Jason and the Argonauts (1963 film)
Jason and the Argonauts is a 1963 Anglo-American independently made fantasy film produced by Charles H. Schneer and directed by Don Chaffey. Based on Greek mythology, the film stars Todd Armstrong as the eponymous hero, along with Nancy Kovack, Honor Blackman, Gary Raymond, it was distributed by Columbia Pictures. Shot in Eastman Color, the film was made in collaboration with stop-motion animation master Ray Harryhausen and is known for its various fantasy creatures, notably the iconic fight scene featuring seven skeleton warriors; the film score was composed by Bernard Herrmann, who worked with Harryhausen on the fantasy films The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, The Three Worlds of Gulliver, Mysterious Island. Pelias, misinterpreting the prophecy given to him by the god Zeus, usurps the throne of Thessaly, killing King Aristo and most of his family; the god Hermes, disguised as Pelias' soothsayer, holds back his army long enough for the infant Jason to be spirited away by one of Aristo's soldiers. Pelias slays one of the king's daughters, Briseis, as she seeks sanctuary in the temple of the goddess Hera.
Because the murder has profaned her temple, the angry Hera becomes Jason's protector. She warns Pelias to beware "of a man wearing one sandal". Twenty years Jason saves Pelias from drowning, but loses his sandal in the river. Learning that Jason intends to find the legendary Golden Fleece, he encourages him, hoping that Jason will be killed in the attempt. Jason is brought to Mount Olympus to speak with Hera. Hera tells, she directs him to search for the Fleece in the land of Colchis. Zeus offers his direct aid, but Jason declares he can organize the voyage, build a ship, collect a crew of the bravest men in all Greece. Men from all over Greece compete for the honor; because their ship is named the Argo after her builder, the crew are dubbed the Argonauts. Among them are Hercules and Acastus, the son of Pelias, sent by his father to sabotage the voyage. Hera guides warns him to take nothing but provisions. However, Hercules steals a brooch pin the size of a javelin from a treasure building, surmounted by a giant statue of Talos, which comes to life and attacks the Argonauts.
Jason again turns to Hera, who tells him to open a large plug on Talos' heel to release the giant's bronze fluid, ichor. Talos falls to crushing Hylas, hiding his body. Hercules refuses to leave; the other Argonauts refuse to abandon Hercules, so Jason calls upon Hera again. She informs them that Hercules will not continue on with them; the Argonauts next reach the realm of King Phineus, blinded and is tormented by harpies for his transgressions against the gods. In return for his advice on how to reach Colchis, the Argonauts render the harpies harmless by caging them, whereupon Phineus tells them to sail between the Clashing Rocks, which destroy any ship in the narrow channel, gives Jason an amulet. Arriving at the Clashing Rocks, the Argonauts witness another ship suffering that fate; when the Argo tries to row through, the ship appears doomed. Jason throws Phineus' amulet into the water, the sea god Triton rises up and holds the rocks apart so the Argo can pass; the Argonauts rescue a survivor from the other ship, high priestess of Colchis.
Challenging Jason's authority, Acastus engages him in a duel. Disarmed, Acastus disappears. Jason and his men accept an invitation from King Aeëtes to a feast. Unknown to them, Acastus has survived and warned Aeëtes of Jason's quest for their prized Golden Fleece. Aeëtes has the unwary Argonauts imprisoned, but Medea, having fallen in love with Jason, helps him and his men escape. Meanwhile, Acastus is killed by its guardian, the Hydra. Following right behind Acastus, Jason is able to retrieve the gift of the gods. Aeëtes, in pursuit, sows the Hydra's teeth while praying to the goddess Hecate, producing a band of seven skeleton warriors called the Children of the Hydra's Teeth. Jason, together with Phalerus and Castor, hold off the skeletons while Medea and Argus escape back to the Argo with the Fleece. After a prolonged battle, in which his companions are killed, Jason escapes by jumping into the sea, he, the surviving Argonauts begin their voyage home to Thessaly. On Olympus, Zeus tells Hera. Todd Armstrong as Jason Nancy Kovack as Medea Gary Raymond as Acastus Laurence Naismith as Argus Niall MacGinnis as Zeus Michael Gwynn as Hermes/priest Douglas Wilmer as Pelias Jack Gwillim as King Aeëtes Honor Blackman as Hera John Cairney as Hylas Patrick Troughton as Phineus Andrew Faulds as Phalerus Nigel Green as Hercules John Crawford as Polydeuces Ferdinando Poggi as Castor The film is one of the mythically-themed fantasies scored by Bernard Herrmann.
Apart from being the composer's fourth collaboration with Ray Harryhausen, Herrmann scored the science fiction films The Day the Earth Stood Still and Journey to the Center of the Earth. Contrasting with Herrmann's all-string score for Psycho, the film's soundtrac
Colour sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer found in several militaries. Colour sergeant is a rank in the Foot Guards regiments of the Canadian Forces the Governor General's Foot Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards, it is the equivalent to warrant officer. Canadian colour sergeants are addressed in the same manner as their British counterparts. Colour sergeant is a non-commissioned title in the Royal Marines and infantry regiments of the British Army, ranking above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2, it has a NATO ranking code of OR-7 and is equivalent to the rank of staff sergeant in other branches of the Army, flight sergeant or chief technician in the Royal Air Force, chief petty officer in the Royal Navy. The insignia is the monarch's crown above three downward pointing chevrons; the rank was introduced into British Army infantry regiments in 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars to reward long-serving sergeants. From 1 October 1913, British infantry battalions were reorganised from eight companies to four, leaving two colour sergeants in each new company.
The senior of the pair was appointed to the new rank of company sergeant major and the junior to that of company quartermaster sergeant. Although the rank of colour sergeant was abolished, the CQMS of an infantry company continued to be addressed as "Colour Sergeant" and the rank was reintroduced during the Second World War, with CQMS becoming an appointment of it; the Royal Marines retained the rank throughout. Colour sergeants of British line regiments protected ensigns, the most junior officers who were responsible for carrying their battalions' colours to rally troops in battles. For this reason, to reach the rank of colour sergeant was considered a prestigious attainment, granted to those sergeants who had displayed courage on the field of battle; this tradition continues today as colour sergeants form part of a colour party in military parades. Colour sergeants are referred to and addressed as "Colour Sergeant" or "Colour" in the Army, or as "Colour Sergeant" or "Colours" in the Royal Marines, never by the more junior rank of "Sergeant".
Unusually, NCOs with the rank of colour sergeant who hold the appointment of company quartermaster sergeant are still addressed and referred to by their rank, not their appointment. In Foot Guards regiments, colour sergeants are addressed as "Sir" and afforded the respect and privileges accorded to warrant officers. During ceremonial events it is from the colour sergeant that the ensign collects the colour of the battalion or regiment. In the Royal Marines Band Service, the bandmasters of the seven Royal Navy Volunteer Bands hold the rank of band colour sergeant. Colour sergeants and warrant officers form an important part of the instructor cadre at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Color sergeant is an NCO rank, used at different times in the U. S. military. The rank was last used in the U. S. Army during World War I. Within the United States Military Academy at West Point, the term is used to distinguish second class cadets who are assigned to a colour party; the term is no longer used within the U.
S. Army; the term is used in the United States Marine Corps as a billet for sergeants. Additionally, there is a billet of Color Sergeant of the Marine Corps, a sergeant, the Commandant of the Marine Corps' ceremonial representative and the platoon sergeant of the Marine Corps Battle Colors Detachment. Comparative military ranks
Henry VIII (play)
Henry VIII is a collaborative history play, written by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, based on the life of King Henry VIII of England. An alternative title, All Is True, is recorded in contemporary documents, the title Henry VIII not appearing until the play's publication in the First Folio of 1623. Stylistic evidence indicates that individual scenes were written by either Shakespeare or his collaborator and successor, John Fletcher, it is somewhat characteristic of the late romances in its structure. It is noted for having more stage directions than any of Shakespeare's other plays. During a performance of Henry VIII at the Globe Theatre in 1613, a cannon shot employed for special effects ignited the theatre's thatched roof, burning the original Globe building to the ground; the play opens with a Prologue, who stresses that the audience will see a serious play, appeals to the audience members: "The first and happiest hearers of the town," to "Be sad, as we would make ye." Act I opens with a conversation between the Dukes of Lord Abergavenny.
Their speeches express their mutual resentment over the ruthless power and overweening pride of Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey passes over the stage with his attendants, expresses his own hostility toward Buckingham. Buckingham is arrested on treason charges—Wolsey's doing; the play's second scene introduces King Henry VIII, shows his reliance on Wolsey as his favourite. Queen Katherine enters to protest about Wolsey's abuse of the tax system for his own purposes. Katherine challenges the arrest of Buckingham, but Wolsey defends the arrest by producing the Duke's Surveyor, the primary accuser. After hearing the Surveyor, the King orders Buckingham's trial to occur. At a banquet thrown by Wolsey, the King and his attendants enter in disguise as masquers; the King dances with Anne Boleyn. Two anonymous Gentlemen open Act one giving the other an account of Buckingham's treason trial. Buckingham himself enters in custody after his conviction, makes his farewells to his followers and to the public. After his exit, the two Gentlemen talk about court gossip Wolsey's hostility toward Katherine.
The next scene shows Wolsey beginning to move against the Queen, while the nobles Norfolk and Suffolk look on critically. Wolsey introduces Cardinal Gardiner to the King. Anne Boleyn is shown conversing with the Old Lady, her attendant. Anne expresses her sympathy at the Queen's troubles. Once the Lord Chamberlain leaves, the Old Lady jokes about Anne's sudden advancement in the King's favour. A lavishly-staged trial scene portrays Katherine's hearing before his courtiers. Katherine reproaches Wolsey for his machinations against her, refuses to stay for the proceedings, but the King defends Wolsey, states that it was his own doubts about the legitimacy of their marriage that led to the trial. Campeius protests that the hearing cannot continue in the Queen's absence, the King grudgingly adjourns the proceeding. Wolsey and Campeius confront Katherine among her ladies-in-waiting. Norfolk, Suffolk and the Lord Chamberlain are shown plotting against Wolsey. A packet of Wolsey's letters to the Pope have been re-directed to the King.
The King shows Wolsey his displeasure, Wolsey for the first time realises that he has lost Henry's favour. The noblemen mock Wolsey, the Cardinal sends his follower Cromwell away so that Cromwell will not be brought down in Wolsey's fall from grace; the two Gentlemen return to observe and comment upon the lavish procession for Anne Boleyn's coronation as Queen, which passes over the stage in their presence. Afterward they are joined by a third Gentleman, who updates them on more court gossip – the rise of Thomas Cromwell in royal favour, plots against Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Katherine is shown, ill. Caputius visits her; the King summons a nervous Cranmer to his presence, expresses his support. Anne Boleyn gives birth to the future Queen Elizabeth. In the play's closing scenes, the Porter and his Man complain about trying to control the massive and enthusiastic crowds that attend the infant Elizabeth's christening; the Epilogue, acknowledging that the play is unlikely to please everyone, asks nonetheless for the audience's approval.
As usual in his history plays, Shakespeare relied on Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles to achieve his dramatic ends and to accommodate official sensitivities over the materials involved. Shakespeare not only telescoped events that occurred over a span of two decades, but jumbled their actual order; the play implies, without stating it directly, that the treason charges against the Duke of Buckingham were false and trumped up. The disgrace and beheading of Anne Boleyn (here spelled Bullen
Hercules is a Roman hero and god. He was the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures; the Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In Western art and literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled artists and writers to pick and choose how to represent him; this article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours". One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis.
Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull. Steal the Mares of Diomedes. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides. Capture and bring back Cerberus. Hercules had a greater number of "deeds on the side" that have been popular subjects for art, including: Side adventures The Latin name Hercules was borrowed through Etruscan, where it is represented variously as Heracle and other forms. Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, appears on bronze mirrors; the Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope. A mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths. One of these is Hercules' defeat of Cacus, terrorizing the countryside of Rome; the hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus. Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god.
Hercules received various forms of religious veneration, including as a deity concerned with children and childbirth, in part because of myths about his precocious infancy, in part because he fathered countless children. Roman brides wore a special belt tied with the "knot of Hercules", supposed to be hard to untie; the comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules' conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon. During the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules. In chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states:... they say that Hercules, once visited them. They have those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they feel alarm; some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana.
In the Roman era Hercules' Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire made of gold, shaped like wooden clubs. A specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription "DEO HER", confirming the association with Hercules. In the 5th to 7th centuries, during the Migration Period, the amulet is theorized to have spread from the Elbe Germanic area across Europe; these Germanic "Donar's Clubs" were made from deer antler, bone or wood, more also from bronze or precious metals. They are found in female graves worn either as a belt pendant, or as an ear pendant; the amulet type is replaced by the Viking Age Thor's hammer pendants in the course of the Christianization of Scandinavia from the 8th to 9th century. After the Roman Empire became Christianized, mythological narratives were reinterpreted as allegory, influenced by the philosophy of late antiquity. In the 4th century, Servius had described Hercules' return from the underworld as representing his ability to overcome earthly desires and vices, or the earth itself as a consumer of bodies.
In medieval mythography, Hercules was one of the heroes seen as a strong role model who demonstrated both valor and wisdom, while the monsters he battles were regarded as moral obstacles. One glossator noted that when Hercules became a constellation, he showed that strength was necessary to gain entrance to Heaven. Medieval mythography was written entirely in Latin, original Greek texts were little used as sources for Hercules' myths. In 1600, the citizens of Avignon bestowed on Henry of Navarre the title of the Hercule Gaulois, justifying the extravagant flattery with a genealogy that traced the origin of the House of Navarre to a nephew of Hercules' son Hispalus; the Renaissance and the invention of the printing press brought a renewed interest in and publication of Greek literature. Renaissance mythography drew more extensively on the Greek tradition of Heracles under the Romanized name Hercules, or the alternate name Alcides. In a chapter of his book Mythologiae, the influential mythographer Natale Conti collected and summarized an extensive range of myths concerning the birth and death of the hero under his Roman name Hercules.
Conti begins his lengthy chapter on Hercules with an overview description that continues the moralizing i
Victor Andrew de Bier Everleigh McLaglen was a British-American film actor. He was known as a character actor in Westerns, made seven films with John Ford and John Wayne. McLaglen won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1935 for his role in The Informer. McLaglen claimed to have been born in Tunbridge Wells, although his birth certificate records Stepney in the East End of London as his true birthplace, his father, Andrew Charles Albert McClaglen, was a bishop of the Free Protestant Episcopal Church of England. The McLaglen family is of South African origin, the name being a phonetic rendering of McLachlan into Dutch. A. C. A. McLaglen was born Andries Carel Albertus McLaglen in Cape Town on 4 April 1851. One of ten siblings, he had a sister. Four of his brothers became actors: Arthur, an actor and sculptor, Clifford and Kenneth. Other siblings included Frederick, Lewis and a sister, Lily. Another brother, Leopold McLaglen, who appeared in one film, gained notoriety prior to World War I as a showman and self-proclaimed world jujutsu champion, who authored a book on the subject.
He moved with his family to South Africa for a time, where his father was Bishop of Claremont, McLaglen left home at 14 to join the British Army with the intention of fighting in the Second Boer War. However, much to his chagrin, he was stationed at Windsor Castle in the Life Guards and was forced to leave the army when his true age was discovered. Four years he moved to Winnipeg, Canada, where he became a local celebrity, earning a living as a wrestler and heavyweight boxer, with several notable wins in the ring, he briefly served as a constable in the Winnipeg Police Force in 1907. One of his most famous fights was against heavyweight champion Jack Johnson in a six-round exhibition bout at the Vancouver Athletic Club on 10 March 1909; this was Johnson's first bout since winning the heavyweight title from Tommy Burns. Between bouts, McLaglen toured with a circus, which offered $25 to anyone who could go three rounds with him, he returned to Britain in 1913 and during the First World War served as a captain with the 10th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment.
He claimed to have served with the Royal Irish Fusiliers. He served for a time as military Assistant Provost Marshal for the city of Baghdad, he continued boxing, was named heavyweight champion of the British Army in 1918. After the war, he continued boxing, including a defeat at the hands of British champion Frank Goddard, his final fight was a loss by knockout to Arthur Townley in October 1920. He finished his professional career with a record of 16 wins, 8 losses, 1 draw. McLaglen was visiting a sporting club when spotted by a film producer, looking for a boxer to play the lead in a film, The Call of the Road. Although McLaglen had never acted before he auditioned and got the part, he was in the adventure films: Corinthian Jack, The Prey of the Dragon. He followed it with The Sport of Kings. Donald Crisp cast him in The Glorious Adventure and he was in A Romance of Old Baghdad, Little Brother of God, A Sailor Tramp, The Crimson Circle, The Romany, Heartstrings. McLaglen played leads in M'Lord of the White Road, In the Blood, The Boatswain's Mate and Diamonds, The Gay Corinthian.
He was in The Passionate Adventure, co written by Alfred Hitchcock, The Beloved Brute, The Hunted Woman, Percy. McLaglen's career took a surprise turn in 1925, he became a popular character actor, with a particular knack for playing drunks. He usually played Irishmen, leading many film fans to mistakenly assume he was Irish rather than English. McLaglen played one of the titular Unholy Three in Lon Chaney Sr.'s original silent version of the macabre crime drama. McLaglen had a support part in Winds of Chance, directed by Frank Lloyd made The Fighting Heart at Fox, directed by John Ford. Ford would have a major impact on McLaglen's career. McLaglen was in The Isle of Retribution, Men of Steel, Beau Geste, playing Hank in the latter. McLaglen was the top-billed leading man in director Raoul Walsh's First World War classic What Price Glory? with Edmund Lowe and Dolores del Rio. The film was a huge success, making over $2 million, Fox signed McLaglen to a long term contract. Fox put McLaglen in The Loves of Carmen with del Rio, directed by Walsh.
He was top billed in Mother Machree, directed by Ford. He was top billed in A Girl in co-starring Robert Armstrong and Louise Brooks, he starred in Hangman's House for Ford, a romantic drama set in Ireland, The River Pirate, Captain Lash. McLaglen made two films for Ford: Strong Boy and The Black Watch. McLaglen was one of many Fox stars, he was reunited with Edmund Lowe and Raoul Walsh in a sequel to What Price Glory?, The Cock-Eyed World, another huge success at the box office. McLaglen made a musical with Walsh, Hot for Paris made On the Level. A Devil with Women was a buddy comedy with Humphrey Bogart, he was borrowed by Paramount for Dishonored, starring Marlene Dietrich and directed by Joseph von Sternberg. He was in Not Exactly hada cameo in the short film The Stolen Jools. McLaglen and Walsh reunited for a second sequel to What Price Glory?, Women of All Nations. He was in Ann
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these