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Nielsen ratings

Nielsen TV ratings are the audience measurement systems operated by Nielsen Media Research that seek to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States using a rating system. Nielsen Media Research was founded by Arthur C. Nielsen, a market analyst who started his career in the 1920s with marketing research and performance analysis; the company expanded into radio market analysis in the late 1930s, culminating in the Nielsen Radio Index in 1942, meant to provide statistics as to the markets of radio shows. The first Nielsen ratings for radio programs were released the first week of December 1947, they measured the top 20 programs in four areas: total audience, average audience, cumulative audience, homes per dollar spent for time and talent. In 1950, Nielsen moved to television, developing a ratings system using the methods he and his company had developed for radio; that method became the primary source of audience measurement information in the US television industry.

The original data collection methods used to generate Nielsen TV ratings included: Paper "viewer diaries", in which a household recruited by the company self-recorded its viewing or listening habits. By targeting various demographics, the assembled statistical models provided a rendering of the audiences of any given show and programming hour; this methodology was phased out by the company as electronic data collection became more sophisticated, discontinued in June 2018. Set Meters, which are small devices connected to televisions in recruited homes; these devices gather the viewing habits of the home and transmit the information nightly to Nielsen through a telephone line. This system is designed to allow market researchers to study television viewing habits on a minute-to-minute basis, recording the moment viewers change channels or turn off their television set. Nielsen replaced the set meters with Portable People Meters, which collect the data of individual household members through the use of separate logon credentials and allow the company to separate household viewing information into various demographic groups.

Changing systems of viewing have impacted Nielsen's methods of market research. In 2005, Nielsen began measuring the usage of digital video recording devices such as TiVos. Initial results indicated that time-shifted viewing will have a significant impact on television ratings. A year the networks were not factoring these new results into their ad rates because of the resistance of advertisers. In July 2017, Nielsen announced that it would include select programs from virtual subscription-based video on demand services Hulu and YouTube TV in its Digital in TV Ratings system. Since about October 2017, Nielsen began to track select programs from Netflix. Partnering distributors insert a "tag" into the program to be distributed on these services, which Nielsen tracks through its meters system. Partnering distributors are able to determine if these ratings can be released not; the most cited Nielsen results are reported in two measurements: ratings points and share reported as: "ratings points/share".

There were 119.6 million TV homes in the U. S. for the 2017–18 TV season. The number of persons age 2 and older in U. S. TV households is estimated to be 304.5 million. A single national ratings point represents 1% of the total number. Nielsen re-estimates the number of television-equipped households each August for the upcoming television season. Share is the percentage of television sets in use, Households Using Television or Persons Using Television who are tuned to a specific program, station or network in a specific area at a specific time. For example, Nielsen may report a show as receiving a 4.4/8 during its broadcast. Because ratings are based on samples, it is possible for shows to get a 0.0 rating, despite having an audience. Another example is CW Now, which received two 0.0 ratings in the same season. In 2014, Nielsen reported that American viewership of live television had dropped 12 minutes per day compared to the year before. Nielsen reported several reasons for the shift away from live television: increased viewership of time-shifted television and viewership of internet video.

Nielsen Media Research provides statistics on specific demographics as advertising rates are influenced by such factors as age, race, economic class, area. Younger viewers are considered more attractive for many products, whereas in some cases older and wealthier audiences are desired, or female audiences are desired over males. In general, the number of viewers within the 18–49 age range is more important than the total number of viewers. According to Advertising Age, during the 2007–08 season, ABC was able to charge $419,000 per commercial sold during its medical drama Grey's Anatomy, compared to only $248,000 for a commercial during CBS' CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, despite CSI having five million more viewers on average; because of its strength in young "demos", NBC was able to charge three times as much for a commercial during Friends as CBS

Camp Timanous

Camp Timanous is a historic boys' summer camp in Raymond, United States. It offers a "traditional" program of land and water activities, aimed at developing "Body and Spirit". Camp Timanous is both a progenitor of the Maine sleepaway camping tradition and industry and is one of the oldest continually operating summer camps in America. Across Maine in a typical summer, some 40,000 children participate in youth summer programs at one of Maine's 200 licensed summer camps, such as Camp Timanous. Timanous was founded in 1887 in Connecticut by American physical fitness education pioneer Luther Halsey Gulick, who founded the Camp Fire Girls in 1910 and was instrumental in the development of the YMCA, volleyball. In 1920, Gulick moved the boys' camp to the current Raymond, location on Panther Pond, a large offshoot of Sebago Lake; the name "Timanous" derives from the Indian name Gulick was known by, meaning "Guiding Spirit." In 1907, Gulick founded a sister camp, with which Timanous interacts through dances, swim meets and various races.

John and Martha Suitor purchased the camp from the Gulick family and began operating it in 1942. In the early 1980s, the Suitors' two sons and David, became directors. Camp Timanous is owned and operated by David and Linda Suitor, who became active directors in 1983. Staff and counselors have a high return rate. In 2006, 93 % of the 50 counseling staff were former campers. There is electricity in living quarters at Timanous. Intended for boys aged 7 to 15, the summer is divided into two three-and-a-half-week-long sessions, many campers choose to attend both, it is located on 180 acres of land abutting Panther Pond in Maine. There are around 125 campers at camp at any given point in the summer. Campers live in either one of the 10 wooden cabins, a large tent or a waterside structure called "The Nest". There is no electricity or running water in any of the cabins. Campers are grouped by age. Cabins are named after birds, such as crows. At the outset, the Timanous daily program served as a model for Gulick to originate and "test" ideas implemented in the Camp Fire program, helping form the traditional notions of American camping.

In a typical day at today's camp, campers participate in both instructional and recreational activity. Camp Timanous offers a variety of camping trips throughout Maine and New Hampshire, including trips to the White Mountains, Mount Washington, Sebago Lake; every cabin goes on one trip per summer, ranging from one to three days, optional sign-up trips are available to the eldest five cabins. These trips consist of hiking or canoeing, but include rafting, biking and kayaking. Several times during the summer, the regular schedule is suspended for popular camp-wide games of capture the flag. Campers and counselors are divided into two teams and gray; each camper's association with a team color is permanent, each new arrival to Timanous with alumni relatives is automatically assigned to the relatives' former team. On the 4th of July, the entire camp builds a bonfire, it is part of the annual, camp-wide celebration of the American Independence Day, is attended by Timanous alumni. Sharing a common heritage although under different ownership today and Wohelo have a long history of interacting all summer long.

The camps hold dances and swim meets, as well as organize a "brother-sister day", during which Wohelo and Timanous campers with siblings at the opposite camp will spend a couple of hours together. Council Fire follows every Sunday dinner; the entire camp congregates at specific site to recognize the achievements of the past week, including awards earned and good deeds done. This tradition dates back to the earliest summers at Timanous. Six times a summer, on Sunday mornings, the entire camp gathers for chapel, a brief service of reflection and consideration that offers time for quiet thought punctuated by both traditional and contemporary songs. Annually during the summer, all Timanous campers and staff visit Wohelo for an inter-camp gathering and service in remembrance and appreciation of the lives of their mutual founders, Luther Halsey and his wife, Charlotte Vetter Gulick; this event serves as an informal alumni reunion for past Timanous and Wohelo campers and counselors. On the morning of the final day of the summer, the camp is again split into the two green and gray teams, the campers participate in Watersports Day, a final competition between the two colors, with events including war canoe and swim races.

The commitment to "Body and Spirit" remains best identified with the Timanous "T", a triangular emblem. Each corner of the triangle represents one of the three ideals. While recent years have updated and diversified the camper uniform, the basic elements have been maintained since the early 20th century; the Timanous colors and grey, are on the uniforms and represent the two teams for occasional camp-wide activities that resemble a color war. Chris Beam, author Peter Gammons, sports writer and ESPN personality Porter J. Goss, former Director of the CIA Luther H. Gulick, basketball and physical education innovator Mark Herzlich, college football All-American and linebacker for the New York Giants Karl N. Llewellyn and proponent of American legal realism Samuel P

Baker Street

Baker Street is a street in the Marylebone district of the City of Westminster in London. It is named after builder William Baker; the street is most famous for its connection to the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, who lived at a fictional 221B Baker Street address on the north of the street. The area was high class residential, but now is occupied by commercial premises. Baker Street is a busy thoroughfare, lying in postcode areas NW1/W1 and forming part of the A41 there, it used to run south from Regent's Park, the junction with Park Road, parallel to Gloucester Place, meeting Marylebone Road, Portman Square and Wigmore Street. In 2019, the until-then one-way street was changed to accommodate lanes running in both directions. At the junction with Wigmore Street, Baker Street turns into Orchard Street, which ends when it meets with Oxford Street. After Portman Square the road continues as Orchard Street; the crossroads of Baker Street and Marylebone Road was known as Marylebone Circus, still its unofficial name.

Baker Street was laid out in the 18th century by the builder William Baker. In 1835, the first wax museum of Madame Tussauds was opened on Baker Street; the museum moved, just around the corner, to Marylebone Road in 1884. In 1835 the sculptor James Fillans came to live and work from 82 Baker Street. Residents of the prestigious mansion block, Chiltern Court, on the Regent's Park end of Baker Street include the novelists Arnold Bennett and H. G Wells who are commemorated with a blue plaque. Thomas Charles Druce ran the Baker Street Bazaar until his death in 1864, was subject of the Druce Portland Case. In 1940 the headquarters of the Special Operations Executive moved to 64 Baker Street, they were called the "Baker Street Irregulars" after Sherlock Holmes' gang of street urchins of the same name; the Beatles' Apple Boutique was based at 94 Baker Street from 1967 to 1968. A significant robbery of a branch of Lloyds Bank took place on Baker Street in 1971. For many years the head office of Marks & Spencer the United Kingdom's largest retailer, was at "Michael House", 55 Baker Street, until the company relocated to the Paddington Basin in 2004.

This was one of the best known corporate buildings in the United Kingdom, has since been redeveloped as a modern office complex by London & Regional Properties to a design by Make Architects and Expedition Engineering. A London County Council blue plaque commemorates Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger who lived at 120 Baker Street from 1803 to 1804. British singer Dusty Springfield lived on Baker Street in the 1960s; the Seychelles maintains a Consulate at 111 Baker Street. The street is served by the London Underground by Baker Street Underground station, one of the world's oldest surviving underground stations. Next door is Transport for London's lost property office. In fiction, Sherlock Holmes, Basil of Baker Street, Sherlock Hound, Danger Mouse, Sexton Blake, Carland Cross and James Black of Case Closed have all resided along the road. "Baker Street" is a song by Gerry Rafferty, released in 1978. The song was a major worldwide hit, reaching Number 3 in the UK and Number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100.

He released an album entitled Baker Street. "Baker St. Muse" is a song from Jethro Tull's album Minstrel in the Gallery, released in 1975; the 2008 film, The Bank Job was based on the 1971 robbery of Lloyds Bank in Baker Street. List of eponymous roads in London

Rainwater harvesting in the United Kingdom

Rainwater harvesting is a practice of growing importance in the United Kingdom in the South East of England where there is less water available per person than in many Mediterranean countries. Rainwater harvesting in the UK is both a traditional and reviving technique for collecting water for domestic uses; this water is used for non-hygienic purposes like watering gardens, flushing toilets, washing clothes. There is a growing demand for larger tank systems collecting between 1000-7500 litres of water; the two main uses for harvested rainwater are botanical uses, like gardening for plant irrigation, domestic uses, like flushing toilets and running washing machines. Rainwater is always collected from the roof heavily filtered using either a filter attached to the down pipe, a fine basket filter or for more expensive systems like self-cleaning filters placed in an underground tank. UK homes using some form of rainwater harvesting system can reduce their mains water usage by 50% or more, although a 20-30% saving is more common.

Prior to the widespread use of water mains, RWH was a traditional means of getting water in the UK. As far back as the 2nd-century AD, archaeological evidence shows that rainwater harvesting was being used by Housesteads Roman Fort in Northumberland as a way to flush the latrines. English castles from the 12th and 13th-century have notable rainwater harvesting systems, such as Carreg Cennen and Warkworth Castle. In the 19th and the early 20th century, prior to widespread access to water mains, most large middle-class homes got their drinking water from springs and wells, but this water was hard which made it unsuitable for washing. Thus, such homes were designed to harvest rainwater to be used in washing. During the interwar period, houses in hard water areas were sometimes built with rainwater storage tanks forming the roof of a scullery. Rainwater was led down to a third tap for washing purposes. Rainwater harvesting declined in popularity as water mains became more widespread through the early 20th century onwards.

In recent years, rainwater harvesting has become more common due to increasing water prices. While rainwater harvesting has been employed in high-profile facilities like the velodrome of the London Olympic Park, the UK's ongoing revival has lagged behind other countries such as Germany. At present, only about 400 RWH systems are installed in the UK every year; some large retail developments are now incorporating rainwater harvesting in some of the wetter parts of the UK. Rainwater harvesting was being encouraged by the government of the UK through the Code for Sustainable Homes; the code ranked homes on a scale of one through six and requires new homes to have a score of at least three. One way to raise the score of a newly designed home is to incorporate a rainwater harvesting system; the code was revoked in 2015. The Environment Agency has noted that water resources in the UK are under increasing pressure because of the growing population. In addition, the agency has warned that the South East of England is facing more serious water scarcity than anywhere else in England or Wales, such that the per-capita water supply is lower than many Mediterranean countries.

The agency encourages a two-pronged approach to both reduce demand and increase supply, such as through the use of rainwater harvesting. However, there is a fundamental mismatch between demand; the environmental impacts of domestic RWH systems in energy terms are questioned since the water supply accounts for a small proportion of total energy use. For a UK household, the CO2 impact of supplying water to the house is around 100g of CO2 per day, around 1/600th of its total daily impact. However, in countries without widespread mains water supplies, or where the environmental impact of mains water is high, RWH may have more merit; the installation of rainwater harvesting systems in the UK should be done according to the Water Supply Regulations and BS8515, in order to ensure safety. BS8515 provides details on how to size the storage tank and allows estimation of the potential water savings. If you install a RWH system, you will need to inform your water company. Rainwater harvesting at large scale may well be appropriate for farms as part of a catchment management strategy to decrease flood risk and diffuse pollution.

Rainwater harvesting Climate of the United Kingdom Northern Ireland water shortages Drought in the United Kingdom Air well Map of average annual rainfall in the UK from 1971 to 2000

Vullnet Basha

Vullnet Xhevat Basha is an Albanian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Wisła Kraków and the Albanian national football team. On 8 August 2014, Basha joined Segunda División side Real Zaragoza on season-long loan from Sion; the deal included a buyout option. On 25 July 2015, Basha joined Ponferradina, he was presented to the media on the same day, where he was allocated the squad number 4. On 15 July 2016 Basha signed with UCAM Murcia CF among Jonathan Mejía. On 10 August 2017 he signed a contract with Wisła Kraków. Basha represented Switzerland at the 2009 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship. On 25 April 2013, Basha declared that he will follow the example of his older brother, Migjen Basha, play for Albania, since he is liked by coach Gianni de Biasi. On 24 May 2013, Basha received the Albanian citizenship among 4 fellow Albanian international players Azdren Llullaku, Jurgen Gjasula, Amir Abrashi and Ilir Berisha, he played in his first match for Albania against Armenia in an international friendly on 14 August 2013, which ended in a 2–0 win at Qemal Stafa Stadium.

Career History at ASF Vullnet Basha at BDFutbol Vullnet Basha at Soccerway Vullnet Basha at

Joanna Skrzydlewska

Joanna Katarzyna Skrzydlewska is a Polish politician. She was elected to the Sejm on 25 September 2005 getting 11,822 votes in 9 Łódź district, candidating from the Civic Platform list, she is a member of the Skrzydlewski family that own the Lodz's largest florist and funeral home chains. Her father, Witold Skrzydlewski, was the subject of a documentary called Skin Hunters, where he was one of two funeral home operators accused of paying for information from paramedics so as to profit from patients' deaths; the other funeral home owner has been convicted and an investigation is ongoing regarding her father's involvement, if any. Members of Polish Sejm 2005-2007 Own website Media related to Joanna Skrzydlewska at Wikimedia Commons