Circle dance, or chain dance, is a style of dance done in a circle or semicircle to musical accompaniment, such as rhythm instruments and singing. Circle dancing is the oldest known dance formation and was part of community life from when people first started to dance. Dancing in a circle is an ancient tradition common to many cultures for marking special occasions, strengthening community and encouraging togetherness; the dance can be enjoyed as an uplifting group experience or as part of a meditation. Circle dances are choreographed to many different styles of music and rhythms. Unlike line dancing, circle dancers are in physical contact with each other, it is a type of dance. The participants follow a leader around the dance floor while holding the hand of the dancers beside them; the dance can be energetic. Modern circle dance mixes traditional folk dances from European or Near Eastern sources, with choreographed ones to a variety of music both ancient and modern. There is a growing repertoire of new circle dances to classical music and contemporary songs.
Modern circle dancing is found in many cultures, including Arabic, Assyrian, Turkish, Azerbaijani and South Eastern European. Despite its immense reputation in the Middle East and southeast Europe, circle dancing has a historical prominence in Brittany and Ireland to the west of Europe, in South America and with Native Americans, it is used, in its more meditative form, in worship within various religious traditions including, the Church of England and the Islamic Haḍra dances. Thousands of medieval tombstones called "Stećci" were found in Bosnia and Hercegovina and neighboring areas, they dated from the end of the 12th century to the 16th century. They bear inscription and figures. Men and women are portrayed dancing together holding hands at shoulder level but the groups consist of only one sex. In Macedonia, near the town of Zletovo, the murals on the monastery of Lesnovo, which date from the 14th century, show a group of young men linking arms in a round dance. A chronicle from 1344 urges the people of the city of Zadar to sing and dance circle dances for a festival.
However, a reference comes from Bulgaria, in a manuscript of a 14th-century sermon, which calls chain dances "devilish and damned." The circle dance of Germany was called "Reigen", which dates from the 10th century, may have originated from devotional dances at early Christian festivals. Dancing around the church or a fire was denounced by church authorities which only underscores how popular it was. One of the frescos in Tyrol, at Runkelstein Castle, depicts Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary leading a chain dance. Circle dances were found in Czech Republic, dating to the 15th century. Dancing was done around trees on the village green. In Poland as well the earliest village dances were in circles or lines accompanied by the singing or clapping of the participants. In the 14th century Giovanni Boccaccio describes men and women circle dancing to their own singing or accompanied by musicians. One of the frescos in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted in 1338-40 show a group of women doing a "bridge" figure while accompanied by another woman playing the tambourine.
There are the accounts of two western European travelers to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In 1577, Salomon Schweigger describes the events at a Greek wedding: "then they joined arms one upon the other, made a circle, went round the circle, with their feet stepping hard and stamping. Another traveler, the German pharmacist Reinhold Lubenau, was in Constantinople in November 1588 and reports on a Greek wedding in these terms: "a company of Greeks of ten or more persons, stepped forth to the open place, took each other by the hand, made a round circle, now stepped backward, now forward, sometimes went around, singing in Greek the while, sometimes stamped on the ground with their feet." In Denmark, old ballads mention a closed circle dance. A fresco in Ørslev church in Zealand from about 1400 shows nine people and women, dancing in a line; the leader and some others in the chain carry bouquets of flowers. In the case of women's dances, there may have been a man. In Sweden, medieval songs mentioned dancing.
A long chain was formed, with the leader singing the verses and setting the time while the other dancers joined in the chorus. The hora dance originates in the Balkans but found in other countries; the dancers hold each other's hands and the circle spins counterclockwise, as each participant follows a sequence of three steps forward and one step back. The Hora is popular during wedding celebrations and festivals, is an essential part of the social entertainment in rural areas. In Bulgaria, it is not necessary to be in a circle; the kolo is a collective folk dance common in various South Slavic regions, such as Serbia, named after the circle formed by the dancers. It is performed amongst groups of people holding each other's having their hands around each other's waists. There is no movement
A square dance is a dance for four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances were first documented in 16th-century England but were quite common in France and throughout Europe, they came to North America with the European settlers and have undergone considerable development there. In some countries and regions, through preservation and repetition, square dances have attained the status of a folk dance; the Western American square dance may be the most known form worldwide due to its association in the 20th century with the romanticized image of the American cowboy. Square dancing is, therefore associated with the United States. Nineteen U. S. states have designated it as their official state dance. The various square dance movements are based on the steps and figures used in traditional folk dances and social dances from many countries; some of these traditional dances include English country dance and the quadrille. In most American forms of square dance, the dancers are prompted or cued through a sequence of steps by a caller to the beat of music.
In some forms of traditional square dancing, the caller may be one of the dancers or musicians, but in modern Western square dancing the caller will be on stage, giving full attention to directing the dancers. Modern Western square dances are not learned as complete routines; the American folk music revival in New York City in the 1950s was rooted in the resurgent interest in square dancing and folk dancing there in the 1940s, which gave musicians such as Pete Seeger popular exposure. Terminology: In the United States, in general, people go to square dances and call it square dancing. In England and Scotland, people go to all sorts of dances at which some of the dances will be square dances, but they don't say that they are "square dancing"; the majority of dances at such events will be in the form of longways sets, sets of four, three-couple or four-couple sets or circassian circles. Conversely, people not familiar with the various different forms of dance may ask for an evening of square dance meaning a barn dance where many different formations of dance are used.
It is possible to go to one of these "square dances" and not do a single actual square dance all evening. Traditional square dance, called "old time square dance". Traditional square dance can be subdivided into regional styles; the New England and Appalachian styles have been well documented. There are several other styles. Traditional square dance is presented in alternation with contra dances or with some form of freestyle couple dancing. One ancestor of New England style square dances is the quadrille, older New England callers refer to their squares as "quadrilles." Where traditional square dance has been revived, it encompasses a wide range of new choreography. Modern Western square dance, called "Western square dance", "contemporary Western square dance", or "modern American square dance". Modern Western square dance evolved from the Western style of traditional square dance from about 1940 to 1960. Traditional Western square dancing was promoted beginning in the 1930s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve that dance form and make it available to other teachers.
Since the 1970s modern Western square dance has been promoted and standardized by Callerlab, the "International Association of Square Dance Callers". Modern Western square dance is sometimes presented in alternation with round dances; this modern form of square dancing is taught in around thirty countries. As well as the USA and Canada, this includes the United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, China and Russia. Within Europe, the majority of square dance clubs are in the United Kingdom. All teach the Callerlab syllabus; the initial stage reached by all dancers is called Mainstream. This program consists of a'core' list of about 70 moves, revised periodically; because of this standardization, it is possible for anyone with the proper training to enjoy modern Western square dancing in many countries around the world. Playford: John Playford published The English Dancing Master in 1651. Eight of the 105 dances are square dances, many exhibiting concepts that we still use today such as the Heads performing an action and the Sides repeating the same action.
Three of the dances, such as "Dull Sir John" state "A Square Dance for Eight thus". Square dances such as "Newcastle", one of those original eight, are still popular today, countless new dances have been written in the Playford style, or English country dance style as it is known in the United States. Folk Dance /Barn dance: At English folk or country dances a wide range of dances is performed, many of which are square dances: Playford style dances. D. Willock in the "Manual of Dancing".
Country/western dance called country and western dance, encompasses many dance forms or styles, which are danced to country-western music, which are stylistically associated with American country and/or western traditions. Many of these dances were "tried and true" dance steps, "put aside" for many years, became popular under the name "country-western", "cowboy", or "country". Country dancing is known as "kicker dancing" in Texas. Western couple dancing is a form of social dance. Many different dances are done to country-western music; these dances include: Two Step, Cowboy or Traveling Cha Cha, Polka Ten Step and other Western promenade dances, East Coast Swing, West Coast Swing, Nightclub Two Step. The Two Step and various Western promenade or pattern couples dances are unique to country western dancing. Western group dances include the following: Line dance Square dance Traditional square dance Modern western square danceCountry dancing is informal; because of cowboy boots, country western dance is more to feature a flat-footed glide with some heel and toe touches rather than a lot of "toe type" dancing.
In addition to a quiet upper body, there is little hip movement. Pumping of the hands and waddling are not encouraged. Cowboy, or "country" waltz consists of gliding steps that are consistent with wearing cowboy boots, rather than "on the balls of the feet" quick steps of the classic version. Neither foot is lifted from the ground. Steps should be a light footed glide rather than a flat footed shuffle. There are many versions of each dance, they may go by different names depending on the area of the U. S. and in the particular dance hall. There may be no one "correct" way to a particular dance. Several types of dancing may take place at country western dances. Progressive dancers use the outside of the floor. Swing and other non progressive dancers are found either in the outside corners, or in the center of the floor, along with line dancers. Traditionally the man set the pace, established the length of stride, decided when to change step, the woman followed. A woman having more dance skills sometimes provided a tactful guiding push or pull, as long as it wasn't obvious.
As soon as the man learns the routine, he takes the lead by combining firm, but gentle pushes and pulls. The leader should move assertively, the follower should duplicate the countermovements, or perform her part of the dance. A photograph from one early "stag" dance shows a "closed" dance position, with the "man's" right arm around the back of the "woman". In frontier days men danced with each other. According to an early settler in Texas, "The gentle sex were few in number at the dance... Two men had to dance together to make a set." Another account states that "due to the scarcity of young women, a number of young bachelors who were either smooth shaven or wore polished shoes were designated as ladies." There were "stag" dances with no women. "Heifer branded" men, those dancing the woman's role, wore handkerchiefs tied around one arm. At other times men dancing the role of the woman wore aprons. Miners in the California Gold Rush danced with one another. From the earliest days, the dances and the music that accompanied them were brought to The United States by the people of the British Isles, continental Europe, Africa.
The Virginia Reel, based on the "Sir Roger de Coverly" became popular after the French Revolution. Quadrilles, including the cotillon, anglicized as cotillion, were brought to America by French dancing masters, their influence survives in terms used in square dancing. One 1774 account states. A couple begins to cut a jig. Others come and cut them out, these dances always last as long as the fidler can play." Another author wrote of whites doing "giggs". Southern wrote that "the whites themselves, the younger ones, were apt to move into reels and jigs at their own dances after a few perfunctory bows in the direction of "society sets" such as minuets and cotillions. In the early 19th century larger farm houses had dance rooms built in along the back of the second story. In smaller houses the kitchen was used for dancing. "Junkets" were casual affairs. Town halls were used for gatherings; these dances would last from mid-afternoon through the next morning. Early solo dancing was composed of extemporaneous jigging done by men.
The term "jig" has been used to describe various forms of solo dance steps, as well as music, has not been well defined. Jigs, shuffles, heel clicking and other step dances may have come from various ethnic traditions, or nothing more than an individual improvisation. Other early terms used to describe either solo dancing or steps done as part of a circle or square dance were buck-and-wing, flat-footing, double shuffle and breakdown. In the early 19th century Richmond, Virginia held an annual event at the conclusion of a week of horse racing, the Race Ball, which began with a stately minuet followed by "the reel, like a storm after a calm." Music provided by two black musicians was quite "fast and furious" with the dancers doing "all sorts of capers" to reels, congos and jigs. Dances on the prairie frontier included the scamperdown, double shuffle, western-swing, double shuffle."Making the splinters fly" along with rapid clatter and thumping was heard at frontier parties, either as side entertainment at the dance parties, or in contests.
A Texan "stag dance" held in 1829 inclu
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing
Ecstatic dance is a form of dance in which the dancers, sometimes without the need to follow specific steps, abandon themselves to the rhythm and move as the music takes them, leading to trance and a feeling of ecstasy. Ecstatic dance has been practised throughout human history, including in classical times by the maenads, followers of the wine-god Dionysus. In the ancient and widespread practice of shamanism, ecstatic dance and rhythmic drumming are used to alter consciousness in spiritual practices as different as the Kut ritual of Korea and among the San of Southern Africa. Ecstatic dances are known from religious traditions around the world, including Sufi dervishes. Modern ecstatic dance was revived by Gabrielle Roth in the 1970s and formalised in her 5Rhythms practice; the effects of ecstatic dance begin with ecstasy itself, which may be experienced in differing degrees. Dancers are described as feeling connected to others, to their own emotions; the dance serves as a form of meditation, helping people to attain serenity.
Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ékstasis, in turn from ἐκ and ἵστημι is a subjective experience of total involvement of the subject, with an object of his or her awareness. In classical Greek literature it meant the removal of the mind or body "from its normal place of function." In their 2003 DVD Dances of Ecstasy, the filmmakers Michelle Mahrer and Nicole Ma documented ecstatic dances from around the world, with traditional dances by the San of the Kalahari desert of Namibia, by the Yoruba of Nigeria. To this list can be added Balinese trance dances; the writer and musician Karen Berggren relates ecstatic dance to the ancient practice of shamanism, which has for millennia made use of drumming and ecstatic dance to alter consciousness in spiritual practices. For example, the San bushmen of the Kalahari have a shamanic healing dance. Paul and Josephine Zmolek note that mass expressions of sacred ecstatic dance in Europe ended in the Middle Ages, but that these were little regarded in official chronicles.
They state that the dances were described both as "disease and satanic hysteria" and "paradoxically and saintly grace." They assert that these "choreomanias were shamanic pilgrimages. The Christian church "instituted Christ as the ultimate shaman", leading to the prohibition of shamanistic dance. In Greek mythology, the Maenads were intoxicated female worshippers of the Greek god of wine, known for their "ecstatic revelations and frenzied dancing"; the female followers of Dionysus, including bacchants and thyai as well as maenads, seek the "wild delirium" of possession by the god, "get out of themselves". Among Dionysos's entourage were wild and drunk satyrs, sileni and bacchants, a confusing mixture of supernatural and human; the oreibasia was a midwinter Dionysian rite practised by women, said to be an "unrestrained, ecstatic dance where the'human' personality was temporarily replaced by another", though it became structured into a definite ritual. The male counterparts of the Maenads were the Korybantes and crested ecstatic dancers who worshipped the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing.
They were the offspring of the god Apollo. The Greeks confused them with other ecstatic male confraternities, such as the Idaean Dactyls or the Cretan Kouretes, spirit-youths with magical powers who acted as guardians of the infant Zeus. In Hindu mythology, the Rig Veda tells of the Maruts, the furiously wild but innocently playful companions of the god Rudra-Shiva, they are depicted "as a troupe of freakish, adventurous and wild young people, who prowl in the night, shouting in the storm, singing and ceaselessly playing outrageous tricks on sages and gods." The god's human followers may identify with and imitate the god's companions, just as happened in ancient Greece with the followers of Dionysos and the Korybantes. A variety of religions and other traditions around the world make use of ecstatic dance. For example, some modern Witchcraft traditions such as the Reclaiming Tradition and the Feri Tradition define themselves as "ecstatic traditions", focus on reaching ecstatic states in their rituals.
The Afro-American religious tradition Candomblé, practiced in Brazil, makes use of music and ecstatic dance in which worshippers become possessed by their own tutelary deities, Orishas. In northern Greece and southern Bulgaria, in the annual celebrations for Saint Constantine and Saint Helen, dancers perform the Anastenaria, a fire-walking ritual, as the climax of three days of processions, music and animal sacrifice. In the trad
Novelty and fad dances
Novelty and fad dances are dances which are characterized by a short burst of popularity. Some of them may get longer-lasting life, they are called dance fads or dance crazes. As the pop music market exploded in the late 1950s, dance fads were exploited. From the 1950s to the 1970s, new dance fads appeared every week. Many were popularized versions of new styles or steps created by African-American dancers who frequented the clubs and discothèques in major U. S. cities like New York and Detroit. Among these were the Madison, "The Swim", the "Mashed Potato", "The Twist", "The Frug", "The Watusi", "The Shake" and "The Hitch hike". Many 1950s and 1960s dance crazes had animal names, including "The Chicken", "The Pony" and "The Dog". In 1965, the Mexican-American group Cannibal and the Headhunters had a hit with the 1962 Chris Kenner song Land of a Thousand Dances which included the names of such dances. One list of Fad Dances compiled in 1971 named over ninety dances. Standardized versions of dance moves were published in dance and teen magazines choreographed to popular songs.
Songs such as "The Loco-Motion" were written with the intention of creating a new dance and many more pop hits, such as "Mashed Potato Time" by Dee Dee Sharp, were written to exploit recent successful novelties. In the early 1970s the disco spawned a succession of dance fads including the Bump, the Hustle, the YMCA; this continued in the 1980s with the popular song "Walk like an Egyptian", in the 1990s with the "Macarena", in the 2000s with "The Ketchup Song" and in the 2010s with "Gangnam Style". Contemporary sources for dance crazes include music movies. There are fad dances which are meant to be danced individually as solo, others are partner dances, yet others are danced in groups; some of them were of freestyle type, i.e. there were no particular step patterns and they were distinguished by the style of the dance movement. Only some have survived to the present day, sometimes only as the name of a step or of a style in a recognized dance. Fad dances are in fashion at the time of their popularity.
They come to be associated with a specific time period, can evoke particular forms of nostalgia when revived. Outline of dance for a list of general dance topics. Summer hit List of specific dances for a general, noncategorized index of dances Streetswing.com's Dance History Archives hosts a large information base about more than thousand dances. Dance Crazes of the 50's & 60's - by Dr. Frank Hoffmann sixtiescity - 60s Dance and Dance Crazes Go-Go Dancing - Fad and Novelty Dances from the 1960s at Little Miss Go-Go
Social dance is a category of dances that have a social function and context. Social dances are intended for participation rather than performance and can be led and followed with relative ease, they are danced to socialise and for entertainment, though they may have ceremonial and erotic functions. Many social dances of European origin are partner dances but this is quite rare elsewhere, where there may instead be circle dances or line dances reserved for those of a certain age, gender or social position; the types of dance performed in social gatherings change with social values. Social dance music of the 14th century has been preserved in manuscript, though without proper choreography, for dances such as the ballo, stampita, saltarello and roto; the 15th century is the first period. A manuscript from Brussels highlights the Burgundian court dance, which spread all over Europe, referred to as the basse dance in which a large group perform a series of steps in triple time. Italian courts danced balli, with a wide array of choreographed rhythms and positions for the dancers.
These were documented in instruction books written by the respected dance masters who choreographed them for the courts. Social dances of lower classes were not recorded until the Late Renaissance. According to Richard Powers, courtiers in the late 16th century continually had to "prove themselves through their social skills through dance." Recorded social dances of the late 16th century include the canario. Thoinot Arbeau's famous book Orchésographie describes peasant branles as well as the 16th century basse danse and la volta; the peasants from the countryside supplied new dances to the court as the old ones' novelty wore out. During the Baroque Era court balls served to display social status. A formal ball opened with a branle in which couples stood in a line in order of their place in the social hierarchy, the most regarded couples dancing first; the Menuet and the Gavotte gained popularity. Balls ended with an English country dance. France gained a pre-eminence in dance, but the French Revolution created a shift away from formality.
During the Regency Era, from 1811-1830, the Quadrille became the most popular dance in England and France. The Quadrille consisted of a large variety of steps that skimmed the ground, such as chassé and jeté. Most other dances of this era, such as the Mazurka, were performed in squares; the waltz, which arrived in Britain toward the end of the Napoleonic Wars, was a partner dance in which partners danced more than had been considered acceptable. In the waltz, neither partner led. Individuals danced as equals, a new phenomenon at the time; the Polka was another dance. According to Powers, the dances of this time were "fresh, inventive and somewhat daring," which mirrored society at the time. Towards the end of the 19th century, Americans were tiring of the court dances of their grandparents' era. In the early 20th century, Americans began pairing Victorian dances such as the Two-Step with Ragtime music. Other dances included the African American Cakewalk, animal dances such as the Turkey Trot; the most popular social dance of the time was the One-Step.
The dance consisted of couples taking one step on each beat of the music, so beginners could participate. Rock'n' roll in the 1950s brought about a shift in social dancing toward rebelliousness; this shift was seen in teenagers who did not want to dance the same steps that their parents did. The dancing was swing based but had a variations in different regions. Couples began dancing as individuals for the first time, sending the message that there did not have to be a leader and a follower. An American Ballroom Companion Boombal Dance music List of basic dance topics List of dance style categories List of dances Ballroom dance Circle dance Contra dance Country-western dance English country dance Folk dance House dance Scottish country dance Irish and Scottish Céilidh Square dance Street dance Latin dance Wallace, Carol McD.. Dance: a social history. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870994869