Oaxacan cuisine is a regional cuisine of Mexico, centered on the city of Oaxaca, the capital of the state of the same name located in southern Mexico. Oaxaca is one of Mexico's major gastronomic and gastro-historical centers whose cuisine is known internationally. Like the rest of Mexican cuisine, Oaxacan food is based on staples such as corn and chile peppers, but there is a great variety of other ingredients and food preparations due to the influence of the state's varied geography and indigenous cultures. Corn and many beans were first cultivated in Oaxaca. Well known features of the cuisine include ingredients such as chocolate, Oaxaca cheese and grasshoppers with dishes such as tlayudas, Oaxacan style tamales and seven notable varieties of mole sauce; the cuisine has been praised and promoted by food experts such as Diana Kennedy and Rick Bayless and is part of the state's appeal for tourists. Because of its mountain ranges, the state has a number of climates and cultures, which contributes to making the cuisine the most varied in Mexico.
The state has coastal areas with seafood, the Central Valley region grows a wide variety of vegetables, the area near Veracruz provides a year-round supply of tropical fruits. It has seventeen recognized indigenous groups, who contribute their own cooking traditions; the cooking of each region in the state is characterized by local ingredients and to some extent cooking methods. One example is that of the Triques. However, despite its rich culinary tradition, Oaxaca is a poor state and many struggle to eat decently. Oaxaca's dietary staple is corn, Mexico's for over 7,000 years. Corn is dried and ground to create a dough, used for a number of dishes including entomatadas and tamales. Tortillas are a part of nearly every meal; the main flavoring agent is the chili pepper, with varieties such amarillos, chilhuacles and costeños, but the most distinctive is the pasilla oaxaqueña chile. Distinctive herbs include hoja santa used in chicken and fish dishes as well as mole verde, along with epazote and a local herb called “pitonia.”
Two well known aspects of the cuisine are the use of chocolate for drinking and various edible insects grasshoppers called chapulines. Lesser known regional specialties include ice cream flavored with rose petals, squash flowers found in empanadas, quesadillas and more; as for beans, Oaxacan cuisine prefers black beans in many varieties: cooked with aniseed and served in the form of soup, as a topping for street food, or with scrambled eggs in huevos con frijoles. Another distinctive ingredient is Oaxaca cheese called quesillo, used to make empanadas and tlayudas. Oaxacan cooking varies region by region but a number of dishes can be found in nearly all parts of the state. Tlayudas are large chewy tortillas with toppings of beans, meat or seafood and cheese; the most traditional Oaxacan tamales are large. Other tamale varieties include amarillo, rajas, chepil and dulce. In the Isthmus of Tehuantepec there is a variation with iguana meat and along the coast it can contain seafood. Oaxaca is famous for its chocolate, traditionally hand ground and combined with almonds and other ingredients drunk as a hot beverage.
Other well known Oaxacan dishes include chorizo oaxaqueño, cecina enchilada, cocido oaxaqueño and various sauces such as molcajete, borracha, chile pasilla, guajillo y ajo and gusanitos. Besides chocolate, other typical drinks include mezcal, various types of atole and various fruit based drinks; the culinary center of the state is its capital of the same name, located in what is called the Central Valleys region. While the dominant indigenous group here has been the Zapotecs since the pre Hispanic period, there has been influence from other groups as well, such as the Mixtecs; the indigenous people of Oaxaca have grown corn, beans and other crops for thousands of years. In rural indigenous villages, households still depend on these foods with few changes in how they are grown on small plots; the cooking here retains much of its indigenous flavor, such as dishes prepared without fat and the use of the valley's abundance of vegetables and herbs in its moles. However, as capital of the state, it received influence from other parts of Oaxaca.
The best-known mezcal-producing area of the state is here, between the city of Oaxaca and Mitla, along the highway that leads to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Like tequila, mezcal is made with the cooked hearts of a species of the maguey or agave plant, but the flavor is different, it has been described as smoky, it is drunk straight. It comes in several varieties and can contain flavors such as almond and orange. A related traditional drink is the non-alcoholic sap of the maguey plant. Much of this area's cuisine can be experienced in its many markets, both in the wide variety of ingredients for sale as well as pre-prepared foods to eat. All markets have areas with food stands. One of the best known of these is the 20 de Noviembre market, filled with food stands that prepare everything from various moles, to hot chocolate with pan de yema bread, it includes a section specializing in meats such as tasajo and chorizo cooked to order and eaten with large corn tortillas and various grilled and fresh vegetables.
Despite the Central Valley's geographic remoteness, t
The Guelaguetza, or Los lunes del cerro, is an annual indigenous cultural event in Mexico that takes place in the city of Oaxaca, capital of the state of Oaxaca, as well as in nearby villages. The celebration centers on traditional dancing in costume in groups gender-separated groups, as is traditional, includes parades complete with indigenous walking bands, native food, statewide artisanal crafts such as prehispanic-style textiles; each costume and dance has a local indigenous historical and cultural meaning. Although the celebration is now an important tourist attraction, it retains deep cultural importance for the peoples of the state and is important for the continuing survival of these cultures. Oaxaca has a large native indigenous population, well over 50 percent of the population, compared to 20 percent for Mexico as a whole. Indigenous culture in Oaxaca remains strong, with over 300,000 people in the state who are monolingual in a wide variety of native indigenous languages and many others who are bilingual in Spanish, or follow a predominantly indigenous lifestyle.
Unlike Yucatán located in the Mexican Southeast, where the indigenous culture consists of related groups of the same culture, the indigenous people in Oaxaca are from many different cultures. Zapotec and Mixtec are the two biggest ethnic groups in terms of population and area, but there are a great number of other groups, all have their own unique traditions and speak diverse, mutually unintelligible languages; the Guelaguetza celebration dates back long before the arrival of the Spanish and remains a defining characteristic of Oaxacan culture. Its origins and traditions come from prehispanic earth-based religious celebrations related to the worship of corn and the corn god. In contemporary Oaxaca, indigenous communities from within the state gather at the Guelaguetza to present their native culture in the form of music, costumes and food, it is the most famous indigenous gathering of its kind in Mexico. Like many indigenous traditions in Mexico, this festival was adapted to and mixed with Christian traditions after the Spanish conquest of the area.
The human sacrifice of a virgin slave girl was eliminated from the event, the Guelaguetza instead became mixed into a celebration honoring Our Lady of Mount Carmel, emphasizing marianism combined with the surviving beliefs. In the early part of the 20th century, after a severe earthquake in the 1920s that destroyed most of the city, the festival was re-organized as a statewide cultural event to rebuild the morale of the peoples of Oaxaca "La Guelaguetza de la Raza", it began to take on a more modern form as a display of each peoples/region's unique dance, started to become more of a show than a spontaneous festival. In the 1970s a stadium dedicated to the Guelaguetza was built on a prominent place on Fortin Hill in the center of the city. National and international tourism became popular when the ancient city of Oaxaca became a UNESCO world heritage city in 1987 and when a modern limited access highway was built to the city in November 1994. Before the highway, transportation was so slow that it was impossible to journey through the rugged remote, mountainous high-altitude terrain to reach Oaxaca City from other cities such as Mexico City for a weekend trip to the Guelaguetza.
The celebration takes place on consecutive Mondays at the end of July in towns around the state and in the capital city's open-air amphitheater built into the "Cerro del Fortín", a hill that overlooks central Oaxaca City. The word Guelaguetza comes from the Zapotec language and is interpreted as the "reciprocal exchanges of gifts and services" in keeping with the importance in indigenous cultures of sharing and extended community; the Guelaguetza celebration includes many other side events, including a performance of "Princess Donaji", an epic prehispanic theatrical presentation performed the day before the Guelaguetza itself begins. Each year the Guelaguetza is celebrated on the two Mondays following July 16, except when the first Monday falls on July 18, the day on which Benito Juárez, the first indigenous president of Mexico died. Out of respect for Oaxaca's most revered native son, the celebrations are postponed for one week, falling on July 25 and August 1. However, side events associated with the festival, such as concerts and plays, are held all during the month of July.
As the festival became a bigger tourist attraction, there was a backlash from purists that saw the ancient traditions being used for vulgar commercial purposes. There is a subgroup in Oaxaca that vocally pushes for a Populist Guelaguetza, or a return to the more spontaneous celebrations of the pre-Hispanic era before colonialism and the current system. Among other issues, the 2005 decision to conduct two performances a day for each of the two Mondays, was perceived by many traditionalists as a blatant and disrespectful attempt by powerful economic forces and political interests to accommodate more monied, ticket-purchasing and international tourists. Due to widespread protests against the Partido Revolucionario Institutional - led state government and its leader by the Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca; the following year, the 2007 official Guelguetza celebration was boycotted by the APPO, attempts to hold a Popular Guelaguetza were thwarted by government p
A duende is a creature from Iberian, Latin American, Filipino folklore. The Spanish term duende originated as a contraction of the phrase dueño de casa or duen de casa, "possessor of a house", was conceptualized as a mischievous spirit inhabiting a house; the word is used in Portuguese folklore, being used to describe beings of a small stature wearing big hats, whistling a mystical song, while walking in the forest. Using their talent, they are believed to lure young girls and boys to the forest causing them to lose their way home. Conversely, in some Latin American cultures, duendes are believed to be the helpers of people who get lost in the forest so they could find their way home. In the folklore of the Central American country of Belize amongst the country's African/Island Carib-descended Creole and Garifuna populations, duendes are thought of as forest spirits called "Tata Duende" who lack thumbs. In the Hispanic folklore of Mexico and the American Southwest, duendes are known as gnome-like creatures who live inside the walls of homes in the bedroom walls of young children.
They attempt to clip the toenails of unkempt children leading to the mistaken removal of entire toes. Belief in duendes still exists among the Mixtecs and Zapotecs of Oaxaca and it is said that they are most found in the mossy cloud forests of the state's mountain ranges; some Filipinos believe in dwende, which dwell in rocks and caves, old trees and dark parts of houses, or in anthills and termite mounds. Those that live in the last two are termed nunò sa punsó, they are either categorized as good or evil depending on their color, are said to play with children. Offending a nunò sa punsó is taboo; the Chamorro people of the taotaomo'na, duendes and other spirits. A duende, according to the Chamorro-English Dictionary by Donald Topping, Pedro Ogo and Bernadita Dungca, is a goblin, ghost or spook in the form of a dwarf, a mischievous spirit which hides or takes small children. Alux Tennin Emmons, Katherine M.. "Perceptions of the Environment while Exploring the Outdoors: a case study in Belize".
Environmental Education Research. Ambingdon, Oxfordshire: Carfax Publishing, in conjunction with the University of Bath. 3: 327–344. Doi:10.1080/1350462970030306. OCLC 34999650. Garza, Xavier. Creepy Creatures and other Cucuys. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press. ISBN 1-55885-410-X. OCLC 54537415. Filipino Folklore: Aswang
Our Lady of Solitude
Our Lady of Solitude is a title of Mary and a special form of Marian devotion practised in Spanish-speaking countries to commemorate the solitude of Mary on Holy Saturday. Variant names include Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Maria Santisima, Nuestra Señora Dolorosisima de la Soledad, Virgen de la Soledad; the title originates with Queen Juana lamenting the early death of her husband Philip I of Castile in 1506. María de la Soledad's feast day is celebrated on December 18 in Spanish-speaking countries, on Holy Saturday in English-speaking countries; the image of Our Lady of the Loneliness of Victory was a carving made by the sculptor Gaspar Becerra for the late convent of Our Lady of Victory in Madrid, in whose church he had an important chapel. Isabel de Valois wife of Felipe II, had in his private oratory a painting that had brought with her from France and that represented the Virgin of the Solitude, the image of the picture aroused great devotion in the friars of the Order of the Minims of San Francisco de Paula, who had settled in Madrid following in the footsteps of the monarch.
The friars asked permission to the queen to make a copy of the image in order to worship him in the chapel of his convent of Our Lady of Victory, that yes, the copy would be of bulk, to say, a sculpture and its making It was commissioned to Gaspar Becerra. From the beginning, the image was intended to be "vestidera", therefore only the head and hands would be carved, the rest being a wooden frame that would be covered with clothes, it seems that on the initiative of the Countess of Ureña, Dña María de la Cueva y Toledo, the queen's main waitress, she wore her own outfit of a noble widow of the time, this characteristic attire added to other peculiarities, such as wearing a diadem in place of crown, or be accompanied by the symbols of the Passion, constituted a true revolution in the typology of Marian images. In 1565 after more than a year of work, the queen gives to the convent of the Victory of the image of Our Lady of Solitude. María de la Soledad is the patroness of Parla, Spain; the Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Soledad, California was devoted to María de la Soledad.
The given name María de la Soledad shortened to Marisol or Soledad, is used in Spanish-speaking countries. Our Lady of Sorrows Soledad mentions many people and institutions named for María de la Soledad Media related to Our Lady of Solitude at Wikimedia Commons
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Our Lady of Guadalupe known as the Virgin of Guadalupe, is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a Marian apparition and a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. The basilica is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, the world's third most-visited sacred site. Pope Leo XIII granted the venerated image a Canonical Coronation on 12 October 1895. Catholic accounts claim that the Virgin Mary appeared four times before Juan Diego and once more before Juan Diego's uncle. According to those Catholic version accounts, the first apparition occurred on the morning of December 9, 1531, when it is said that a native Mexican peasant named Juan Diego experienced a vision of a young woman at a place called the Hill of Tepeyac, which would become part of Villa de Guadalupe, in a suburb of Mexico City. According to the accounts, the woman, speaking to Juan Diego in his native Nahuatl language, identified herself as the Virgin Mary, "mother of the true deity".
She was said to have asked for a church to be built at that site in her honor. Based on her words, Juan Diego sought out the archbishop of Mexico City, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, to tell him what had happened. Not unexpectedly, the bishop did not believe Diego, but on the same day Juan Diego saw the young woman for a second time; the story continues saying she asked him to keep insisting. On Sunday, December 10, Juan Diego talked to the archbishop for a second time; the latter instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, to ask the lady for a acceptable, miraculous sign to prove her identity. That same day, the third apparition occurred when Diego returned to Tepeyac and encountering the same woman, he reported back to her the bishop's request for a sign. By Monday, December 11, Juan Diego's uncle, Juan Bernardino, had fallen sick so Juan Diego was obliged to attend to him. In the early hours of Tuesday, December 12, Juan Bernardino's condition having deteriorated overnight, Juan Diego set out to Tlatelolco to fetch a Catholic priest to hear Juan Bernardino's confession and help minister to him on his death-bed.
In order to avoid being delayed by the Virgin and ashamed at having failed to meet her on the Monday as agreed, Juan Diego chose another route around the hill, but the Virgin intercepted him and asked where he was going. In the words which have become the most famous phrase of the Guadalupe event and are inscribed over the main entrance to the Basilica of Guadalupe, she asked, "¿No estoy yo aquí que soy tu madre?". She assured him that Juan Bernardino had now recovered and she told him to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill, barren in the cold of December. Juan followed her instructions and he found Castilian roses, not native to Mexico, blooming there; the Virgin arranged the flowers in Juan's tilma, or cloak, when Juan Diego opened his cloak before archbishop Zumárraga on December 12, the flowers fell to the floor, on the fabric was the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The next day, on December 13, Juan Diego found his uncle recovered, as the Virgin had assured him, Juan Bernardino recounted that he too had seen her, at his bed-side.
The bishop kept Juan Diego's mantle first in his private chapel and in the church on public display where it attracted great attention. On December 26, 1531 a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small hastily erected chapel. In course of this procession, the first miracle was performed when an Indian was mortally wounded in the neck by an arrow shot by accident during some stylized martial displays executed in honour of the Virgin. In great distress, the Indians pleaded for his life. Upon the arrow being withdrawn, the victim made a immediate recovery. Juan Diego's tilma has become Mexico's most popular religious and cultural symbol, has received widespread ecclesiastical and popular support. In the 19th century it became the rallying call of the Spaniards born in America, in what they labeled New Spain, they said they saw the story of the apparition as legitimizing their own indigenous Mexican origin, infused it with an messianic sense of mission and identity – thus legitimizing their armed rebellion against Spain.
The devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe did not lack significant Catholic clerical opposition within Mexico and elsewhere in the early years, in more recent times some Catholic scholars, a former abbot of the basilica, Monsignor Guillermo Schulenburg, have openly doubted the historical existence of Juan Diego, referring to their devotion as symbolic, propagated by a sensational cult who were looking to bolster Catholic devotion from amongst the indigenous. Nonetheless, Juan Diego was canonized under the name Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. While the image garners much religious devotion and fervent Mexican patriotism, scholarly criticism on the image is notable, considering the artistic disproportion of the image, the similarity of the image to Spanish pre-colonial artwork related to the Aztec colony at the time, the alleged relationship of Marcos C
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the Mexican mural movement in Mexican art. Between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals in, among other places, Mexico City, Cuernavaca, San Francisco and New York City. In 1931, a retrospective exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Rivera had a volatile marriage with fellow Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. Rivera was born in Guanajuato, Mexico, to a well-to-do family, the son of María del Pilar Barrientos and Diego Rivera Acosta. Diego had a twin brother named Carlos. Rivera was said to have Converso ancestry. Rivera wrote in 1935: "My Jewishness is the dominant element in my life." Rivera began drawing at the age of three, a year after his twin brother's death. He had been caught drawing on the walls, his parents, rather than punishing him, installed chalkboards and canvas on the walls.
As an adult, he married Angelina Beloff in 1911, she gave birth to a son, Diego. Maria Vorobieff-Stebelska gave birth to a daughter named Marika in 1918 or 1919 when Rivera was married to Angelina, he married his second wife, Guadalupe Marín, in June 1922, with whom he had two daughters: Ruth and Guadalupe. He was still married, they married on August 21, 1929 when he was 42 and she was 22. Their mutual infidelities and his violent temper led to divorce in 1939, but they remarried December 8, 1940 in San Francisco. Rivera married Emma Hurtado, his agent since 1946, on July 29, 1955, one year after Kahlo's death. Rivera was an atheist, his mural Dreams of a Sunday in the Alameda depicted Ignacio Ramírez holding a sign which read, "God does not exist". This work caused a furor; the painting was not shown for nine years --. He stated: "To affirm'God does not exist', I do not have to hide behind Don Ignacio Ramírez, he was sponsored to continue study in Europe by Teodoro A. Dehesa Méndez, the governor of the State of Veracruz.
After arrival in Europe in 1907, Rivera went to study with Eduardo Chicharro in Madrid and from there went to Paris, France, to live and work with the great gathering of artists in Montparnasse at La Ruche, where his friend Amedeo Modigliani painted his portrait in 1914. His circle of close friends, which included Ilya Ehrenburg, Chaim Soutine, Amedeo Modigliani and Modigliani's wife Jeanne Hébuterne, Max Jacob, gallery owner Léopold Zborowski, Moise Kisling, was captured for posterity by Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska in her painting "Homage to Friends from Montparnasse". In those years, Paris was witnessing the beginning of Cubism in paintings by such eminent painters as Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and Juan Gris. From 1913 to 1917, Rivera enthusiastically embraced this new school of art. Around 1917, inspired by Paul Cézanne's paintings, Rivera shifted toward Post-Impressionism with simple forms and large patches of vivid colors, his paintings began to attract attention, he was able to display them at several exhibitions.
Rivera died on November 24, 1957. In 1920, urged by Alberto J. Pani, the Mexican ambassador to France, Rivera left France and traveled through Italy studying its art, including Renaissance frescoes. After José Vasconcelos became Minister of Education, Rivera returned to Mexico in 1921 to become involved in the government sponsored Mexican mural program planned by Vasconcelos. See Mexican muralism; the program included such Mexican artists as José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Rufino Tamayo, the French artist Jean Charlot. In January 1922, he painted – experimentally in encaustic – his first significant mural Creation in the Bolívar Auditorium of the National Preparatory School in Mexico City while guarding himself with a pistol against right-wing students. In the autumn of 1922, Rivera participated in the founding of the Revolutionary Union of Technical Workers and Sculptors, that year he joined the Mexican Communist Party, his murals, subsequently painted in fresco only, dealt with Mexican society and reflected the country's 1910 Revolution.
Rivera developed his own native style based on large, simplified figures and bold colors with an Aztec influence present in murals at the Secretariat of Public Education in Mexico City begun in September 1922, intended to consist of one hundred and twenty-four frescoes, finished in 1928. His art, in a fashion similar to the steles of the Maya, tells stories; the mural En el Arsenal shows on the right-hand side Tina Modotti holding an ammunition belt and facing Julio Antonio Mella, in a light hat, Vittorio Vidali behind in a black hat. However, the En el Arsenal detail shown does not include the right-hand side described nor any of the three individuals mentioned. Leon Trotsky lived with Kahlo for several months while exiled in Mexico; some of Rivera's most famous murals are featured at the National School of Agriculture at Chapingo near Texcoco, in the Cortés Palace in Cuernav