Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Las Vegas Valley
The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U. S. state of Nevada. The state's largest urban agglomeration, it is the heart of the Las Vegas–Paradise-Henderson, NV MSA; the Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a 600 sq mi basin area surrounded by mountains to the north, south and west of the metropolitan area. The Valley is home to the three largest incorporated cities in Nevada: Las Vegas and North Las Vegas. Five unincorporated towns governed by the Clark County government are part of the Las Vegas Township and constitute the largest community in the state of Nevada; the names Las Vegas and Vegas are interchangeably used to indicate the Valley, the Strip, the city, as a brand by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority to denominate the region. The Valley is affectionately known as the "ninth island" by Hawaii natives and Las Vegans alike, in part due to the large number of people from Hawaii who live in and travel to Las Vegas. Since the 1990s the Las Vegas Valley has seen rapid growth, tripling its population of 741,459 in 1990 to 2,227,053 estimated in 2018.
The Las Vegas Valley remains one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, in its short history has established a diverse presence in international business, urban development and entertainment, as well as one of the most iconic and most visited tourist destinations in the world. In 2014, a record breaking 41 million visited the Las Vegas area, producing a gross metropolitan product of more than $100 billion; the first reported non-Native American visitor to the Las Vegas Valley was the Mexican scout Rafael Rivera in 1829. Las Vegas was named by Mexicans in the Antonio Armijo party, including Rivera, who used the water in the area while heading north and west along the Old Spanish Trail from Texas. In the 19th century, areas of the valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas, or meadows, hence the name Las Vegas; the area was settled by Mormon farmers in 1854 and became the site of a United States Army fort in 1864, beginning a long relationship between southern Nevada and the U.
S. military. Since the 1930s, Las Vegas has been identified as a gaming center as well as a resort destination targeting adults. Nellis Air Force Base is located in the northeast corner of the valley; the ranges that the Nellis pilots use and various other land areas used by various federal agencies, limit growth of the valley in terms of geographic area. Businessman Howard Hughes arrived in the late 1960s and purchased many casino hotels, as well as television and radio stations in the area. Legitimate corporations began to purchase casino hotels as well, the mob was run out by the federal government over the next several years; the constant stream of tourist dollars from the hotels and casinos was augmented by a new source of federal money from the establishment of what is now Nellis Air Force Base. The influx of military personnel and casino job-hunters helped start a land building boom, now leveling off; the Las Vegas area remains one of the world's top entertainment destinations. The valley is contained in the Las Vegas Valley landform.
This includes the cities of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, the unincorporated towns of Summerlin South, Spring Valley, Sunrise Manor, Enterprise and Whitney. The valley is technically located within the larger metropolitan area, as the metropolitan area covers all of Clark County including parts that do not fall within the valley; the government of Clark County has an "Urban Planning Area" of Las Vegas. This definition is a rectangular area, about 20 mi from east to west and 30 miles from north to south. Notable exclusions from the "Urban Planning Area" include Red Rock, Blue Diamond, Mount Charleston; the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department is the largest police department in the valley and the state and exercises jurisdiction in the entire county. There are 3,000 police officers that cover the city of Las Vegas; the department does not exercise primary jurisdiction in areas with separate police forces such as North Las Vegas, Boulder City, Nellis Air Force Base and the Paiute reservation.
The Las Vegas Valley lies in the Mojave Desert. The surrounding land is desert with mountains in the distance; the Las Vegas Valley lies in a high-altitude portion of the Mojave Desert, with a subtropical hot-desert climate. The Valley averages less than 5 in of rain annually. Daily daytime summer temperatures in July and August range from 100 °F to 110 °F, while nights range from 72 °F to 80 °F. Low humidity, tempers the effect of these temperatures, though dehydration, heat exhaustion, sun stroke can occur after a limited time outdoors in the summer; the interiors of automobiles prove deadly to small children and pets during the summer and surfaces exposed to the sun can cause first- and second-degree burns to unprotected skin. July and August can be marked by "monsoon season", when moist winds from the Gulf of California soak much of the Southwestern United States. While not only raising humidity levels, these winds develop into dramatic desert thunderstorms that can sometimes cause flash flooding.
Winters in the Las Vegas Valley are chilly, but sunny. Winter highs in December and January range from 52 °F to 60 °F, while nighttime lows range from 34 °F to 42 °F (
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
Michael Dorn is an American actor and voice artist, known for his role as the Klingon Worf in the Star Trek franchise. From his first appearance in the series premiere episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, "Encounter at Farpoint", in 1987 to his last in Star Trek: Nemesis in 2002, Dorn has appeared more times as a regular cast member than any other Star Trek actor in the franchise's history, spanning five films and 272 television episodes, he appeared as Worf's ancestor, Colonel Worf, in the 1991 film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Following the end of his Star Trek career, Dorn had supporting roles in a number of independent feature films, including Shadow Hours, Lessons for an Assassin, the Santa Clause trilogy, in which he appeared in a cameo role as the Sandman. Dorn was born in Luling, the son of Allie Lee and Fentress Dorn, Jr, he grew up in California. He studied television production at Pasadena City College. From there, he pursued a career in music as a performer with several different rock music bands, traveling to San Francisco and back to Los Angeles.
Dorn first appeared in Rocky as Apollo Creed's bodyguard. He appeared as a guest on the television show W. E. B. in 1978. The producer was impressed with his work, so he introduced Dorn to an agent who introduced him to acting teacher Charles Conrad to study acting for six months, he landed a regular role on the television series CHiPs. Dorn's most famous role to date is that of the Klingon Starfleet officer Lieutenant Worf in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. "If what happened to the first cast is called being typecast," Dorn says, "then I want to be typecast. Of course, they didn't get the jobs after'Trek.' But they are making their sixth movie. Name me someone else in television who has made six movies!"Dorn has appeared on-screen in more Star Trek episodes and movies as the same character than anyone else: he appeared in 175 episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation, 102 episodes of Deep Space Nine and four Star Trek movies, bringing his total to 281 appearances as Worf.
Dorn is one of six actors to lend his voice to Star Trek: Captain's Chair, reprising his role of Lieutenant Commander Worf. Dorn's appearance in the film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country was as Colonel Worf, representing Captain James T. Kirk and Dr. Leonard McCoy at their trial on Qo'noS and unmasking the real assassin, Colonel West. Dorn directed the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episodes "In the Cards", "Inquisition" and "When It Rains...", the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Two Days and Two Nights". In 2012, Dorn announced a desire to return to his Klingon role in a television series tentatively titled Star Trek: Captain Worf, he said: I had come up with the idea because I love and I think he's a character that hasn't been developed and hasn't been realized. Once I started thinking about it, it became obvious to me that I wanted to at least put it out there, which I have, the response has been pretty amazing. We've been contacted by different individuals–I can't say who and all that–about wanting to come on board and be part of this.
In 2014, Dorn participated in the fan produced Star Trek episode "Fairest of Them All", giving his voice to the computer of the Mirror Universe Enterprise. Dorn has appeared in a number of TV shows and video games, he has been the spokesman for Neutrogena T-Gel Shampoo, has appeared in a Dodge Dart car commercial. Dorn has appeared as Worf on Webster and Family Guy, the latter along with fellow Star Trek: The Next Generation stars, he had a recurring role on the television series Castle, playing the therapist of NYPD police detective Kate Beckett. Dorn appeared in a 2012 tongue-in-cheek television commercial for Chrysler as "Future Guy", a time traveler sent from the future to assist development of the 2013 Dodge Dart, he plays the role of General Thain in the "Castlevania: Hymn of Blood" web series. A member of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Dorn is an accomplished pilot, he has flown with the Blue Angels as well as the Thunderbirds. Dorn has owned several jet aircraft, including a Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, which he jokingly refers to as his "starship", a North American F-86 Sabre, owns a North American Sabreliner.
Dorn serves on several aviation organizations, one of, the Air Force Aviation Heritage Foundation, where he is on the advisory board. He has done interviews for the "Private Jets" episode of Modern Marvels on The History Channel. Dorn stated in an interview that he was once diagnosed with an "early early" stage of prostate cancer, which led him to become a vegan. Michael Dorn on IMDb Michael Dorn at the TCM Movie Database Michael Dorn at AllMovie Michael Dorn: A Trek Worth Remembering
The Phoenix Lights were a series of sighted unidentified flying objects or UFOs observed in the skies over the U. S. states of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora on March 13, 1997. Lights of varying descriptions were seen by thousands of people between 19:30 and 22:30 MST, in a space of about 300 miles, from the Nevada line, through Phoenix, to the edge of Tucson. There were two distinct events involved in the incident: a triangular formation of lights seen to pass over the state, a series of stationary lights seen in the Phoenix area; the United States Air Force identified the second group of lights as flares dropped by A-10 Warthog aircraft that were on training exercises at the Barry Goldwater Range in southwest Arizona. Witnesses claim to have observed a huge carpenter's square-shaped UFO, containing five spherical lights or light-emitting engines. Fife Symington, the governor at the time, was one witness to this incident. At about 18:55 PST, a man reported seeing a V-shaped object above Nevada.
He said it was about the "size of a 747", sounded like "rushing wind", had six lights on its leading edge. The lights traversed northwest to the southeast. An unidentified former police officer from Paulden, Arizona, is claimed to have been the next person to report a sighting, after leaving his house at about 20:15 MST; as he was driving north, he saw a cluster of reddish or orange lights in the sky, comprising four lights together and a fifth light trailing them. Each of the individual lights in the formation appeared to the witness to consist of two separate point sources of orange light, he returned home and through binoculars watched the lights until they disappeared south over the horizon. Lights were reportedly seen in the areas of Prescott and Prescott Valley. At 20:17 MST, callers began reporting the object was solid, because it blocked out much of the starry sky as it passed over. John Kaiser was standing outside with his wife and sons in Prescott Valley when they noticed a cluster of lights to the west-northwest of their position.
The lights formed a triangular pattern, but all of them appeared to be red, except the light at the nose of the object, distinctly white. The object, or objects, observed for 2 to 3 minutes with binoculars passed directly over the observers, were seen to "Bank to the right", disappeared in the night sky to the southeast of Prescott Valley; the altitude could not be determined. The National UFO Reporting Center received the following report from the Prescott area: At the town of Dewey, 10 miles east of Prescott, six people saw a large cluster of lights while driving northbound on Highway 69. Tim Ley and his wife Bobbi, his son Hal and his grandson Damien Turnidge first saw the lights when they were above Prescott Valley about 65 miles away from them. At first, the lights appeared to them as five separate and distinct lights in an arc-shape, as if they were on top of a balloon, but they soon realized that the lights appeared to be moving towards them. Over the next ten or so minutes, the lights appeared to come closer, the distance between the lights increased, they took on the shape of an upside down V. Eventually, when the lights appeared to be a couple of miles away, the witnesses could make out a shape that looked like a 60-degree carpenter's square, with the five lights set into it, with one at the front and two on each side.
Soon, the object with the embedded lights appeared to be coming right down the street where they lived, about 100 to 150 feet above them, traveling so that it appeared to hover and was silent. The object seemed to pass over their heads and went through a V opening in the peaks of the mountain range towards Squaw Peak Mountain and toward the direction of Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Witnesses in Glendale, a suburb northwest of Phoenix, saw the object pass overhead at an altitude high enough to become obscured by the thin clouds; when the triangular formation entered the Phoenix area, Bill Greiner, a cement driver hauling a load down a mountain north of Phoenix, described the second group of lights: "I'll never be the same. Before this, if anybody had told me they saw a UFO, I would've said, "Yeah and I believe in the Tooth Fairy." "Now I've got a whole new view and I may be just a dumb truck driver, but I've seen something that don't belong here." Greiner stated. A report came from a young man in the Kingman area who stopped his car at a payphone to report the incident.
" young man, en route to Los Angeles, called from a phone booth to report having seen a large and bizarre cluster of stars moving in the northern sky". A repeat of the lights occurred February 6, 2007 and was recorded by the local Fox News television station. According to military officials and the Federal Aviation Administration, these were flares dropped by F-16 aircraft training at Luke Air Force Base. On April 21, 2008, lights were again reported over Phoenix by local residents; these lights appeared to change from square to triangular formation over time. A valley resident reported that shortly after the lights appeared, three jets were seen heading west in the direction of the l
Gwendoline See-Hian Yeo is an American actress, voice actress and musician best known for her role as Xiao-Mei in Desperate Housewives, Sun Foy in the film Broken Trail and as the voice of Shinigami in Nickelodeon's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Yeo starred opposite Robert Duvall and Thomas Haden Church in the Emmy Award-winning Western Broken Trail as Sun Foy, a Chinese girl sold into prostitution in the 1800s. After a worldwide search, Duvall selected her to star opposite him in the role, her performance in the film earned her critical acclaim and a NAMIC Vision Award nomination for Best Actress in 2007. In the independent film Heathens and Thieves, Yeo played Kun Hua, a role which garnered her Best Actress Awards at both the WorldFest Houston International Film Festival and the Iowa Film Festival. Yeo starred in the Emmy Award-nominated Amazon original special, American Girl: Ivy & Julie. Other notable film roles include Dr. Samantha Yep in The Jane Austen Book Club with Emily Blunt and Hugh Dancy, June in Night Skies, The Magic of Ordinary Days with Keri Russell.
Yeo is best known for her recurring guest star role as Xiao-Mei, the Chinese maid of Gabrielle and Carlos in Desperate Housewives. The character's popularity in the series led to an offer for a series regular contract the next season, she had a recurring role as the Oklahoma-born Sargent Richelle (opposite Felicity Huffman in the critically acclaimed series American Crime, played Kelly Lee on General Hospital, has guested on other popular shows such as NCIS, Grey's Anatomy, The Mentalist, Chuck. Yeo is a prominent voice artist in several animated series, video games, commercials, has multiple action figures based on her characters, her character Shinigami, from Nickelodeon's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, was launched during San Diego Comic-Con to a huge crowd of fans. She has voiced several other popular animated characters including Cato Parassiti in Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Domino in Wolverine and the X-Men, Li Mei in The Invincible Iron Man, Lola Chong in Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, Gramma on Stitch!, Mercy Graves in The Batman and Li-en in Zatch Bell!.
She has guest starred on Phineas and Ferb, Kim Possible and What's New, Scooby Doo?. In video games, Yeo is best known as Paine in Final Fantasy X-2 and Kingdom Hearts II, she was the female lead in SOCOM 4 U. S. Navy SEALs as the character Forty-Five. Other notable video game credits include Lady Deathstrike in X-Men: Next Dimension, Yuma in Far Cry 4, Four-Eyes in Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City. Yeo's love of music led her to specialize in playing the Chinese long zither known as the guzheng, which culminated into a one-woman radio show on NPR-KCRW about her immigrant and ugly duckling story, it included the debut of her first two zither/vocal tracks "Kiss My Grits" and "Lovers." Her radio show evolved into a theater piece which Yeo wrote and starred in called Laughing With My Mouth Wide Open, which received rave reviews during its run at the El Centro Theatre. Yeo designed her own limited-edition clothing line, which sold out, donated the proceeds to Kentucky's Christian Appalachian Project.
Born in Singapore, Yeo moved to California as a teenager, graduating from St. Ignatius College Preparatory in 1994. Yeo graduated summa cum laude from UCLA in 1997 and earned a diploma in Classical Piano from the San Francisco Conservatory of Music. Yeo was crowned Miss Asian America in 1995 and was named Miss Chinatown USA in 1998-1999, she is the niece of George Yeo, former Singaporean Minister for Foreign Affairs. Official website Gwendoline Yeo on IMDb Gwendoline Yeo on Facebook Gwendoline Yeo on Twitter Gwendoline Yeo on Instagram
Unidentified flying object
An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term "UFO" was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects". During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use.
UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons. Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe; the acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO for short." Other phrases that were used and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", "unidentifiable object". The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947.
On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. "Anomalous aerial vehicle" or "unidentified aerial system" are sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes. Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the mid-20th century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies. The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily