidi gave refuge to the fugitive ex-Emir Dost Mohammad, when he had escaped from the British advance to Kabul and was in hiding in the Hindu Kush. In 1840 the Mir was on the verge of surrendering to the British forces and had negotiated the details of this surrender with Burnes. However, the British appear not to have honored this agreement and Sale and Prince Timur besieged and overran his fortress and slaughtered his family; the Mir became a major thorn in the side of the British garrison at Kabul, harassing them at every turn, Macnaghten soon began to look for'other solutions' to get rid of him and announced a big reward for him, dead or alive. Although not much came out of this at first, the British forces in collusion with some of the local chiefs, bribed, were able to confiscate most of Mir Masjidi's estates and property and he was reduced to living out in the hills and glens in dire financial straits.

Around early 1841, it is alleged that Macnaghten decided to arrange Mir Masjidi's assassination, through the diplomatic machinations of his undercover Indian special agent, Mohan Lal Zutshi under the nom de guerre "Aga Hassan Kashmiri," and Mir Masjidi was soon thereafter taken ill suddenly and died within a day or two due to poisoning. Today, Mir Masjidi Khan is still remembered in Afghanistan and North-West Pakistan as a Ghazi and a Shaheed who sacrificed himself selflessly for the general good. In present day Afghanistan, one of the nation's highest civil awards, for dedicated public service, is the'Mir Masjidi Khan Award', in recognition of his historical stature and role; the Great Game Anglo-Afghan Wars