States of Germany
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions and Hamburg are called Stadtstaaten, as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven; the remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer. The creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. In 1949, the states of the Federal Republic were Baden, Bremen, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern merged into Baden-Württemberg.
In 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. German reunification in 1990, in which the area of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic, was performed by the way of ascent of the re-established eastern states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia to the Federal Republic, as well as the de-facto reunification of West and East Berlin into Berlin and its establishment as a full and equal state. A regional referendum in 1996 to merge Berlin with surrounding Brandenburg as "Berlin-Brandenburg" failed to reach the necessary majority vote in Brandenburg, while a majority of Berliners voted in favour of the merger. Federalism is one of the entrenched constitutional principles of Germany. According to the German constitution, some topics, such as foreign affairs and defence, are the exclusive responsibility of the federation, while others fall under the shared authority of the states and the federation. Though international relations including international treaties are the responsibility of the federal level, the constituent states have certain limited powers in this area: in matters that affect them directly, the states defend their interests at the federal level through the Bundesrat and in areas where they have legislative authority they have limited powers to conclude international treaties "with the consent of the federal government".
After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation. In 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany; this is in contrast to the post-war development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first, the individual states were created as units of a federal state. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919. Before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten. Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949. Three Länder call themselves Freistaaten: Bavaria and Thuringia. From the 16 states of the Weimar Republic six still exist: Bavaria Bremen Hamburg Hesse Saxony ThuringiaThe other 10 states either merged into one another or were separated into smaller entities. Anhalt is now part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt Baden is now part of Baden-Württemberg Braunschweig is now part of Lower Saxony Lippe is now part of North Rhine-Westphalia Lübeck is now part of Schleswig-Holstein Mecklenburg-Schwerin is now part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Oldenburg is now part of Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate and Schleswig-Holstein Prussia is now separated into the states of Berlin, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein.
All other states, except from Bremen and Bavaria, nowadays include former Prussian territory. Former Prussian territory east of the rivers Neisse and Oder is now part of Russia. Schaumburg-Lippe is now part of Lower Saxony Württemberg is now part of Baden-WürttembergA new delimitation of the federal territory keeps being debated in Germany, in contrast to how there are "significant differences among the American states and regional governments in other federations without serious calls for territorial changes" in those other countries. Arthur B. Gunlicks summarizes the main arguments for boundary reform in Germany: "the German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation and pay for it from own source revenues. Too many Länder make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated", but several proposals have failed so far.
Düne is one of two islands in the German North Sea Coast Area that belong to the Archipelago of Heligoland, the other being Heligoland proper. The small island Düne is part of the German State Schleswig-Holstein. Situated 1 mile to the east of the main island Heligoland, Düne is part of the natural landscape Helgoländer Felssockel; the island measures 0.53 mile in width. Until the 17th century, Düne was connected to Heligoland. On New Year's Eve 1721 a big storm surge separated the dunes from Heligoland. Therefore, the island that arose was called Düne. In 1935 the size of the island was 10 hectares. In 1940 the Nazi government increased the size of the island to 40 hectares; this increase was for military use. An airfield was built, still used today; the Heligoland Airport has three runways. Düne at the website of Heligoland municipality
Scharhörn is an uninhabited island in the North Sea belonging to the city of Hamburg, Germany. The once most important daymark on the north sea coast, the Scharhörnbake, was maintained here by the City of Hamburg from 1440 to 1979. Scharhörn lies by the mouth of the Elbe 15 km northwest of Cuxhaven and 6 km northwest of the nearby island of Neuwerk, it is a part of Zone 1 of the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park. Aside from a nature reserve warden, the island has no permanent residents. Together with the artificial island of Nigehörn the island lies on a large sandbank; the whole area including the reef was called Scharhörn and the sandbank Scharhörnplate. After the human supported formation of the island in the 1920s and with the creation of Nigehörn on the same sandbank, the name Scharhörn was only used for the island. Though Scharhörn is flood-safe, the 6-metre-high banks of the island are not protected, so the island faces permanent loss of land on the western side as storm floods shift the sandbank eastward.
The sandbank on which Scharhörn and Nigehörn lie is a European Union Natura 2000-designated bird sanctuary, tended to by the environmental group Verein Jordsand. The area, known as Scharhörnplate, is around 2.8 km long and 1.5 km wide with an area of 500 hectares. Public access to the island is forbidden, except on official tours or by prior arrangement with the warden. In 1937, the island became part of the Prussian Province of Hanover as a result of the Greater Hamburg Act; the island changed hands again in 1947, when it became part of the newly-drawn state of Lower Saxony, again in 1969, when it was returned under a treaty to the control of Hamburg for the purpose of constructing a proposed deepwater port on Scharhörn and nearby Neuwerk. The plans foresaw the construction of a 6,000 ha mound of land built from dredged sand, to be safe from the storm floods of the North Sea and connected to the mainland via a causeway from Scharhörn to Neuwerk to Cuxhaven; the plan was never realised, plagued by protests, high costs, low levels of public support, but remains included in the land use plan of Hamburg
Bosch was a West Frisian island in the Wadden Sea. It was situated off the coast of present-day Groningen in the Netherlands, between the islands of Schiermonnikoog and Rottumeroog. Between 1400 and 1570 CE, the island Monnikenlangenoog had split into the islands Bosch and Rottumeroog. Bosch disappeared in the Christmas Flood of 1717
Langlütjen is the name of the two uninhabited artificial islands created in the 19th century, Langlütjen I and Langlütjen II, in the north off the coast of the district Wesermarsch in Lower Saxony, Germany. The islands are administered by the town of Nordenham, their size is 17,000 square metres, respectively. On the small islands are the remains of fortifications of what was first the Prussian Navy and the Kaiserliche Marine, its function was to protect the harbours of Bremen and Bremerhaven, but the islands were never afflicted in active warfare. Langlütjen II was sold to a private owner in January 2006. Langlütjen I was sold around the same time. Description of Langlütjen I and II with pictures Aerial picture of Langlütjen I Private association Inselfort Langlütjen II
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town includes the northernmost point of Lower Saxony, it is situated on the shore of the North Sea at the mouth of the Elbe River. Cuxhaven has a footprint of 14 kilometres by 7 km, its town quarters Duhnen, Döse and Sahlenburg are popular vacation spots on the North Sea and home to about 52,000 residents. Cuxhaven is home to an important fisherman's wharf and ship registration point for Hamburg as well as the Kiel Canal until 2008. Tourism is of great importance; the city and its precursor Ritzebüttel belonged to Hamburg from the 13th century until 1937. The island of Neuwerk, a Hamburg dependency, is located just northwest of Cuxhaven in the North Sea; the city's symbol, known as the Kugelbake, is a beacon once used as a lighthouse. Ritzebüttel, today a part of Cuxhaven, belonged to the Land of Hadeln, first an exclave of the younger Duchy of Saxony and after its de facto dynastic partition in 1296 of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, established de jure in 1260.
In 1394 the city of Hamburg conquered the fortress of Ritzebüttel and made it its stronghold to protect the estuary of the river Elbe, which connects that city with the open sea. The Hamburg America Line built a large ocean liner terminal at Cuxhaven in 1900. Connected directly to Hamburg by a dedicated railway line and station, it served as the major departure point for German and European emigrants until 1969 when ocean liner travel ceased; the ornate assembly hall and associated buildings survived wartime damage and peacetime demolition to be restored in 1998 for use as a museum and cruise ship terminal. On 15 March 1907 Cuxhaven gained city status within the state of Hamburg. In 1937 Cuxhaven became an urban district of the Stade Region within the Prussian Province of Hanover by the Greater Hamburg Act. In 1972 some municipalities of the neighboured rural district of Land of Hadeln were incorporated into the urban district of Cuxhaven. In 1977 Cuxhaven lost the status as urban district and was integrated into the new rural District of Cuxhaven, being its capital.
During the First World War Nordholz Airbase with its airship hangars, near Nordholz to the south of Cuxhaven, was one of the major German naval airship stations. On Christmas Day 1914 it was attacked by Royal Navy seaplanes in the Cuxhaven Raid. Between 1945 and 1964 various experiments in rocketry were performed near Cuxhaven; the origins of tourism go back to the year 1816. Since 1964 Cuxhaven has been a state-recognized climate seaside resort and centre of the so-called holiday region of Cuxland; the town is served by Cuxhaven station. The island of Neuwerk is situated 8 kilometres off the coast from Cuxhaven. At low tide the water recedes so far from the coast that the island can be reached either by mudflat hiking or by horse carriage. A modern landmark of Cuxhaven is the Friedrich-Clemens-Gerke Tower, a telecommunication tower built of concrete, not accessible to the public, it is not a landmark, for many cities in Germany have a similar tower. The high test peroxide submarine U 1407, was raised from where she had been scuttled in Cuxhaven after WWII and rebuilt by the British, being commissioned as HMS Meteorite.
It was the catalyst for a series of German-made Air-independent propulsion submarines such as the Type 212 submarine and Type 214 submarine. Carsten Niebuhr, German mathematician and explorer of the Arabian Peninsula under the service of Denmark Joachim Ringelnatz, German poet, cabaret artiste and painter. Since 2002 the city hosts the Joachim Ringelnatz-Museum, managed by the Roachim Ringelnatz-Foundation. Curt Rothenberger and National Socialist politician Rainer Feist, Deputy Supreme Commander of the NATO – HQ Jochen Fraatz, handball player, member of German national handball team Gunnar Sauer, professional football player Volker Neumüller, music manager and former DSDS jury member Lena Petermann, football player Dylan Travis, professional basketball player Rocket experiments in the area of Cuxhaven Operation Backfire Official site Operation "Backfire" and rocket experiments at Cuxhaven Panoramic views from Cuxhaven Further Tourist Information
There are two common definitions of coastal erosion. It is defined as the loss or displacement of land along the coastline due to the action of waves, tides, wind-driven water, waterborne ice, or other impacts of storms. In this case, landward retreat of the shoreline, measured to a given spatial datum, is described over a temporal scale of tides and other short-term cyclic processes. Alternatively, it is defined as the process of long-term removal of sediment and rocks at the coastline, leading again to loss of land and retreat of the coastline landward. Coastal erosion may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion and corrosion by wind and water, other forces, natural or unnatural. On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which result in landforms such as tunnels, bridges and pillars. Over time the coast evens out.
The softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, rock formations are eroded away. Abrasion happens in areas where there are strong winds, loose sand, soft rocks; the blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates a sandblasting effect. This effect helps to erode and polish rocks; the definition of abrasion is grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles. A place where erosion of a cliffed coast has occurred is at Wamberal in the Central Coast region of New South Wales where houses built on top of the cliffs began to collapse into the sea; this is due to waves causing erosion of the sedimentary material on which the buildings foundations sit. Dunwich, the capital of the English medieval wool trade, disappeared over the period of a few centuries due to redistribution of sediment by waves. Human interference can increase coastal erosion: Hallsands in Devon, was a coastal village washed away over the course of a year, 1917, directly due to earlier dredging of shingle in the bay in front of it.
The California coast, which has soft cliffs of sedimentary rock and is populated has incidents of housing damage as cliffs erodes. Devil's Slide, Santa Barbara, the coast just north of Ensenada, Malibu are affected; the Holderness coastline on the east coast of England, just north of the Humber Estuary, is one of the fastest eroding coastlines in Europe due to its soft clay cliffs and powerful waves. Groynes and other artificial measures to keep it under control has only accelerated the process further down the coast, because longshore drift starves the beaches of sand, leaving them more exposed; the White Cliffs of Dover have been affected. Fort Ricasoli, a historic 17th century fortress in Malta is being threatened by coastal erosion, as it was built on a fault in the headland, prone to erosion. A small part of one of the bastion walls has collapsed since the land under it has eroded, there are cracks in other walls as well. In El Campello, the erosion and failure of a Roman farm fish excavated on rock during the first century B.
C. was exacerbated by the construction of a close sport harbour. Hydraulic Action occurs; this exerts pressure on the surrounding rock, can progressively splinter and remove pieces. Over time, the cracks can grow, sometimes forming a cave; the splinters fall to the sea bed. Attrition occurs when waves cause loose pieces of rock debris to collide with each other and chipping each other, progressively becoming smaller and rounder. Scree collides with the base of the cliff face, chipping small pieces of rock from the cliff or have a corrasion effect, similar to sandpapering. Solution is the process in which acids contained in sea water will dissolve some types of rock such as chalk or limestone. Abrasion known as Corrasion, occurs when waves break on cliff faces and erode it; as the sea pounds cliff faces it uses the scree from other wave actions to batter and break off pieces of rock from higher up the cliff face which can be used for this same wave action and attrition. Corrosion or solution/chemical weathering occurs.
Limestone cliff faces, which have a moderately high pH, are affected in this way. Wave action increases the rate of reaction by removing the reacted material; the ability of waves to cause erosion of the cliff face depends on many factors. The hardness of sea-facing rocks is controlled by the rock strength and the presence of fissures and beds of non-cohesive materials such as silt and fine sand; the rate at which cliff fall debris is removed from the foreshore depends on the power of the waves crossing the beach. This energy must reach a critical level to remove material from the debris lobe. Debris lobes can be persistent and can take many years to disappear. Beaches dissipate wave energy on the foreshore and provide a measure of protection to the adjoining land; the stability of the foreshore, or its resistance to lowering. Once stable, the foreshore should widen and become more effective at dissipating the wave energy, so that fewer and less powerful waves reach beyond it; the provision of updrift material coming onto the foreshore beneath the cliff helps to ensure a stable beach.
The adjacent bathymetry, or configuration of the seafloor, controls the wave energy arriving at the coast, can have an important influence on the rate of cliff erosion. Shoals and bars offer