Jacques-Louis David was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward classical austerity and severity and heightened feeling, harmonizing with the moral climate of the final years of the Ancien Régime. David became an active supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre, was a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release: that of Napoleon, The First Consul of France. At this time he notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. After Napoleon's fall from Imperial power and the Bourbon revival, David exiled himself to Brussels in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, where he remained until his death. David had a large number of pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century academic Salon painting.
Jacques-Louis David was born into a prosperous French family in Paris on 30 August 1748. When he was about nine his father was killed in a duel and his mother left him with his well-off architect uncles, they saw to it that he received an excellent education at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris, but he was never a good student—he had a facial tumor that impeded his speech, he was always preoccupied with drawing. He covered his notebooks with drawings, he once said, "I was always hiding behind the instructor's chair, drawing for the duration of the class". Soon, he desired to be a painter, he overcame the opposition, went to learn from François Boucher, the leading painter of the time, a distant relative. Boucher was a Rococo painter, but tastes were changing, the fashion for Rococo was giving way to a more classical style. Boucher decided that instead of taking over David's tutelage, he would send David to his friend, Joseph-Marie Vien, a painter who embraced the classical reaction to Rococo.
There, David attended the Royal Academy, based in. Each year the Academy awarded an outstanding student the prestigious Prix de Rome, which funded a 3- to 5-year stay in the Eternal City. Since artists were now revisiting classical styles, the trip to Rome provided its winners the opportunity to study the remains of classical antiquity and the works of the Italian Renaissance masters at first hand; each pensionnaire was lodged in the French Academy's Roman outpost, which from the years 1737 to 1793 was the Palazzo Mancini in the Via del Corso. David competed for, failed to win, the prize for three consecutive years; each failure contributed to his lifelong grudge against the institution. After his second loss in 1772, David went on a hunger strike, which lasted two and a half days before the faculty encouraged him to continue painting. Confident he now had the support and backing needed to win the prize, he resumed his studies with great zeal—only to fail to win the Prix de Rome again the following year.
In 1774, David was awarded the Prix de Rome on the strength of his painting of Erasistratus Discovering the Cause of Antiochus' Disease, a subject set by the judges. In October 1775 he made the journey to Italy with his mentor, Joseph-Marie Vien, who had just been appointed director of the French Academy at Rome. While in Italy, David studied the works of 17th-century masters such as Poussin and the Carracci. Although he declared, "the Antique will not seduce me, it lacks animation, it does not move", David filled twelve sketchbooks with drawings that he and his studio used as model books for the rest of his life, he was introduced to the painter Raphael Mengs, who opposed the Rococo tendency to sweeten and trivialize ancient subjects, advocating instead the rigorous study of classical sources and close adherence to ancient models. Mengs' principled, historicizing approach to the representation of classical subjects profoundly influenced David's pre-revolutionary painting, such as The Vestal Virgin from the 1780s.
Mengs introduced David to the theoretical writings on ancient sculpture by Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the German scholar held to be the founder of modern art history. As part of the Prix de Rome, David toured the newly excavated ruins of Pompeii in 1779, which deepened his belief that the persistence of classical culture was an index of its eternal conceptual and formal power. During the trip David assiduously studied the High Renaissance painters, Raphael making a profound and lasting impression on the young French artist. Although David's fellow students at the academy found him difficult to get along with, they recognized his genius. David's stay at the French Academy in Rome was extended by a year. In July 1780, he returned to Paris. There, he found people ready to use their influence for him, he was made an official member of the Royal Academy, he sent the Academy two paintings, both were included in the Salon of 1781, a high honor. He was praised by his famous contemporary painters, but the administration of the Royal Academy was hostile to this young upstart.
After the Salon, the King granted David lodging in the Louvre, an ancient and much desired privilege of great artists. When the contractor of the King's buildings, M. Pécoul, was arranging with David, he asked the artist to marry his daughter, Marguerite Charlotte; this marriage brought him money and four children
Julian Ashton Art School
The Julian Ashton Art School was established by Julian Ashton in 1890 as the "Academy Julian", has been an influential art school in Australia. For a long time it was known as the Sydney Art School; the Julian Ashton Art School building, some of its equipment, have been heritage listed, in part due to the significance of the school itself. After Julian Ashton died in 1942, the school was run by Henry Gibbons. Henry Gibbons had started at the school as a student in April 1919 and soon became the teacher of the night drawing classes. In 1924 Gibbons proposed starting a Saturday afternoon class so that he could teach some of the night drawing students to paint; the Saturday class started in February 1924 and the first nine students were Dobell, Passmore, Lawrence, Byrne and Cox. Gibbons taught many winners of the NSW Traveling Arts Scholarship. Henry Gibbons retired in 1960. Howard Ashton's son, J. Richard Ashton, his wife Wenda ran the School from 1960, among many gifted artists, Ian Chapman and Archibald Prize winner Francis Giacco attended, until 1977 when Phillip Ashton became Principal, this being the time of Haydn Wilson, political cartoonist Bill Leak and artist Paul Newton.
In 1988 the school was incorporated and Paul Delprat, Julian Ashton's great-grandson, himself an ex-student took over the running of the school, becoming the current Principal. In 1989 the school's antique casts and easels, which date back to 1890, were classified by the National Trust; the school's main campus is in The Rocks, located opposite the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia at 117-119 George Street, The Rocks. The building is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register. Since 2004 the school has conducted classes at Headland Park, Georges Heights, Mosman; the School offers: The Sir William Dobell Brett Whiteley John Olsen Thea Proctor Portrait Artists Australia Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts The Art Expressscholarships to encourage fine drawing and painting. Julian Ashton students have included Elioth Gruner, George Lambert, B. E. Minns, Thea Proctor, Adrian Feint, Howard Ashton, Dorrit Black, J. J. Hilder, William Dobell, Edmund Arthur Harvey, Eric Wilson, Jean Bellette, Douglas Dundas, Arthur Freeman, William Dadswell, John Passmore, Yvonne Audette, Joshua Smith, John Olsen, Michael Johnston, Jim Russell, Florence Turner Blake, Sydney Ure Smith, Alexander McKenzie, Brett Whiteley, Susan Dorothea White, Nigel Thomson, Nora Heysen, Salvatore Zofrea, Helen Stewart.
The poet Lola Ridge studied with Julian Ashton. Recognising the early talent of Ray Wenban, Ashton taught him gratis, helping him become a respected and successful painter and illustrator. Samuel Wade, a Brett Whiteley Scholarship winner at the school, went on to win the Brett Whiteley Travelling Art Scholarship at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Julian Ashton, founder Sydney Long, a second in command Francis Giacco, a teacher Elioth Gruner, a second in command Paul Delprat, a principal Henry Gibbons, a principal
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se
The Archibald Prize was the first major prize for portraiture in Australian art. It was first awarded in 1921 after the receipt of a bequest from J. F. Archibald, the editor of The Bulletin who died in 1919, it is now administered by the trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales and awarded for "the best portrait, preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Science or Politics, painted by an artist resident in Australia during the twelve months preceding the date fixed by the trustees for sending in the pictures." The Archibald Prize has been awarded annually since 1921 and since July 2015 the prize has been AU$100,000. List of Archibald Prize winners 1921 – £400 1941 – £443 / 13 / 4 1942 – £441 / 11 / 11 1951 – £500 1956 – £1,364 2006 – $35,000 2008 – $50,000 2012 – $75,000 2015 – $100,000 Since 1988 two other prizes have been added to the Archibald prize event; the People's Choice Award, in which votes from the public viewing the finalists are collected to find a winner was first awarded in 1988.
The award comes with a monetary prize of A$3,500. In 1992 the Packing Room Prize was established, in which the staff who receive the portraits and install them in the gallery vote for their choice of winner; the prize-winner is not always an Archibald finalist. Although the prize is said to be awarded by the staff, the gallery's head storeman – since 2011 Steve Peters – holds 51% of the vote; the Packing Room Prize is awarded annually and since June 2014, the prize has been A$1,500. To date there has never been an Archibald Prize winner, a Packing Room Prize winner.. For this reason winning the Packing Room Prize is known as "the kiss of death award". There has twice been a matching Packing Room Prize and People's Choice Award winner – although neither won the main prize – to Paul Newton's portrait of Roy Slaven and HG Nelson in 2001, to Jan Williamson's portrait of singer/songwriter Jenny Morris in 2002. Danelle Bergstrom has won the Packing Room Prize twice, first in 1995 with a portrait of singer/songwriter Jon English, again in 2007 with a portrait of actor Jack Thompson, with the work entitled Take Two.
Category:Archibald Prize finalists Lists of Archibald Prize finalists Since 1992, a selection of entrants not included amongst the finalists has been included in the Salon des Refusés. Since 1999, Sydney based law firm Holding Redlich have sponsored a Salon des Refusés People's Choice Award; the Archibald Prize is held at the same time as the Sir John Sulman Prize, the Wynne Prize, the Mortimore Prize for Realism, the Australian Photographic Portrait Prize, the Young Archie competition and the Dobell Prize. The Archibald is the next richest portrait prize in Australia after the Doug Moran National Portrait Prize. In 1978 Brett Whiteley won the Archibald and Sulman Prizes all in the same year, the only time this has happened, it was his second win for the other prizes as well. Some works which do not make the Archibald Prize finalists are shown at the S. H. Ervin Gallery in the Archibald Salon des Refusés exhibition which began in 1992; the satirical Bald Archy Prize judged by a cockatoo, was started in 1994 at the Coolac Festival of Fun as a parody of the Archibald Prize.
The prize has attracted a good deal of controversy and several court cases. Max Meldrum criticised the 1938 Archibald Prize winner, Nora Heysen, saying that women could not be expected to paint as well as men. Heysen was the first woman to win the Archibald Prize, with a portrait of Madame Elink Schuurman, the wife of the Consul General for the Netherlands. In 1953 several art students including John Olsen protested William Dargie's winning portrait, the seventh time he had been awarded the prize. One protester tied a sign around her dog which said "Winner Archibald Prize – William Doggie". Dargie went on to win the prize again in 1956. On becoming Prime Minister in 1972, Gough Whitlam commissioned his friend Clifton Pugh to paint the official portrait; the Australian Parliament Historical Memorial Committee would have commissioned a portrait. Pugh's portrait of Whitlam won the 1972 Archibald Prize. In 1975, John Bloomfield's portrait of Tim Burstall was disqualified on the grounds that it had been painted from a blown up photograph, rather than from life.
The prize was awarded to Kevin Connor. In 1983 John Bloomfield sued for the return of the 1975 prize, unsuccessful; the application form of the Archibald Prize was modified based on this to make clear that the subject must be painted from life. In 1985, administration of the trust was transferred to the Art Gallery of New South Wales, after a court case where the Perpetual Trustee Company took the Australian Journalists Association Benevolent Fund to court. In 1997 the painting of the Bananas in Pyjamas television characters by Evert Ploeg was deemed ineligible by the trustees because it was not a painting of a person. Another controversy involved the 2000 Archibald winner, when artist Adam Cullen lodged a complaint with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation who had used his painting, Portrait of David Wenham, in a television commercial. In 2002, head packer Steve Peters singled out a painting of himself by Dave Machin as a possible winner for the Packing Room Prize, it did not win. Following this, portraits of the head packer were no longer allowed.
In 2004 Craig
The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat is a 1793 painting by Jacques-Louis David of the murdered French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat. It is one of the most famous images of the French Revolution. David was the leading French painter, as well as a Montagnard and a member of the revolutionary Committee of General Security; the painting shows the radical journalist lying dead in his bath on July 13, 1793, after his murder by Charlotte Corday. Painted in the months after Marat's murder, it has been described by T. J. Clark as the first modernist painting, for "the way it took the stuff of politics as its material, did not transmute it". Marat was one of the leaders of the Montagnards, the radical faction ascendant in French politics during the Reign of Terror until the Thermidorian Reaction. Charlotte Corday was a Girondin from a minor aristocratic family and a political enemy of Marat who blamed him for the September Massacre, she gained entrance to Marat's rooms with a note promising details of a counter-revolutionary ring in Caen.
Marat suffered from a skin condition. Corday fatally stabbed Marat, she was tried and executed for the murder. As well as being the leading French painter of his generation, David was a prominent Montagnard, a Jacobin, aligned with Marat and Maximilian Robespierre. A deputy of the Museum section at the Convention, he voted for the death of the King, served on the Committee of General Security, where he participated in the sentencing and imprisonment of many and presided over the "section des interrogatoires", he was on the Committee of Public Instruction. Marat's figure is idealized. For example, the painting contains no sign of his skin problems, his skin appears clean and unblemished. David, drew other details from his visit to Marat's residence the day before the assassination: the green rug, the papers, the pen. David promised his peers in the National Convention that he would depict their murdered friend invocatively as "écrivant pour le bonheur du peuple"; the Death of Marat is designed to commemorate a personable hero.
Although the name Charlotte Corday can be seen on the paper held in Marat's left hand, she herself is not visible. Close inspection of this painting shows Marat at his last breath, when Corday and many others were still nearby. Therefore, David intended to record more than just the horror of martyrdom. In this sense, for realistic as it is in its details, the painting, as a whole, from its start, is a methodical construction focusing on the victim, a striking set up regarded today by several critics as an "awful beautiful lie"— not a photograph in the forensic scientific sense and the simple image it may seem; the Death of Marat has been compared to Michelangelo's Pietà. Note the elongated arm hanging down in both works. David admired Caravaggio's works Entombment of Christ, which mirrors The Death of Marat's drama and light. David sought to transfer the sacred qualities long associated with the monarchy and the Catholic Church to the new French Republic, he painted Marat, martyr of the Revolution, in a style reminiscent of a Christian martyr, with the face and body bathed in a soft, glowing light.
As Christian art had done from its beginning, David played with multileveled references to classical art. Suggestions that Paris could compete with Rome as capital and mother city of the Arts and the idea of forming a kind of new Roman Republic appealed to French Revolutionaries, who formed David's audience. Admired during the Terror whose leaders ordered several copies of the original work, The Death of Marat ceased to be'frontpage history' after Robespierre's overthrow and execution. At his request, it was returned to David in 1795, himself being prosecuted for his involvement in the Terror as a member of the Comité de Sureté Général. From 1795 to David's death, the painting languished in obscurity. During David's exile in Belgium, it was hidden, somewhere in France, by Antoine Gros, David's dearest pupil. In 1826, the family tried to sell it, with no success at all, it was rediscovered by the critics in the mid-nineteenth century by Charles Baudelaire whose famous comment in 1846 became the starting point of an increased interest among artists and scholars.
In the 20th century, the painting inspired several painters and writers. The original painting is displayed at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels, being there as a result of a decision taken by the family to offer it, in 1886, to the city where the painter had lived and died in exile after the fall of Napoleon; some of the copies made by David's pupils survived, notably visible in the museums of Dijon and Versailles. The original letter, with bloodstains and bath water marks still visible, has survived and is intact in the ownership of Robert Lindsay, 29th Earl of Crawford. Other artists have depicted the death of Marat, sometimes long after the facts, whose works refer or not
Royal Academy of Art, The Hague
The Royal Academy of Art is an leading and renowned art academy in The Hague. Succeeding the Haagsche Teeken-Academie, the academy was founded on 29 September 1682, making it the oldest in the Netherlands and one of the oldest in the world, it has been training ground for a number of significant artists of the Hague School and it was part of the art movement of Dutch Impressionism and was in the immediate vicinity of the II. Golden Age of Dutch painting. However, in the 19th century the training for a long time was still oriented towards the classic curriculum. At the end of the 19th century this academy had opened to Modernism, too; the Royal Academy of Art The Hague, was founded on September 29, 1682 by Willem Doudijns, Theodor van der Schuer, Daniel Mijtens the Younger, Robert Duval and Augustinus Terwesten as the Haagsche Teeken-Academie In the evening there were drawings classes and on Saturday the society debated about art. In the 18th century the Hague Academy was a thriving institution.
The end of the 18th century were difficult times due to the absence of any financial support. The low point was around 1800. Under William I of the Netherlands support returned and the old and important institute grew. In 1821 the drawing education was combined with the newly established School of Civil Engineering. After being housed in the Korenbeurs and Boterwaag in 1839, a new neoclassical building was designed by city architect Zeger Reyers, located at the Prinsessegracht. In the 19th century the famous artists Johannes Bosboom, Isaac Israels, Willem Maris, Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch and George Hendrik Breitner were trained here. In 1937 on the site of the ancient temple completed a new academy building designed by J. H. Plantenga, J. W. E. Buijs en J. B. Lürsen. In 1990 the Royal Academy merged with the Royal Conservatory of The Hague into the "School of Visual Arts and Dance". In 2010 the Dutch government elevated the joint institutions to "University of the Arts in The Hague"; the two do still go by their original names as well, to underline their individual identities.
The academy every two years awards the Gerrit Noordzij Prize initial designs. After the year of 1821, she received more importance again, as the School voor Burgerlijke Bouwkunde was connected to it. Now she moved in the house of the Korenbeurs; this small building was important for the future of this school. They moved to the Boterwaag. There wasn't enough light for the painting classes. In the year 1839 the Academy got their own house at the Prinsessegracht - it was built by Zeger Reyers in the architectural style of the Neoclassicism. In the 20th-century the classes do grow and more place was needed, thus from 1934-1937 the academy got a new building at Prinsessegracht 4. The new building has been built in the style of the Bauhaus. At the end of the 19th century witnessed the Hague art scene flourished, very well known abroad as Hague School. Many well-known artists like Breitner, the brothers Maris and Bosboom were trained in the academy. In the first half of the 20th century the academy has played a pioneering role in the Netherlands, too.
Under Bauhaus- influence arose the new departments of graphic design, photography and furniture design. In that time the teachers of the avant-garde like Gerrit Kiljan, Paul Schuitema, Paul Citroen and Cor Alon dominated; the Academy expanded its curriculum as one of the first Dutch schools by teaching in the field of industrial design. In 1938 a new building erected on the site of the old house; the design was by the architectural firm Buijs & Lürsen. In 2000 a general overhaul was carried out. For this project was the architect Van Mourik Vermeulen responsible - the complex was enlarged. In 1990 the Academy merged with the Royal Conservatory to the Hogeschool van Beeldende Kunsten, Muziek en Dans. At the same time a more intensive cooperation with the University of Leiden has begun. - In the Netherlands, the first formalized cooperation between a university and an art school was initiated. It allowed students to hear within one semester at two colleges — so at Leiden University and at the Royal Academy in The Hague.
In 2001 a partnership with Leiden University was started, which resulted in the Academy of Creative and Performing Arts. ACPA offers the opportunity to follow a PhD programme resulting in a PhD for a combination of an artwork and a dissertation; the KC, KABK and Leiden University offer double degree programmes, carry out research programmes and develop new methods of study. Electives at the universities are open for all students; the KABK’s focus on new technologies and new media has resulted in state-of-the-art workshops and departments like ArtScience, Interactive/Media/Design and most Non-Linear Narrative. Academy Site
Patrick Victor Martindale White was an Australian writer who, from 1935 to 1987, published 12 novels, three short-story collections and eight plays. White's fiction employs humour, florid prose, shifting narrative vantage points and a stream of consciousness technique. In 1973, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature", as it says in the Swedish Academy's citation, the first and so far only Australian to have been awarded the prize. White was the inaugural recipient of the Miles Franklin Award. White was born in Knightsbridge, London, to Victor Martindale White and Ruth, both Australians, in their apartment overlooking Hyde Park, London on 28 May 1912, his family returned to Sydney, when he was six months old. As a child he lived in a flat with his sister, a nanny, a maid while his parents lived in an adjoining flat. At the age of four, White developed asthma, a condition that had taken the life of his maternal grandfather.
White's health was fragile throughout his childhood, which precluded his participation in many childhood activities. He loved the theatre; this love was expressed at home when he performed private rites in the garden and danced for his mother’s friends. At the age of five, he attended kindergarten at Sandtoft in Sydney's Eastern Suburbs. At the age of ten, White was sent to Tudor House School, a boarding school in Moss Vale in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, in an attempt to abate his asthma, it took him some time to adjust to the presence of other children. At boarding school, he started to write plays. At this early age, White wrote about palpably adult themes. In 1924, the boarding school ran into financial trouble, the headmaster suggested for White to be sent to a public school in England, a suggestion that his parents accepted. White struggled to adjust to his new surroundings at England, he described it as "a four-year prison sentence". White withdrew and had a limited circle of acquaintances.
He would holiday with his parents at European locations, but their relationship remained distant. However he did spend time with his cousin Jack Withycombe during this period, Jack's daughter Elizabeth Withycombe became a mentor to him while he was writing his first book of poems, Thirteen Poems between the years 1927-29. While at school in London, White made one close friend, Ronald Waterall, an older boy who shared similar interests. White's biographer, David Marr, wrote that "the two men would arm-in-arm, to London shows; when Waterall left school, White withdrew again. He asked his parents; the parents compromised and allowed him to finish school early if he came home to Australia to try life on the land. His parents felt that he should work on the land rather than become a writer and hoped that his work as a jackaroo would temper his artistic ambitions. White spent two years working as a stockman at Bolaro, a 73-square-kilometre station near Adaminaby, on the edge of the Snowy Mountains, in southeastern Australia.
Although he grew to respect the land and his health improved, it was clear that he was not cut out for this life. From 1932 to 1935, White lived in England, studying French and German literature at King's College, Cambridge University. During his time at Cambridge he developed a romantic attraction to a young man who had come to King's College to become an Anglican priest. White dared not speak of his feelings for fear of losing the friendship and, like many other gay men of that period, he feared that his sexuality would doom him to a lonely life. One night, the student priest, after an awkward liaison with two women, admitted to White that women meant nothing to him sexually; that became White's first love affair. During White's time at Cambridge he published a collection of poetry entitled The Ploughman and Other Poems, wrote a play named Bread and Butter Women, performed by an amateur group at the tiny Bryant's Playhouse in Sydney. After being admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1935, White settled in London, where he lived in an area, frequented by artists.
There, the young author thrived creatively for a time, writing several unpublished works and reworking Happy Valley, a novel that he had written while jackarooing. In 1937, White's father died; the fortune enabled him to write full-time in relative comfort. Two more plays followed; the novel was received well in London but poorly in Australia. He began writing another novel, but abandoned it before its completion after receiving negative comments, a decision that he admitted regretting. In 1936, White met the painter Roy De Maistre, 18 years his senior, who became an important influence in his life and work; the two men never remained firm friends. In White's own words, "He became what I most needed, an intellectual and aesthetic mentor", they had many similarities: they were both gay and they both felt like outsiders in their own families. They both appreciated the benefits of social standing an