Rob Roy MacGregor
Robert Roy MacGregor was a Scottish outlaw, who became a folk hero. Rob Roy was born at Glengyle, at the head of Loch Katrine, as recorded in the baptismal register of Buchanan, Stirling, his parents were Margaret Campbell. He was descended from the Macdonalds of Keppoch through his paternal grandmother. In January 1693, at Corrie Arklet farm near Inversnaid, he married Mary MacGregor of Comar, born at Leny Farm, Strathyre; the couple had four sons: James Mor MacGregor, Ranald and Robert. It has been claimed that they adopted a cousin named Duncan, but this is not certain. Along with many Highland clansmen, at the age of eighteen Rob Roy together with his father joined the Jacobite rising of 1689 led by John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, known as Bonnie Dundee, to support the Stuart King James II who had fled Britain during the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Although victorious in initial battles, Dundee was killed in 1689. Rob's father was taken to jail. Rob's mother Margaret's health failed during Donald's time in prison.
By the time Donald was released, his wife was dead. The Gregor chief never returned to his former health. In 1716 Rob Roy moved to Glen Shira for a short time and lived under the protection of John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll known as Red John of the Battles, "Iain Ruaidh nan Cath." Argyll negotiated an amnesty and protection for Rob and granted him permission to build a house in the Glen for the surrendering up of weapons. "Traditionally the story goes that Argyll only received a large cache of rusty old weapons." A sporran and dirk handle which belonged to Rob Roy can still be seen at Inveraray Castle. Rob Roy only used this house for the next three or four years. In July 1717, Rob Roy and the whole of the Clan Gregor were excluded from the benefits of the Indemnity Act 1717 which had the effect of pardoning all others who took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715. Despite many claims to the contrary, Rob Roy was not wounded at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719, in which a British Government army with allied Highlanders defeated a force of Jacobite Scots supported by the Spanish.
However, two of the Jacobite commanders, Lord George Murray and the 5th Earl of Seaforth, were badly wounded. Robert Roy MacGregor is claimed in many accounts to have been wounded, but the actual text of Ormonde's account of the battle has the following - "Finding himself hard-pressed, Lord Seaforth sent for further support. A reinforcement under Rob Roy went to his aid, but before it reached him the greater part of his men had given way, he himself had been wounded in the arm." Note that this does not state that Rob Roy was wounded, but Seaforth. Sometime around 1720 and after the heat of Rob's involvement at the Battle of Glen Shiel had died down, Rob moved to Monachyle Tuarach by Loch Doine and sometime before 1722 Rob moved to Inverlochlarig Beag on the Braes of Balquhidder. Rob Roy became a respected cattleman—this was a time when cattle rustling and selling protection against theft were commonplace means of earning a living. Rob Roy borrowed a large sum to increase his own cattle herd, but owing to the disappearance of his chief herder, entrusted with the money to bring the cattle back, Rob Roy lost his money and cattle, defaulted on his loan.
As a result, he was branded an outlaw, his wife and family were evicted from their house at Inversnaid, burned down. After his principal creditor, James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose seized his lands, Rob Roy waged a private blood feud against the Duke until 1722, when he was forced to surrender. Imprisoned, he was pardoned in 1727, he died in his house at Inverlochlarig Beg, Balquhidder, on 28 December 1734, aged 63. Another version of this series of events states that Rob Roy's estates of Craigrostan and Ardess were forfeited for his part in the rebellion of 1715; the Duke of Montrose acquired the property in 1720 by open purchase from the Commissioners of Enquiry. K. Macleay, M. D. in Historical Memoirs of Rob Roy and the Clan MacGregor quotes, "but he had taken the resolution of becoming a Roman Catholic, he accordingly left the lonely residence we have described, returning to Perthshire, went to a Mr. Alexander Drummond, an old priest of that faith, who resided at Drummond Castle." Macleay takes the view.
Glengyle House, on the shore of Loch Katrine, dates back to the early 18th century, with a porch dated to 1707, is built on the site of the 17th century stone cottage where Rob Roy is said to have been born. Since the 1930s, the Category B-listed building had been in the hands of successive water authorities, but was identified as surplus to requirements and put up for auction in November 2004, despite objections from the Scottish National Party; the Rob Roy Way, a long distance footpath from Drymen to Pitlochry, was created in 2002 and named in Rob Roy's honour. Descendants of Rob Roy settled around McGregor, United States, in 1849 it was reported that the original MacGregor seal and signet was owned by Alex McGregor of Iowa; the Scots Gaelic clan seal was inscribed "S' Rioghal Mo Dhream ". The signet was a bloodstone from Loch Lomond, was sketched by William Williams. In 1878, the football club Kirkintilloch Rob Roy was named in his memory; the year 1723 saw the publication of a fictionalised account of The Highland Rogue.
Rob Roy became a legend in his own lifetime, George I was moved to issue a pard
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area. Devolution differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority may be temporary and are reversible residing with the central government. Thus, the state remains de jure unitary. Legislation creating devolved parliaments or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any statute. In federal systems, by contrast, sub-unit government is guaranteed in the constitution, so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn unilaterally by the central government; the sub-units therefore have a lower degree of protection under devolution than under federalism. Australia is a federation, it has two territories with less power than states. The Australian Capital Territory refused self-government in a 1978 referendum, but was given limited self-government by a House of Assembly from 1979, a Legislative Assembly with wider powers in 1988.
The Northern Territory of Australia refused statehood in a 1998 referendum. The rejection was a surprise to both the Northern Territory governments. Territory legislation can be disallowed by the Commonwealth Parliament in Canberra, with one notable example being the NT's short lived voluntary euthanasia legislation. Although Canada is a federal state, a large portion of its land mass in the north is under the legislative jurisdiction of the federal government; this has been the case since 1870. In 1870 the Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory Order effected the admission of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada, pursuant to section 146 of the Constitution Act, 1867 and the Rupert’s Land Act, 1868; the Manitoba Act, 1870, which created Manitoba out of part of Rupert’s Land designated the remaining territories the Northwest Territories, over which Parliament was to exercise full legislative authority under the Constitution Act, 1871. Since the 1970s, the federal government has been transferring its decision-making powers to northern governments.
This means greater local control and accountability by northerners for decisions central to the future of the territories. Yukon was carved from the Northwest Territories in 1898 but it remained a federal territory. Subsequently, in 1905, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created from the Northwest Territories. Other portions of Rupert's Land were added to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, extending the provinces northward from their previous narrow band around the St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes; the District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1912. The continental areas of said district were transferred by the Parliament of Canada with the adoption of the Quebec Boundary Extension Act, 1898 and the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912; the status of the interior of Labrador, believed part of Ungava was settled in 1927 by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which ruled in favour of Newfoundland.
In 1999, the federal government created Nunavut pursuant to a land claim agreement reached with Inuit, the indigenous people of Canada’s Eastern Arctic. The offshore islands to the west and north of Quebec remained part of the Northwest Territories until the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Since that time, the federal government has devolved legislative jurisdiction to the territories. Enabling the territories to become more self-sufficient and prosperous and to play a stronger role in the Canadian federation is considered a key component to development in Canada’s North. Among the three territories, devolution is most advanced in Yukon; the Northwest Territories was governed from Ottawa from 1870 until the 1970s, except for the brief period between 1898 and 1905 when it was governed by an elected assembly. The Carrothers Commission was established in April 1963 by the government of Lester B. Pearson to examine the development of government in the NWT, it conducted surveys of opinion in the NWT in 1965 and 1966 and reported in 1966.
Major recommendations included that the seat of government of the territories should be located in the territories. Yellowknife was selected as the territorial capital as a result. Transfer of many responsibilities from the federal government to that of the territories was recommended and carried out; this included responsibility for education, small business, public works, social services and local government. Since the report, the transfer of the government of Northwest Territories has taken over responsibilities for several other programs and services including the delivery of health care, social services, administration of airports, forestry management; the legislative jurisdiction of the territorial legislature is set out in section 16 of the Northwest Territories Act. Now, the government of Canada is negotiating the transfer of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development's remaining provincial-type responsibilities in the NWT; these include the legislative powers and responsibilities for land and resources associated with the department's Northern Affairs Program with respect to: Powers to develop, conserve and regulate of surface and subsurface natural resources in the NWT for mining and minerals administration, water management, land management and environmental management.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t
Thomas Nelson (publisher)
Thomas Nelson is a publishing firm that began in West Bow, Scotland in 1798 as the namesake of its founder. It is a subsidiary of the publishing unit of News Corp.. Its most successful title to date is Heaven Is for Real, which became its first title to sell more than 1 million ebooks. In Canada, the Nelson imprint is used for educational publishing. In the United Kingdom, it was an independent publisher until 1962, became part of the educational imprint Nelson Thornes. Thomas Nelson Sr. founded the shop that bears his name in Edinburgh in 1798 as a second-hand bookshop at 2 West Bow, just off the city's Grassmarket, recognizing a ready market for inexpensive, standard editions of non-copyright works which he attempted to satisfy by publishing reprints of classics. By 1822 the shop had moved to 9 West Bow plus a second shop had opened at 230 High Street, on the Royal Mile. In 1835 the shop became a company, first as Thomas Nelson & Son when William joined, in 1839 became Thomas Nelson & Sons when Thomas Jr. entered the business.
Thomas Sr. is buried in the extreme NW corner of Grange Cemetery in Edinburgh. William concentrated his talents on the marketing side, Thomas Jr. devoted his to editing and production. The firm became a publisher of new books and, as the 19th century progressed, it produced an wide range of non-religious materials, its Hope Park Works in Edinburgh burned down in 1878, the city council allowed temporary accommodation on the Meadows. In appreciation, the company funded the stone pillars at the east end of Melville Drive. William Nelson died in 1887, Thomas Jr. died in 1892. They were succeeded by George Brown, Thomas's nephew, who directed the company until Thomas III and Ian, Thomas Jr.'s sons, joined him and John Buchan as partners. Buchan, employed by the firm until 1929, dedicated his novel The Thirty-Nine Steps to Thomas III in 1914. Ian Nelson took over as head of the family firm after Thomas Nelson III's death in action in 1917 during World War I. By the early 20th century, Thomas Nelson had become a secular concern in the United Kingdom.
The First World War led to the temporary rundown of Nelson through the denial of foreign markets, the loss of manpower, the general exigencies of wartime, initiated its long-term decline. Much of the effort expended during the inter-war period represented an attempt to reverse that decline in expanding the education list and reducing the dependence on reprints. Ian Nelson remained head of the firm until his death in 1958. Ian Nelson’s successor, his son Ronnie Nelson, seemed less interested in the successful management of the family firm than previous generations. In 1962, Thomas Nelson and Sons was absorbed into the Thomson Organisation in an effort to sustain its academic and educational publishing interests on a global scale; the presidency of the company passed to Hubert Peter Morrison FRSE. The printing division of Nelsons was sold to the Edinburgh company Morrison and Gibb in 1968; until 1968, according to the curators of a Senate House Library exhibition, the company "specialised in producing popular literature, children's books, religious works and educational texts."
It was the first publisher for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Thomson owned the company from 1960 until 2000; that year, it was acquired by Wolters Kluwer, who merged Nelson with its existing publishing arm, Stanley Thornes, to form Nelson Thornes. The American branch of Thomas Nelson was established in 1854 in New York, by the 1870s it was one of the city's more important firms. In a December 1873 article on "Holiday Gifts" the New-York Tribune wrote: "Thomas Nelson & Sons, No. 42 Bleecker-st. Devote themselves specially to the publications of the Oxford University Press, from which issues a superb variety of Bibles, Prayer-books, Hymnals, they are printed in every imaginary style, bound in plain cloth, in calf, in morocco, in Russia, in velvet, in ivory. Besides these books, Messrs. Nelson have an attractive miscellaneous stock, in which a great many children's books appear, some fine illustrated volumes."Nelson held the copyright for the American Standard Version of the bible from 1901 until 1928 when it transferred the copyright to the International Council of Religious Education.
In the 1930s, the company made a deal with this council to publish the Revised Standard Version. The firm was sold to The Thomson Organization in 1960, in 1962, the company failed to meet demand for this bible translation. This, in turn, led the National Council of Churches to grant other publishers licenses for the work, leading to a dramatic fall in revenue for Nelson. In 1950, 19-year-old Sam Moore came to Columbia, South Carolina with an intent to pursue medical training. Moore began to sell bibles door-to-door in order to pay his way through college at the University of South Carolina and Columbia Bible College; the Lebanese immigrant had a strong sense of American patriotism and free enterprise and used it to establish the National Book Company in 1958. In 1961, he established Royal Publishers, selling stock in the firm one year with notable shareholders including Morrow Coffey Graham, mother of noted evangelist Billy Graham. Moore led Royal Publishers to success for the next five years, more than doubling sales every year, resulting in the Thomson Organization asking if he would take control of Nelson's North American operations.
Instead, Moore surprised Thomson by offering to purchase Nelson. Moore took over on March 1969, preferring to keep the company's name and logo. In
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
The Coronation Chair, known as St Edward's Chair or King Edward's Chair, is an ancient wooden chair on which British monarchs sit when they are invested with regalia and crowned at their coronations. It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland—known as the Stone of Destiny—which had been captured from the Scots who kept it at Scone Abbey; the chair was named after Edward the Confessor, was kept in his shrine at Westminster Abbey. The high-backed, Gothic-style armchair was carved from oak at some point between the summer of 1297 and March 1300 by the carpenter Walter of Durham. At first, the king ordered for the chair to be made of bronze, but he changed his mind and decided it should be made of timber; the chair is the oldest dated piece of English furniture made by a known artist. Since the 14th century, all crowned English and British monarchs have been seated in this chair at the moment of coronation, with the exception of Queen Mary II, crowned on a copy of the chair.
Monarchs used to sit on the Stone of Scone itself until a wooden platform was added in the 17th century. Gilded lions added in the 16th century form the legs to the chair. One of the four lions was given a new head for George IV's coronation in 1821; the chair itself was gilded and inlaid with glass mosaics, traces of which are visible upon inspection of the chair on the back where outlines of foliage and animals have managed to survive. A lost image of a king, maybe Edward the Confessor or Edward I, with his feet resting on a lion was painted on the back. Today, its appearance is of aged and brittle wood. In the 18th century, tourists could sit on the chair for a small payment to one of the vergers. Early tourists and choirboys of the abbey carved their initials and other graffiti into the chair, the corner posts have been acutely damaged by souvenir hunters. Sir Gilbert Scott, the Gothic revival architect and antiquary, described the chair as "a magnificent piece of decoration, but sadly mutilated".
At 5:40 pm on 11 June 1914, the chair was the object of a bomb attack thought to have been organised by the Suffragettes. A corner of the chair was broken off in the explosion. Although it was strong enough to shake the abbey walls and loud enough to be heard from inside the Houses of Parliament, none of the 70 people in the abbey at the time were injured, the Coronation Chair was faithfully restored. Over the eight centuries of its existence the chair has only been removed from Westminster Abbey twice; the first time was for the ceremony in Westminster Hall when Oliver Cromwell was inducted as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, the second during World War II when it was moved to Gloucester Cathedral for the duration of the war. On Christmas Day 1950, Scottish Nationalists removed the Stone of Scone, it was recovered in time for Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. In 1996 the stone was returned to Scotland, where it is kept at Edinburgh Castle on the proviso that it be returned to England for use at coronations.
The Coronation Chair is protected, leaves its secure location—on a plinth in St George's Chapel in the nave—only when it is carried into the theatre of coronation near the High Altar of the abbey. Between 2010 and 2012, the chair was cleaned and restored by a team of experts in full view of the public at the abbey. Other chairs are used throughout the coronation ceremony. Chairs of Estate for the sovereign and consort are placed on the south side of the sanctuary, these are used during the first part of the liturgy, prior to the sovereign's anointing and crowning with St Edward's Crown. For a part of the service called the enthronement, for the homage which follows it, the monarch is placed not in the Coronation Chair, but in a throne on a dais in the middle of the transept. On occasions when the wife of a king—a queen consort—is crowned, a similar throne is provided for her so that she can be seated next to the king but at a lower level. Unlike the Coronation Chair, these other chairs and thrones tend to be made new for each coronation.
Afterwards, they have been placed in the Throne Rooms of royal palaces. The Chair of Estate from the 1953 coronation can be found in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace, along with those of George VI and his consort Queen Elizabeth; the 1953 throne is kept in the Garter Throne Room of Windsor Castle. Those of George V and Queen Mary may be seen in the Throne Room at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. Westminster Stone theory Chair of St Peter History of the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey