Niger or the Niger the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin to the southwest, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north-west, Burkina Faso to the south-west, Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of 1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara Desert; the country's predominantly Muslim population of about 22 million live in clusters in the far south and west of the country. The capital and largest city is Niamey, located in Niger's southwest corner. Niger is a developing country, which ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index. Many of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification; the economy is concentrated around subsistence, with some export agriculture in the more fertile south, export of raw materials uranium ore.

Niger faces serious challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, inefficient agriculture, high fertility rates without birth control, the resulting overpopulation, the poor educational level and poverty of its people, lack of infrastructure, poor healthcare, environmental degradation. Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic groups and regions and their short period living in a single state. What is now Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. After the military coup in 2010, Niger became a multi-party state. A majority of the population has little access to advanced education; the country's name comes from the Niger river. The most common pronunciation is the French one of, though in Anglophone media is occasionally used. Humans have inhabited the territory of modern Niger for millennia; some of these finds have been linked with the Aterian and Mousterian tool cultures of the Middle Paleolithic period, which flourished in northern Africa circa 90,000 BC-20,000 BC.

It is thought. In prehistoric times the climate of the Sahara desert was much wetter and more fertile than it is today, a phenomenon archaeologists refer to as the'Green Sahara', which provided favourable conditions for hunting and agriculture and livestock herding; the Neolithic era began circa 10,000 BC. As the climate changed in the period 4000–2800 BC the Sahara began drying out, forcing a change in settlement patterns to the south and east. Agriculture became widespread, notably the planting of millet and sorghum, as well as pottery production. Iron and copper items first appear in this era, with early find including those at Azawagh, Takedda and the Termit Massif; the Kiffian and Tenerian cultures, centred on Adrar Bous and Gobero where numerous skeletons have been uncovered, flourished during this period. Towards the end of this period, up till the first centuries AD, societies continued to grow and become more complex, with regional differentiation in agricultural and funerary practices.

A notable culture of this late period is the Bura culture, named for the Bura archaeological site. Where a burial replete with many iron and ceramic statuettes were discovered; the Neolithic era saw the flourishing of Saharan rock art, most notably in the Aïr Mountains, Termit Massif, Djado Plateau, Arakao, Tzerzait, Iferouane and Dabous. Our knowledge of early Nigerien history is limited by the lack of written sources, though it is known that by at least the 5th century BC the territory of modern Niger had become an area of trans-Saharan trade. Led by Tuareg tribes from the north, camels were as a well-adapted means of transportation through what was now an immense desert; this mobility, which would continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and intermixing between sub-Saharan African and North African populations, as well as the gradual spread of Islam. It was aided by the Arab invasion of North Africa at the end of the 7th century, which resulted in population movements to the south.

Several empires and kingdoms flourished in the Sahel during this era. Their history does not fit within the modern boundaries of Niger, which were created during the period of European colonialism; the Mali Empire was a Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita in circa 1230 and existed up to 1600. As detailed in the Epic of Sundiata, Mali emerged as a breakaway region of the Sosso Empire, which itself had split from the earlier Ghana Empire. Thereafter

Jubilee Shout!!!

Jubilee Shout!!! is an album by jazz saxophonist Stanley Turrentine, recorded for the Blue Note label in 1962, but not released until 1986. The selection was included on the double LP Jubilee Shouts, together with some tracks appeared as Comin' Your Way. Said LP, omitted some tracks which may be found on the CD editions of both albums; the Allmusic review by Ron Wynn & Michael Erlewine awarded the album 4 stars and calls it a "classic funky soul-jazz groove". All compositions by Stanley Turrentine except where noted "Jubilee Shout" - 10:44 "My Ship" - 5:59 "You Said It" - 5:36 "Brother Tom" - 7:43 "Cotton Walk" - 10:58 "Little Girl Blue" - 6:27 Stanley Turrentine - tenor saxophone Tommy Turrentine - trumpet Kenny Burrell - guitar Sonny Clark - piano Butch Warren - bass Al Harewood - drums Alfred Lion - producer Reid Miles - design Rudy Van Gelder - engineer Francis Wolff - photography

Love Love (Take That song)

"Love Love" is a single by British pop group Take That from the band's first EP, Progressed. The song features Gary Mark Owen on lead vocals, it was released in the United Kingdom as a digital download on 11 May 2011. The song was featured in the end credits of the 2011 film X-Men: First Class; this was the second time the group has worked with director Matthew Vaughn, having written and recorded "Rule the World" for Vaughn's film Stardust. Robert Copsey of Digital Spy gave the single 4 out of 5 stars, praising it and stating, "'You bring me right back down to the Earth from the promised land' are the lyrics in the opening bars over mud-squelching synths, while the fat'n' chunky chorus where they command their lovers to "give me what I need" is satisfying. Like their recent offerings, it's a style that has transformed them from cheesy boyband to tough manband"; the Daily Star gave the single a positive review stating that "The boys haven't strayed away from the crunching electro template they employed on Progress, which means another mean, moody stadium shaker sound ace booming from footy grounds on their upcoming Progress Tour."

The Music video of the single was announced through the Take That official website on 27 May 2011 and debuted the same day at 4pm UTC. Directed by AlexandLiane, the video shows the members of the band performing the song as a set of choreographed dancers parade around them; the video focuses on each of the members during different parts of the video as they sing from light emitting microphone stands as the picture flickers in and out of recognition. Gary Barlow – co-lead vocals Mark Owen – co-lead vocals, backing vocals Howard Donald – backing vocals Jason Orange – backing vocals Robbie Williams – backing vocals Digital download"Love Love" – 3:42UK promo single"Love Love" – 3:42 "Love Love" – 3:37 The group performed the song live for the first time at the National Movie Awards on 11 May 2011, held at Wembley Arena and broadcast live on ITV1, it was performed as part of their Progress Live Tour in which the members of Take That performed the song whilst standing on a 60 ft mechanical man as it moves through the crowd and into the centre of the stadium.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics