The Bristol Pound is a form of local complementary currency, or community currency launched in Bristol, UK on 19 September 2012. Its objective is to encourage people to spend their money with local, independent businesses in Bristol and the former County of Avon; as of September 2012 it is the largest alternative in the UK to official sterling currency, though it is backed by Sterling. The Bristol Pound is a local and community currency, created to "improve Bristol's local economy", its primary aim is to support independent traders in order to maintain diversity in business around the city. The scheme is a joint not-for-profit enterprise between Bristol Pound Community Interest Company and Bristol Credit Union. Previous to the Bristol Pound, local currencies were launched in the UK in Totnes, Lewes and Stroud. If a person spends Bristol Pounds at a local shop, the owner of this shop can respend them by using them to buy supplies from another local business, or pay local taxes to Bristol City Council.
The business can for instance use their Bristol Pounds to pay a farmer in the Avon area for fresh fruit and vegetables. This farmer can pay a local architect, which accepts Bristol Pounds, to renovate a part of his farm, so on. In this way money keeps on circulating locally to benefit local independent businesses in the area. If the person had spent Sterling Pounds at a supermarket chain instead, for example, more than 80% of their money would have left the area immediately. Use of a local currency thus increases cash flow between businesses that use the currency and stimulates local economic development. Using a local currency not only stimulates the local economy, but creates stronger bonds within the community by increasing social capital. Moreover, buying locally decreases emissions through reduced transportation externalities. Internal trade through the use of complementary currencies is a resilience strategy, which reduces the impact of national economic crises and dependency on international trade by enhancing self-sufficiency.
The use of a local currency increases the awareness of the impact of one's economic activity. Bristol Pound contributed to Bristol being awarded the title of European Green Capital 2015. Bristol is the first city in the UK. Bristol Pound account holders can convert £Bs to and from pounds sterling at a 1:1 ratio. Bristol City Council, other organisations in the city, offer their employees the option to take part of their salaries in Bristol Pounds; the former Mayor of Bristol, George Ferguson, accepted his entire salary in Bristol Pounds. Since June 2015 energy bills can be paid in Bristol Pounds to the 100% renewable energy provider, Good Energy, its CEO claimed. In June 2015, according to the Bristol Pound CEO, some £1 million had been issued in £Bs, with more than £B700,000 still in circulation. More than 800 businesses accept Bristol Pounds and more than a thousand users have a Bristol Pound account; the Bristol Pound is managed by the non-profit Bristol Pound Community Interest Company in collaboration with the local financial institution, the Bristol Credit Union.
The Bristol Credit Union ensures that every £1 sterling converted to a printed £B1 is backed in a secure trust fund. The scheme is supported by Bristol City Council. Bristol Pound is part of a larger international movement of local currencies; the European funded Community Currencies in Action partnership provided support for communities which want to develop their new currency and works on innovations. Within the UK, Bristol Pound CIC founded and maintains the Guild of Independent Currencies – a platform for sharing experiences about local currencies. In this framework, Bristol CIC is working with Exeter, amongst others, helping it to launch its own local currency. Bristol Pound in involved in the Digipay4Growth project, coordinated by the Social Trade organisation and with partners such as Sardex. Through this project Bristol Pounds is involved in the digitalisation of its currency, using Cyclos software; the Bristol Pounds can be used like conventional money. One Bristol Pound is equivalent to one Sterling Pound.
Some businesses apply discounts for customers paying in Bristol Pounds. Local taxes and electricity bills can be paid with Bristol Pounds online. Paper Bristol Pounds Paper £Bs can be used by anyone, have been designed by Bristolians, carry many high security features to prevent fraud. In June 2015 new paper £Bs were issued; these can be exchanged at a 1:1 rate for sterling at seventeen different cash points throughout the city, or ordered online through the Bristol Pound website. Electronic payments The Bristol Pound was the second local scheme to be able to accept electronic payments in the UK; this allows, for example, participating small businesses to accept payments by SMS, without needing to pay for and install a credit card machine. The businesses are charged 2% of the amount billed for payments made by SMS, a similar or sometimes reduced rate than with credit or debit cards, or PayPal. Payments can be made online, with the recipient of each payment charged at a rate of 1%, capped at 95p per transaction.
Every paper £B is backed up by a pound sterling deposited at Bristol Credit Union. The Bristol Pound is not legal tender, participation is therefore voluntary; the directors of the scheme cannot prevent national and multinational companies accepting paper £Bs, but can decide, based on the Rules of Membership, whether a business is per
The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Jersey pound, but where a distinct code is desired JEP is used. Both Jersey and Bank of England notes are legal tender in Jersey and circulate together, alongside the Guernsey pound and Scottish banknotes; the Jersey notes are not legal tender in the United Kingdom but are legal currency, so creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose. The livre was the currency of Jersey until 1834, it consisted of French coins which, in the early 19th century, were exchangeable for sterling at a rate of 26 livres = 1 pound. After the livre was replaced by the franc in France in 1795, the supply of coins in Jersey dwindled leading to difficulties in trade and payment.
In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling. Because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous; this system continued until 1877. Along with the rest of the British Isles, Jersey decimalised in 1971 and began issuing a full series of circulating coins from 1⁄2p to 50p. £1 and £2 denominations followed later. As of December 2005, there was £64.7m of Jersey currency in circulation. A profit of £2.8m earned on the issue of Jersey currency was received by the Treasurer of the States in 2005. £1 coins have a different design each year. Each new coin featured one of the coats of arms of the 12 parishes of Jersey; these were followed by a series of coins featuring sailing ships built in the island.
The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is: Caesarea Insula. Jersey £1 coins ceased to be legal tender in Jersey on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK; the UK's new 12-sided £1 coin is the only £1 coin, legal tender in the Island. In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender to replace the Jersey livre, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling; because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous. In 1841, copper 1⁄52, 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling in 1866. In 1877 a penny of 1⁄12 of a shilling was introduced, the system changed to 12 pence to the shilling. Bronze 1⁄48, 1⁄24 and 1⁄12 shilling were introduced.
This was the only issue of the 1⁄48 shilling denomination. Between 1949 and 1952 the end of the German occupation of the Channel Islands was marked by one million commemorative Liberation pennies that were struck for Jersey. In 1957, a nickel-brass 3 pence coin was introduced carrying the denomination "one fourth of a shilling"; the 1957 and 1960 issues were round, with a dodecagonal version introduced in 1964. In 1968, 5 and 10 pence coins were introduced, followed by 50 pence in 1969 and 1⁄2p, 1p and 2 pence in 1971 when decimalisation took place. All had the same size as the corresponding British coins; the reverse of the first issue of decimal coinage bore the coat of arms of Jersey as had previous coins. The ½ penny coin was last minted in 1981. A square £1 coin was issued in circulation in 1981 to mark the bicentenary of the Battle of Jersey; the square pound could not be accepted by vending machines and was not issued after 1981 although it remains in circulation today. When the rest of the British Isles started to introduce a standardised pound coin in 1983, Jersey changed to a round coin to match.
The square version although rare is still used in the islands. Neither round nor square versions of the coin are as common in Jersey as the £1 note. 20 pence coins were introduced in 1982 and £2 coins in 1998. In 1797 Hugh Godfray and Company, a wine merchant, issued £ 1 notes. Due to the shortage of livre tournois coinage and companies issued a large number of low value notes until in 1813 the States laid down that notes had to have a minimum value of £1; until 1831, a large number of bodies and individuals in Jersey issued their own banknotes. The parishes of Jersey issued notes. Legislation in 1831 attempted to regulate such issues by requiring note issuers to be backed by two guarantors, but the parishes and the Vingtaine de la Ville were exempted from the regulatory provisions. Most of the notes were 1 pound denominations; these locally produced notes, which were issued to fund public works, ceased to be issued after the 1890s. During the German occupation in the Second World War, a shortage of coinage led to the passing of the Currency Notes Law on 29 April 1941.
A series of 2 shilling notes were issued. The law was amended on 29 November 1941 to provide for further issues of notes of various denominations, a series of banknotes desi
Economy of Nigeria
Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, service, communications and entertainment sectors. It is ranked as the 27th-largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, the 22nd-largest in terms of purchasing power parity, it is the largest economy in Africa. In addition, the debt-to-GDP ratio is 11 percent, 8 percent below the 2012 ratio. Hindered by years of mismanagement, economic reforms of the past decade have put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity has tripled from $170 billion in 2000 to $451 billion in 2012, although estimates of the size of the informal sector put the actual numbers closer to $630 billion. Correspondingly, the GDP per capita doubled from $1400 per person in 2000 to an estimated $2,800 per person in 2012.. These figures were to be revised upwards by as much as 80% when metrics were to be recalculated subsequent to the rebasing of its economy in April 2014.
Although oil revenues contribute 2/3 of state revenues, oil only contributes about 9% to the GDP. Nigeria produces only about 2.7% of the world's oil supply. Although the petroleum sector is important, as government revenues still rely on this sector, it remains a small part of the country's overall economy; the subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth, Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now imports some of its food products, though mechanization has led to a resurgence in manufacturing and exporting of food products, the move towards food sufficiency. In 2006, Nigeria convinced the Paris Club to let it buy back the bulk of its debts owed to them for a cash payment of US$12 billion. According to a Citigroup report published in February 2011, Nigeria will have the highest average GDP growth in the world between 2010 and 2050. Nigeria is one of two countries from Africa among 11 Global Growth Generators countries. In 2014, Nigeria changed its economic analysis to account for growing contributors to its GDP, such as telecommunications and its film industry.
In 2005, Nigeria achieved a milestone agreement with the Paris Club of lending nations to eliminate all of its bilateral external debt. Under the agreement, the lenders will forgive most of the debt, Nigeria will pay off the remainder with a portion of its energy revenues. Outside of the energy sector, Nigeria's economy is inefficient. Moreover, human capital is underdeveloped—Nigeria ranked 151 out of countries in the United Nations Development Index in 2004—and non-energy-related infrastructure is inadequate. From 2003 to 2007, Nigeria attempted to implement an economic reform program called the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy; the purpose of the NEEDS was to raise the country's standard of living through a variety of reforms, including macroeconomic stability, liberalization, privatization and accountability. The NEEDS addressed basic deficiencies, such as the lack of freshwater for household use and irrigation, unreliable power supplies, decaying infrastructure, impediments to private enterprise, corruption.
The government hoped that the NEEDS would create 7 million new jobs, diversify the economy, boost non-energy exports, increase industrial capacity utilization, improve agricultural productivity. A related initiative on the state level is the State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy. A longer-term economic development program is the United Nations -sponsored National Millennium Goals for Nigeria. Under the program, which covers the years from 2000 to 2015, Nigeria is committed to achieving a wide range of ambitious objectives involving poverty reduction, gender equality, the environment, international development cooperation. In an update released in 2004, the UN found that Nigeria was making progress toward achieving several goals but was falling short on others. Nigeria had advanced efforts to provide universal primary education, protect the environment, develop a global development partnership. A prerequisite for achieving many of these worthwhile objectives is curtailing endemic corruption, which stymies development and taints Nigeria's business environment.
President Olusegun Obasanjo's campaign against corruption, which includes the arrest of officials accused of misdeeds and recovering stolen funds, has won praise from the World Bank. In September 2005, with the assistance of the World Bank, began to recover US$458 million of illicit funds, deposited in Swiss banks by the late military dictator Sani Abacha, who ruled Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. However, while broad-based progress has been slow, these efforts have begun to become evident in international surveys of corruption. In fact, Nigeria's ranking has improved since 2001 ranking 147 out of 180 countries in Transparency International's 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index; the Nigerian economy suffers from an ongoing supply crisis in the power sector. Despite a growing economy, some of the world's largest deposits of coal and gas and the country's status as Africa's largest oil producer, power supply difficulties are e
South Sudanese pound
The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters, it was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, replaced the Sudanese pound at par; the banknotes feature the image of John Garang de Mabior, the deceased leader of South Sudan's independence movement. Six different denominations in the form of banknotes have been confirmed, five denominations will be issued in the form of coins. Three new banknotes for 5, 10, 25 piasters were issued 19 October 2011; the first circulation coins of the South Sudanese pound denominated in 10, 20, 50 piasters were issued 9 July 2015, on occasion of the fourth anniversary of independence from Sudan. In 2016, the Bank of South Sudan issued a 20 South Sudanese pound banknote to replace the 25 South Sudanese pound banknote. In 2018, the Bank of South Sudan introduced a 500 South Sudanese pounds banknote to ease daily cash transactions following years of inflation.
As part of a currency redesign to reduce confusion, a 1 Pound coin was released to replace the 1 Pound banknote, a coin for 2 Pounds has been released at the same time as the 1 Pound coin. The 10, 20 and 100 pound notes were all redesigned. In November 2016 the Governor of the Bank of South Sudan issued a statement dismissing as false reports claiming that the bank was printing new notes in denominations of 200, 500 and 1,000 pounds. Coins denominated 10, 20, 50 Piasters were put into circulation on 9 July 2015; as of 2016, South Sudan's coins are being struck at the South African Mint. Bimetallic coins denominated 1 Pound and 2 Pounds has been put into circulation during 2016; the Coat of arms of South Sudan with the country name'REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN' and the date will appear on the obverses. The various coins will include the following: 10 Piasters - Copper-plated Steel - Oil rig. 20 Piasters - Brass-plated Steel - Shoebill stork. 50 Piasters - Nickel-plated Steel - Northern white rhino. 1 Pound - Bronze-plated Steel centre / Nickel-plated Steel ring - Nubian giraffe.
2 Pounds - Nickel-plated Steel centre / Bronze-plated Steel ring - African Shield. Articles about the banknotes of South Sudan. Banknotes of South Sudan
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin, it is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Canada, although one cent coins are no longer minted there. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig, it may be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen. The Carolingian penny was a.940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound. It was adopted by Offa of Mercia and other English kings and remained the principal currency in Europe over the next few centuries until repeated debasements necessitated the development of more valuable coins; the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797.
Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and throughout the British Commonwealth, the name remains in informal use. No penny is formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts. Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending; the etymology of the term "penny" is uncertain, although cognates are common across all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-, or *pand- with the individualizing suffix -ing. Common suggestions include that it was *panding as a Low Franconian form of Old High German pfant "pawn", it has been proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic pn, as the face of Carthaginian goddess Tanit was represented on nearly all Carthaginian currency. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked "new penny" until 1982 and 1985, respectively.
The regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. It remains common in Scottish English and is standard for all senses in American English, however, the informal "penny" is only used of the coins in any case, values being expressed in "cents"; the informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York State. In British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are written and spoken as a single word, as twopence or tuppence, threepence or thruppence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, as a sixpence or two eightpences. Thus, "a threepence" would be single coin of that value whereas "three pence" would be its value and "three pennies" would be three penny coins. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, such constructions were treated as single nouns.
Adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius. It followed the amount after a space, it has been replaced since decimalization by p written without a space or period. From this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as "p". In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢. Elsewhere, it is written with a simple c; the medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, the Roman denarius. Forms of these seem to have reached as far as Sweden; the use of Roman currency in Britain seems to have fallen off after the Roman withdrawal and subsequent Saxon invasions. Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short instituted a major currency reform around AD 755, aiming to reorganise Francia's previous silver standard with a standardized.940-fine denier weighing 1⁄240 pound. Around 790, Charlemagne introduced a new.950 or.960-fine penny with a smaller diameter.
Surviving specimens have an average weight of 1.70 grams, although some estimate the original ideal mass at 1.76 grams. Despite the purity and quality of these pennies, they were rejected by traders throughout the Carolingian period in favor of the gold coins used elsewhere, a situation that led to repeated legislation against such refusal to accept the king's currency; some of the Anglo-Saxons kingdoms copied the solidus, the late Roman gold coin. Around AD 641–670, there seems to have been a movement to use coins with a lower gold content; this decreased their value and may have increased the number that could be minted, but these paler coins do not seem to have solved the problem of the value and scarcity of the currency
The livre was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed; the livre was the name of both units of account and coins. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver, it was subdivided into each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from a Roman unit of weight; this system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish dinero and the Portuguese dinheiro. This first livre is known as the livre carolingienne. Only deniers were minted, but debasement led to larger denominations being issued. Different mints in different regions used different weights for the denier, leading to several distinct livres of different values. "Livre" is a homonym of the French word for "book", the distinction being that the two have a different gender. The monetary unit is la/une livre, while "book" is masculine, le/un livre.
For much of the Middle Ages, different duchies of France were semi-autonomous if not independent from the weak Capetian kings, thus each minted their own currency. Charters would need to specify which region or mint was being used: "money of Paris" or "money of Troyes"; the first steps towards standardization came under the first strong Capetian monarch, Philip II Augustus. Philip II conquered much of the continental Angevin Empire from King John of England, including Normandy and Touraine; the currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered stable, Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands replacing the livre of Paris, the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled. This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime; the result was that from 1200 onwards, following the beginning of King Philip II's campaigns against King John, the currency used within French speaking lands was in a state of flux, as the livre tournois was introduced into other areas.
Until the thirteenth century and onwards, only deniers were minted as coin money. Both livres and sous did not exist as coins but were used only for accounting purposes. Upon his return from the crusades in the 1250s, Louis IX instigated a royal monopoly on the minting of coinage in France and minted the first gold écu d'or and silver gros d'argent, whose weights were equivalent to the livre tournois and the denier. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth 1 livre tournois were minted known as francs; this name persisted in common parlance for 1 livre tournois but was not used on coins or paper money. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549. However, in 1577, the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and replaced by the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation. In 1602, the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back. Louis XIII of France stopped minting the franc in 1641, replacing it with coins based on the silver écu and gold Louis d'or.
The écu and louis d'or fluctuated in value, with the écu varying between three and six livres tournois until 1726 when it was fixed at six livres. The louis was worth ten livres, fluctuated too, until its value was fixed at twenty-four livres in 1726. In 1667, the livre parisis was abolished. However, the sole remaining livre was still referred to as the livre tournois until its demise; the first French paper money was denominated in livres tournois. However, the notes did not hold their value relative to silver due to massive over–production; the Banque Royale crashed in 1720. In 1726, under Louis XV's minister Cardinal Fleury, a system of monetary stability was put in place. Eight ounces of gold was worth 9 sols; this led to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver and established the values of the coins in circulation in France at: the Louis d'or of 24 livres the double Louis d'or of 48 livres the demi-Louis d'or or half-Louis of 12 livres the écu of 6 livres or 120 sols, along with 1⁄2, 1⁄4 and 1⁄8 écu denominations valued at 60, 30 and 15 sols the sol denominated in 1 and 2 sol units valued at 1⁄20 livre per sol the denier denominated in 3 and 6 denier units valued at 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 sol respectively.
A coin of value 1 livre was not, minted. Yet in 1720 a special coin minted in pure silver was assigned an over-value of 1 livre. Additionally, France took Navarrese 20-sol coins minted in 1719 and 1720, re-struck them as 1⁄6 écu creating a coin worth 1 livre; these re-struck coins, however were assigned the value of 18 sols. A kind of paper money was reintroduced by the Caisse d'Escompte in 1776 as actions au porteur, denominated in livres; these were issued until 1793, alongside assignats from 1789. Assignats were backed by government-held land. Like the issues of the Banque Royale, their value plummeted; the last coins and notes of the livre currency system were issued in Year II of the Republic. In 1795, the franc was intro
The Lewes Pound is a local currency in use in the town of Lewes, East Sussex. Inspired by the Totnes pound and BerkShare, the currency was introduced with the blessing of the town council in September 2008 by Transition Town Lewes - a community response to the challenges of climate change and peak oil. Lewes first introduced its own currency in 1789, but this was discontinued in 1895 along with a number of other local currencies, its reintroduction in September 2008 achieved national media coverage. On 3 July 2009, it was announced that the scheme was to be extended and that new notes of £5, £10 and £21 denominations would be issued; the £21 note emphasises the fact that five pence of each Lewes pound bought goes to the local charity the Live Lewes Fund. As of 2017, notes in circulation are: 1 Pound, undated 1 Pound, green, 2009 1 Pound, green, 2017 5 Pounds, blue, 2009 5 Pounds, blue, 2013 5 Pounds, blue, 2017 10 Pounds, yellow, 2009 10 Pounds, blue, 2014 21 Pounds, red, 2009 The value of the Lewes Pound is fixed at £1 Sterling, by January 2009 could used in any of 130 shops in Lewes.
Despite its nominal value, some businesses charge a lesser fee in Lewes Pounds, some of the earliest notes have been sold on eBay for higher values. The front features a picture of the South Downs with an image of Lewes resident Thomas Paine and a quotation of his: "We have it in our power to build the world anew". On the back is a picture of Lewes Castle; the notes are printed on traditional banknote paper and have a number of security features including unique numbering and heat marks. The Lewes Pound and the Transition Towns movement have received criticism for a failure to address the needs of the wider Lewes population lower socio-economic groups; such local currency initiatives have been more criticised in light of limited success in stimulating new spending in local economies and as an unrealistic strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Bristol Pound Stroud Pound Totnes pound BerkShares Toronto Dollar Brixton Pound Official web site details and bulletin board Community Currency Online Magazine