José Bonifácio de Andrada
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I, he supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior. His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals. In 1800, Andrada e Silva was appointed professor of geology at Coimbra, soon after inspector-general of the Portuguese mines. Returning to the colony in 1819, he urged Dom Pedro I to resist the recall of the Lisbon court, was appointed one of his ministers in 1821; when the independence of Brazil was declared, Andrada e Silva was made minister of the interior and of foreign affairs. He was the author of the abolition project in Brazil, presented to the Constituent Assembly in 1823, but his democratic principles resulted in his dismissal from office in July 1823.
José Bonifácio spent part of his life in Europe. In his trips around Europe he studied mineralogy with other scientists, he collected data, made scientific experiences and discovered 4 new minerals and 8 types of unknown species. The mineral andradite is named after him. Among his other discoveries was petalite, a lithium-containing material, first discovered by Andrade toward the end of the 18th century on a trip to Sweden, it was in this mineral Swedish chemists first discovered lithium, he was the first to discover another important lithium-containing mineral spodumene from the same source, the island of Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago of Sweden. In 1797 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Graduated in Law and Natural Philosophy in Coimbra, he joined the Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, he taught Geognosy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. Knowing twelve languages, he could speak four. In 1819, he travelled back to Brazil. A talented man having an unquiet temperament, he was appointed Minister for Kingdom and Overseas Affairs and became the de facto prime minister.
His relationship with the prince became incompatible and he decided to join the opposition. In 1823 he was exiled and went to live in Bordeaux where, in 1825, come out his "Poesias Avulsas". To publish them he used the pseudonym Américo Elísio. On the dissolution of the Assembly in November, he was arrested and banished to France, where he lived in exile near Bordeaux until 1829, when he was permitted to return to Brazil. In 1831 when Dom Pedro I abdicated from the throne, he was appointed by the former Emperor to be the tutor of the Emperor's sons. Since he did not agree with the Regent's government he tried to reestablish the Empire. After being again arrested in 1833 and tried for intriguing on behalf of Dom Pedro I, he passed the rest of his days in retirement at the city of Niterói, he lost his duties of tutor and was accused of being a traitor, but he was pardoned. In December 1836, he contracted tuberculosis, he died of the disease on 6 April 1838 in Niterói. José Bonifácio had been engaged in Literature.
His work Poesias Avulsas that come out in Bordeaux were republished in Brazil, in 1861, by the publisher Laemmert. In Brazil it received the title "Poesias" and the publication had the coordination of Joaquim Norberto de Sousa. In 1942 Afrânio Peixoto prepared another issue through the Brazilian Academy of Letters; this work, prefaced with a text by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, was published in a collection, as Volume I, idealized by the "Instituto Nacional do Livro", appearing in 1946 with the title Poesias de Américo Elísio. His poetry shows a naturalistic pantheism that expresses his intellectual character and scientific curiosity, his scientific and social works are published in Volume III, compiled and reproduced by Edgar Cerqueira Falcão with the title Obras científicas, politicas e sociais de José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. Its third edition came out in 1963 to celebrate the bicentennial of the Patriarch of the Independence. José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva BARRETO, Vicente. Ideology and politics in the thought of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva.
Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1977. Mansfield, J. "The geology of Utö". Dianium Science. Special issue of the bulletin of the Library of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil. Bibliografy regarding José Bonifácio. Brasilia, 1963. CALDEIRA, Jorge. José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva.. São Paulo: Ed. 34. 2002. CAVALCANTE, Berenice. José Bonifácio: reason and sensibility, a history in three times. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2001. COELHO, José Maria Latino. Elogio Histórico de José Bonifácio. Rio de Janeiro: Edições Livros de Portugal, 1942. COSTA, Pedro Pereira da Silva. José Bonifácio.. São Paulo: Editora Três, 1974. CRUZ, Guilherme Braga da. Coimbra and José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. Lisboa. Sep. "Memories of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon - Class of Letters", 20, 1979. DOLNIKOFF, Miriam. Projects for Brazil, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1998. DRUMOND, A. M. V. Annotations to a biography in vol. XIII dos Anais da Biblioteca Nacional. FALCÃO, Edgar Cerqueira de. Scientific, political a
Law of Brazil
The law of Brazil is based on statutes and and more a mechanism called súmulas vinculantes. It derives from the civil law systems of European countries Portugal, the Napoleonic Code and the Germanic law. There are many codified statutes in force in Brazil; the current Federal Constitution, created on October 5, 1988, is the supreme law of the country. This Constitution has been amended many times. Other important federal law documents in the country include the Civil Code, the Penal Code, the Commercial Code, the National Tributary Code, the Consolidation of Labor Laws, the Customer Defense Code, the Civil Procedures Code and the Criminal Procedures Code; the Constitution organizes the country as a Federative Republic formed by the indissoluble union of the states and municipalities and of the Federal District. Under the principles established in the Federal Constitution, Brazil's 26 federate states have powers to adopt their own Constitutions and laws. Municipalities enjoy restricted autonomy as their legislation must follow the dictates of the Constitution of the state to which they belong, to those of the Federal Constitution itself.
As for the Federal District, it blends functions of federate states and of municipalities, its equivalent to a constitution, named Organic Law, must obey the terms of the Federal Constitution. The powers of the Union, as defined within the Constitution, are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary, which are independent and harmonious amongst themselves; the head of the Executive is the President of the Republic, both the Chief of State and the Head of Government and is directly elected by the citizens. The Legislative, embedded in the form of National Congress and consists of two houses: The Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, both constituted by representatives who are elected by the citizens; the Judicial powers are vested upon the Federal Supreme Court, the Superior Court of Justice, the Regional Federal Courts and Federal Judges. There are specialized courts to deal with electoral and military disputes; the Judiciary is organized into federal and state branches. Municipalities do not have their own justice systems, must, resort to state or federal justice systems, depending on the nature of the case.
The judicial system consists of several courts. The apex is the guardian of the Constitution. Among other duties, it has exclusive jurisdiction to: declare federal or state laws unconstitutional; the Superior Court of Justice is responsible for upholding federal legislation and treaties. The five Regional Federal Courts, have constitutional jurisdiction on cases involving appeals towards the decision ruled by federal judges, are responsible for cases of national interest and crimes foreseen in international pacts, among other duties; the jurisdiction of the Federal Judges include: being responsible for hearing most disputes in which one of the parties is the Union. State-level justice in Brazil consists of state judges; the States of Brazil organize their own judicial systems, with court jurisdiction defined in each state constitution, observing that their legal scope is limited by those that do not concern the federal judicial ordainment. The legislative process begins, in broad terms, with a bill of law in one of the Congress Houses, either the Chamber of Deputies or the Federal Senate, thus called the Originating House.
Once the bill is voted on, it can either be rejected or forwarded to the other house, called the Reviewing House. There the bill can be rejected, approved or amended to be returned to the Originating House. Depending on the object of the bill, it is forwarded for the presidential sanction or veto, as a whole or in part. If the bill is vetoed, the members of the National Congress of Brazil can override such veto. For centuries, as a Portuguese colony, Law enforced in Brazil was the Law of Portugal. Famous students of Brazilian colonial era, among them many revolutionaries, graduated from the important Portuguese University of Coimbra, located in Central Portugal. With the Independence of Brazil and the rise of the Empire, it was necessary to create an independent judiciary and to give its staff a legal education in the country. In 1827, the first law schools in Brazil were founded: the Academies of Law and Social Sciences in São Paulo and Olinda. Brazilian law is derived from Portuguese civil law and is related to the Roman-Germanic legal tradition.
This means that the legal system is based on statutes, although a recent constitutional reform has introduced a mechanism similar to the stare decisis, called súmula vinculante. According to article 103-A of the Brazilian Constitution, only the Supreme Court is allowed to publish binding rules. Inferior judges and courts, the public administration, are hence obliged to obey the interpretations of the Supreme Court. In more recent times, according to the judiciary structure framed in the Brazilian Constitution, judicial power is divided between judicial branch of the states and the Federal judicial branch, they have different jurisdictions; the prerogatives and duties of judges are the same, the differences being only in the competences and composition of the
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic; the country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government.
When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais". The dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists; the earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture". The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both; the Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture.
For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives, but the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans.
Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos.
She concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil. Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Colombus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, having arrived in today's Pernambuco region on 26 January 1500 but was unable to claim the land because of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The Portuguese encountered stone-using natives d
Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned over Portugal, where he became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, thus a member of the House of Braganza; when their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent, he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.
On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast. A secessionist rebellion in the southern province of Cisplatina in early 1825, the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to annex it, led the Empire into the Cisplatine War. In March 1826, Pedro I became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II; the situation worsened in 1828. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother; the Emperor's concurrent and scandalous sexual affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831.
Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, sailed for Europe. Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Faced at first with what seemed a national civil war, he soon became involved in a wider conflict that enveloped the Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of liberalism and those seeking a return to absolutism. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he and the liberals had emerged victorious, he was hailed by both contemporaries and posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move from Absolutist regimes to representative forms of government. Pedro was born at 08:00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Portugal, he was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim.
He was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth. Through his father, Prince Dom João, Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza and a grandson of King Dom Pedro III and Queen Dona Maria I of Portugal, who were uncle and niece as well as husband and wife, his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedro's parents had an unhappy marriage. Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spain's interests to the detriment of Portugal's. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles; as the second eldest son, Pedro became his father's heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, after she was declared incurably insane in 1792. By 1802, Pedro's parents were estranged. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, whom they saw only during state occasions at Queluz.
In late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon. Pedro and his family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, in March 1808. During the voyage, Pedro read Virgil's Aeneid and conversed with the ship's crew, picking up navigational skills. In Brazil, after a brief stay in the City Palace, Pedro settled with his younger brother Miguel and their father in the Palace of São Cristóvão. Although never on intimate terms with his father, Pedro loved him and resented the constant humiliation his father suffered at the hands of Carlota Joaquina due to her extramarital affairs; as an adult, Pedro would call his mother, for whom he held only feelings of contempt, a "bitch". The early experiences of betrayal and neglect had a great impact on the formation of Pedro's character. A modicum of stability during his childhood was provided by his aia, Maria Genoveva do Rêgo e Matos, whom he loved as a mother, by his aio friar António de Arrábida, who became his mentor.
Both attempted to furnish him with a suitable education. His instruction encompassed a broad array of subjects that included mathematics, political economy, logic and geography, he learned to speak and write not only in Por
O Globo is a Brazilian newspaper based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. O Globo is the most prominent print publication in the Grupo Globo media conglomerate. Founded by journalist Irineu Marinho, owner of A Noite, it was intended as a morning daily to extend the newspaper interests of the company. In time, it became the flagship paper of the group; when Irineu died weeks after the founding of the newspaper in 1925, it was inherited by his son Roberto. At age 21, he started working as a trainee reporter for the paper and became managing editor. Roberto Marinho developed Grupo Globo as Brazil's largest media group, entering radio in the 1940s and TV in the 1960s, picking up other interests. 1986, Prince of Asturias Award in Communication. In 1994, just a day before the premiere in Brazil of the British documentary Beyond Citizen Kane, at the Rio de Janeiro Modern Art Museum, the Military Police confiscated the copy of the film, obeying a court warrant in response to a suit filed by Globo; the film explored the establishment of Rede Globo, the largest television broadcaster in the country, its ties to the military dictatorship of the period.
The director of the museum was threatened with a heavy fine in case of disobedience. Due to the public outcry about the censorship, the Secretary of Culture of Rio de Janeiro was fired three days after the incident. In 1995, Globo requested in court the confiscation of copies available at the library of the University of São Paulo, but the claim was overruled; the film was restricted to University groups until the 2000s. Globo's attempt to prevent release of the film in Brazil proved to be a failure following the Internet boom in the 2000s. Through the 1990s, the film was illegally screened in universities and political groups without public notice, it went "viral" on the Internet. On 20 August 2009, the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo reported that Rede Record bought the broadcasting rights of the documentary for less than US$20,000; this followed a series of mutual attacks between Globo and Record because of Globo's reporting of a Public Ministry investigation of Edir Macedo and other high-profile members of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God.
Macedo has owned Rede Record since 9 November 1989. Official website Agência O Globo Moglobo - O Globo mobile
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada
Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada e Silva was a Brazilian politician who played a leading role in the declaration of Brazil's independence and in the government during the years that followed. He was twice Minister of Finance. Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada was born in Santos, São Paulo on 9 April 1775. At the time Santos was just a village, his parents were was Maria Bárbara da Silva. His brothers were José Bonifácio de Andrada, he attended the University of Coimbra in Portugal, where he received degrees in philosophy and mathematics. He earned a PhD in Natural Sciences. At the university he worked with the friar José Mariano de Conceição Vellozo, a naturalist, in translating works on mineralogy and agriculture. After returning to Brazil, Ribeiro de Andrada was appointed inspector general of mines in São Paulo state, he traveled extensively in São Paulo in this role and recording many scientific findings. In this he was accompanied by his brother José Bonifácio and Lieutenant General Carlos Antônio Napion.
In 1820 he and his brother made a tour of the province of São Paulo to find gold deposits. The same year he was appointed secretary and vice president of the provisional government of the province of São Paulo. After the decree of 29 September 1821 had been issued, aiming at again making Brazil a colony of Portugal, he and his brother José Bonifácio contributed to a patriotic proclamation on 24 December 1821. In January 1822 Martim's brother José was in the Court of Rio de Janeiro the principal city of Brazil, involved in the public administration and promoting independence; the Portuguese loyalists still dominated, but ill-judged acts of the court had started to create discontent. In the province of São Paulo General João Carlos managed to stamp out moves towards constitutional freedom. Martim was dismissed from the provisional government of São Paulo and sent as a prisoner to the Court of Rio de Janeiro. Martim was appointed Secretary of State of Business and Finance from 4 July 1822 to 28 October 1822 in the first cabinet of the Empire of Brazil.
Martim was dismissed on 28 October 1822 and reinstated as Minister of Finance on 30 October 1822. His brother José Bonifácio was restored as premier with the mandate of centralizing the union and preventing disorders; this first ministry was marked by a power struggle between José Bonifácio Ribeiro de Andrada and the Freemason group led by Joaquim Gonçalves Lêdo. Martim found that the Treasury of the new Empire of Brazil had no money, since King John VI had taken everything of value back to Portugal when he left the country. Martim Ribeiro de Andrada followed a nationalist policy in which he taxed imports from Portugal. On 30 December 1822 he signed a decree imposing a 24% duty on foreign manufactures other than those from England. Although the state was short of funds after the struggle for independence, Ribeiro de Andrada refused to resort to foreign loans, which he distrusted. Instead he established a ten-year compulsory loan secured by the income from the state of Rio de Janeiro, an unusual measure at the time.
He obtained popular support by promising to transform Brazil from a land of slavery to one of freedom. He reorganized the tax system and by decree of 4 February 1823 created the administration to oversee taxes on products such as coffee and tobacco; the energy of the Andrada brothers in this turbulent time made them enemies, the first ministry fell on 17 July 1823. Out of power, the Andradas became strong voices of the opposition. Martim Ribeiro de Andrada was elected for the province of Rio de Janeiro to the General Constituent and Legislative Assembly of the Empire of Brazil, he was a sometimes passionate speaker. He was chairman of the Assembly for the month of October 1823. On 12 November 1823 the Emperor dissolved the Assembly in an event known as the "Night of Agony"; the three Andrada brothers and other former deputies were arrested and imprisoned until 20 November, when they and their families embarked for Le Havre, France as exiles. In his absence, Martim Francisco and Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada were accused of sedition.
In 1828 the court began the trial. The two returned to Rio de Janeiro. On 6 September 1828 they were freed from prison. In 1830 Martim Ribeiro de Andrada declined to become a counselor to the Emperor, struggling to maintain his position, he was elected deputy for the province of Minas Gerais for the term 5 May 1830 to 10 June 1833. He was President of the Chamber of Deputies from 4 May 1831 to 2 July 1831, he was a deputy for São Paulo from 3 May 1836 to 18 October 1841. Ribeiro de Andrada represented his home town of Santos in the Assembly. On 23 July 1840 the Empire of Brazil was restored after a period of minority rule. Martim Francisco and Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada were appointed to the Council of the Crown by the Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. Martim was Secretary and Minister of State for the Finance Department in the first Cabinet of the 2nd Empire, from 24 August 1840 to 23 March 1841; the country was in financial difficulties, but he was confident that it would recover and called for foreign loans to cover the deficit.
Martim Ribeiro de Andrada was again President of the Chamber of Deputies from 25 April 1842 to 2 January 1843. He was a counselor to the Emperor and a member of the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute. Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrade died in Santos on 23 February 1844 aged 68. A Brazilian biography of 1861 said his name would live in the memory of his grateful homeland as long as civic virtue is honored and patriotism deserves worship