Nightshade (DC Comics)
Nightshade is a fictional character, a comic book superheroine published by DC Comics. Created by David Kaler and Steve Ditko, the character first appeared in Captain Atom v1 #82 published by Charlton Comics. Nightshade was first introduced as a partner for Captain Atom, her real name is Eve Eden and her father is a U. S. senator. She wears a black wig as Nightshade, she was romantically involved with Captain Atom for a brief time. She appeared several times in Captain Atom stories, before getting her own backup series in the last three published issues, she appeared in the last unpublished Captain Atom story that appeared in the fanzine Charlton Bullseye. In this backup series, Tiger is her martial-arts instructor; the source of her powers is finally described. Her mother, was a visitor from another dimension whose denizens have the ability to transform into living two-dimensional shadows. On a visit to this dimension and her children are attacked. Mortally wounded, Magda is able to Eve back to Earth.
Eve promised to find her brother. This never occurs during the Charlton years. In 1981, Nightshade would appear in issue #7 of the new Charlton Bullseye comic, her last "Charlton" appearance would be in a story that teamed up all the Charlton "Action Heroes" as the Sentinels of Justice, in her own one-shot by AC Comics. Once integrated into the DC Universe in Crisis on Infinite Earths, Nightshade was revamped as a government super-spy who worked for Task Force X aka the Suicide Squad. Many of her adventures alongside Captain Atom during their Charlton interactions were retconned into instead being with King Faraday. While the Suicide Squad's core group was busy dealing with the events of the crossover Legends, along with fellow spy Nemesis, was sent overseas to infiltrate the mercenary death squad known as "Jihad". Taking the name Chimera, Nightshade was forced to participate in the massacre of innocent civilians at an airport as Jihad sought to demonstrate their effectiveness to a potential client.
This event affected Nightshade, causing tension between her and Suicide Squad leader Amanda Waller. As a result of the mission with Jihad, Nightshade was removed from her position as a spy and given the job of being the handler for the mentally unstable sorceress known as the Enchantress, she served as Waller's liaison between Task Force X and a rival government program known as Project ATOM. As the series progressed, Nightshade revealed her past to her team: her post-Crisis origin was that she was the princess of the "Land of Nightshades". Eve Eden's mother Maureen was the queen of the Land of Nightshades, fled to Earth with her infant children to escape the demonic power of an entity known as the Incubus. Eve believed she was a normal child until her mother took her and her brother Larry into the Land of Nightshades, to show them their true heritage; this was a costly mistake. The Incubus found kidnapped Larry and mortally wounded Maureen. Eve's mother used her last breath to reveal to Eve her hereditary powers over darkness.
Eve promised her dying mother. The Incubus possessed Larry's body, killing him in the process, hid within the Land of Nightshades slaughtering all remaining human inhabitants, it was revealed that when Nightshade used her powers to teleport that the process required her to pass through the barren and haunted Land of Nightshades. Waller gave Nightshade permission to take the team for her personal mission in return for her help in taking down a drug cartel overseas, it was volunteer only, but everyone on the team agreed to go with the exception of Captain Boomerang. Bronze Tiger had to take him out, get him drunk, drag him along unconscious, they entered the Land of Nightshades and discovered that Larry was dead and his body was controlled by the Incubus. It was revealed that June Moone's mysterious and evil "Enchantress" persona was in truth the entity known as the "Succubus"; the two entities sought to possess Larry and Eve in order to force the siblings to conceive a child who would be the incarnation of their demonic master.
Enchantress was stripped of her powers. The evil entity failed to realize that Nightshade's will was stronger than her brother's, was destroyed. Nightshade absorbed the Succubus' powers. With the Succubus defeated, Nightshade passively watched as her teammate Deadshot finished the mission, killing the Incubus by shooting the entity in the head. Nightshade was a permanent fixture in the Suicide Squad series, appearing throughout the series run; when the Suicide Squad series came to an end, Nightshade was shown working for Sarge Steel at the CBI. She made several appearances in the Superboy and the Ravers comic and would be part of the L. A. W. Miniseries, which reunited all the Charlton Action Heroes owned by DC. During the Superman/Batman story arc "Public Enemies", she was for a brief time under the control of Gorilla Grodd, trying to capture Superman for a billion-dollar reward; this was part of a grouping of super-powered individuals, most villains brainwashed by Gorilla Grodd. The reward was set out by then-President Lex Luthor.
The confrontations take place in Washington, D. C. Nightshade and the villains were defeated. Nightshade has since resurfaced as a member of the Shadowpact in the Day of Vengeance miniseries, she has been paired with Detective Chimp, resulti
Nightshade (Gatiss novel)
Nightshade is an original novel written by Mark Gatiss and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features Ace. A prelude to the novel penned by Gatiss, appeared in Doctor Who Magazine #190; the year is 1968, as the BBC rebroadcasts episodes of the classic SF serial "Nightshade", the townsfolk of Crook Marsham prepare for a lonely Christmas. At the local retirement home, actor Edmund Trevithick learns that a reporter is coming to interview him about his role as Professor Nightshade, goes to sleep dreaming of past successes, but that night, the scientists at the local radiotelescope are baffled by a sudden energy surge from an unknown source, which floods their instruments and blots out the signals they were monitoring from a nova in the vicinity of Bellatrix. Trevithick wakes to find that his window has been smashed open, he faints when an evil voice in the darkness hisses the name of Professor Nightshade. Meanwhile, Jack Prudhoe is drowning his sorrows at Lawrence Yeadon's pub, thinking back on the failure he's made of his life, when his wife Win runs by the window—young again, as full of life as she was before the death of their young son crushed her spirit.
Delirious with joy, Jack follows her out of the village to the moor… where something horrible happens. The TARDIS materialises in Crook Marsham as dawn breaks; the Doctor is in a pensive mood, he shouts angrily at Ace when she finds his granddaughter Susan's clothing and dresses in it as a joke. Telling Ace that he needs to think about things for a while, he sends her off to explore the town while he visits the local monastery to reconsider his self-appointed role as guardian of the cosmos. Ace meets Robin Yeadon, the pub owner's teenage son, becomes curious when Vijay Degun, a technician from the radiotelescope, comes in search of a working telephone only to find that the entire town's phone system is down. Seeking excitement, Ace hides in the back seat of Vijay's car and is taken to the radiotelescope, while exploring she finds a guard's decomposing body near a hole in the fence, she enters the building to tell the others. Lawrence Yeadon's wife Betty goes into hysterics while preparing for a bath, claiming to have seen her dead brother Alf climbing out of the water.
She has always blamed herself for his death during the war, since she feels she shamed him into enlisting. Lawrence sends Robin to fetch Doctor Shearsmith, but Robin finds Shearsmith's offices empty and instead goes to the old folks’ home to ask Jill Mason for help. Jill is seeing off her charges as they leave town to visit their families, Constable Lowcock is questioning Trevithick about the previous night's incident, he and Trevithick accompany Robin back to the pub, where Lawrence tells Robin to take care of Betty while he and Lowcock fetch help from the next village over. The Doctor spends some time with Abbot Winstanley, reads up on the history of the village. During the Civil War, Marsham Castle was destroyed as if by heavenly fire, on the ground on which the radiotelescope was built. Not concerned, the Doctor returns to the pub to fetch Ace, only to find the village in a turmoil as more villagers are found to have vanished during the night. Trevithick tries to interest the Doctor in his story, but the Doctor doesn’t want to get involved and decides to look for Ace at the radiotelescope.
Robin overhears him and decides to accompany him, since Betty seems to be sleeping now and Robin wants to see more of Ace. However, soon after they leave, there is another surge of energy at the radiotelescope—and Betty awakens to find her dead brother standing outside her door. Trevithick, on his way back to the retirement home, is attacked by one of the insectoid aliens from the first "Nightshade" serial, but it vanishes into thin air when Lowcock and Yeadon return—retching and fainting, claiming that they were unable to leave the village; when Vijay goes to fetch his lover Holly to help analyse the readings from the array, he finds the ghost of James, her dead lover, sitting at the edge of her bed. James’ image dissolves into a fountain of light which nearly consumes Holly before Vijay manages to snap her awake. Meanwhile, the old folks’ bus crashes on its way out of town when the driver falls victim to the same force that prevented Lowcock and Yeadon from leaving. Tim Medway, the BBC reporter coming to interview Trevithick, feels no such influence when he enters the town, when he comes across the accident he helps Jill to evacuate the stunned old folk to the monastery.
Medway stops at the police station to report the accident, only to find them occupied by the disappearance of so many townspeople. He continues on to the pub, where Trevithick fills him in on the unbelievable events and decides to alert the Doctor, who seemed to believe his story. Medway, unable to accept what he's stumbled into agrees to drive Trevithick to the radiotelescope to look for the Doctor; the Doctor and Robin find Jack Prudhoe's decomposing body on the moors, continue on to the radiotelescope with some urgency. Once he's sure Ace is safe, the Doctor studies the readings the scientists have been taking, but can make no sense of them, he and Ace decide to redirect their investigation towards the history of the town, go to the monastery while Robin returns home. There, he finds; when his furious father accuses Robin of abandoning her, Robin bolts from the pub to join Ace back at the monastery. There, the Doctor and Ace find that not only was the radiotelescope built on the grounds of Marsham Castle, but an archaeological
Donna Andrews (author)
Donna Andrews is an American mystery fiction writer of two award-winning amateur sleuth series. Her first book, Murder with Peacocks, introduced a blacksmith from Yorktown, Virginia, it won the St. Martin's Minotaur Best First Traditional Mystery contest, the Agatha, Anthony and Romantic Times Reviewers' Choice awards for best first novel, the Lefty award for funniest mystery of 1999; the first novel in the Turing Hopper series debuted a unusual sleuth—an Artificial Intelligence personality who becomes sentient—and won the Agatha Award for best mystery that year. Donna Andrews was born in Yorktown, studied English and drama at the University of Virginia, now lives and works in Reston, Virginia. Murder with Peacocks. ISBN 0312199295 Murder with Puffins. ISBN 0312262213 Revenge of the Wrought Iron Flamingos. ISBN 0312277296 Crouching Buzzard, Leaping Loon. ISBN 0312277318 We'll Always Have Parrots. ISBN 0312277326 Owls Well That Ends Well. ISBN 0312329385 No Nest for the Wicket. ISBN 978-0312329402 The Penguin.
ISBN 978-0312329426 Cockatiels at Seven. ISBN 978-0312377151 Six Geese A-Slaying. ISBN 978-0312536107 Swan For The Money. ISBN 978-0312377175 Stork Raving Mad. ISBN 978-0312621193 The Real Macaw. ISBN 978-0312621209 Some Like It Hawk. ISBN 978-1250007506 The Hen of the Baskervilles. ISBN 978-1250007513 Duck the Halls. ISBN 978-1250028778 The Good, the Bad, the Emus. ISBN 978-1250009500 The Nightingale Before Christmas. ISBN 978-1250049575 Lord of the Wings. ISBN 978-1250049582 Die Like an Eagle ISBN 978-1250078551 Gone Gull ISBN 9781250078568 How the Finch Stole Christmas! ISBN 9781250115454 Toucan Keep a Secret ISBN 9781250115478 Lark! The Herald Angels Sing ISBN 9781250192943 Terns of Endearment ISBN 9781250192974A Murder Hatched: Collects the first two Meg Langslow novels. Released in 2009 by Macmillan, under its Minotaur/Thomas Dunne Books imprint; the Two Deadly Doves: Collects two novels, Six Geese A-Slaying and Duck the Halls. Released in 2015 by Macmillan, under its Minotaur/Thomas Dunne Books imprint.
"Night Shades" in Chesapeake Crimes. "Birthday Dinner" in Death Dines In, Claudia Bishop and Dean James, editors. You've Got Murder. ISBN 042518191X Click Here for Murder. ISBN 0425188566 Access Denied. ISBN 0425198383 Delete All Suspects. ISBN 042520569X "Mean Girls" in This Job Is Murder: Chesapeake Crimes 5 "Normal" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, May 2011 "The Plan" in Chesapeake Crimes 4: They Had It Comin' "Spellbound" in Unusual Suspects, Dana Stabenow, editor "The Haire of the Beast" in Wolfsbane and Mistletoe, edited by Charlaine Harris and Toni L. P. Kelner "A Rat's Tale" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, September–October 2007 "Cold Spell" in Powers of Detection, Dana Stabenow, editor "An Unkindness of Ravens" in The Mysterious North, Dana Stabenow, editor Donna Andrews has won many industry awards for her fiction; as of 2009 she has earned 3 Agatha Awards, 1 Anthony Award, 1 Barry Award, 2 Lefty Awards, 2 Toby Bromberg Awards and 1 Romantic Times Reviewers' Choice Award. Andrews has been nominated for 3 Dilys Awards.'Murder with Peacocks' 1999 Agatha Award for Best First Novel 2000 Anthony Award for Best First Novel 2000 Barry Award for Best First Novel 2000 Lefty Award 2000 Finalist for Dilys Award 1999 Romantic Times Reviewers' Choice Award for Best First Mystery'Revenge of the Wrought Iron Flamingos' 2009 Lefty Award nomination'You've Got Murder' 2002 Agatha Award for Best Novel 2003 Finalist for Dilys Award'Crouching Buzzard, Leaping Loon' 2003 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2003 Toby Bromberg Award for Most Humorous Mystery 2004 Finalist for Dilys Award 2004 Lefty Award nomination'We'll Always Have Parrots' 2004 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2005 Lefty Award'Owl's Well That Ends Well' 2005 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel'No Nest for the Wicket' 2007 Lefty Award nomination'The Penguin Who Knew Too Much' 2007 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2008 Lefty Award nomination"A Rat's Tale", Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine – Sept/Oct.
2007 2007 Agatha Award for Best Short Story'Six Geese A-Slaying' 2008 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2009 Lefty Award nomination'Swan For the Money' 2009 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2009 Toby Bromberg Award for Most Humorous Mystery 2010 Lefty Award nomination'Stork Raving Mad' 2010 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2011 Lefty Award nomination'The Real Macaw' 2011 Agatha Award nomination for Best Novel 2012 Lefty Award Sisters in Crime Mystery Writers of America Private Investigators and Security Association Donna Andrews' Official Website Mystery Authors Online – Donna Andrews WebbsBlog – Interview With Donna Andrews Works by Donna Andrews at Open Library
Magic Kingdom of Landover
The Magic Kingdom of Landover series is a series of six fantasy novels by Terry Brooks following the adventures of a former trial lawyer named Ben Holiday, the collection of friends and enemies that he encounters when he purchases a magical kingdom. The location of the novels centers in a fictional world known as Landover, populated with numerous magical and fairy creatures, it takes its name from a humorous reference to The Wizard of Oz its "land over the rainbow". It is a small world, surrounded on all sides by fairy mists which connect it to many other worlds, including Earth. Landover is a rural kingdom, populated by humans, gnomes and various other fantasy creatures, all of whom speak a language called "Landoverian" – which the protagonist can speak through magical means – and who form separate societies, their rulers, while answerable to the king, are allowed a certain degree of autonomy. Inhabiting the land are the dragon Strabo and the witch Nightshade. Landover is protected by the Paladin, a magical knight, a projection of its rulers.
In the absence of a worthy ruler, the Paladin disappears and Landover falls prey to a physical decay known as "the Tarnish", which spreads from the king's castle to the rest of the kingdom. The Paladin's is one of the few magics in the land that can stand up against that of Strabo or Nightshade; the first novel is about the main character, Ben Holiday, his discovery of an ad offering the kingship of a magic kingdom named Landover. He must deal with a host of problems to solidify his throne. In the second novel, Holiday is disguised by magic used by the evil wizard Meeks, he must figure out how to restore himself to the throne, meanwhile saving Willow in her dangerous quest to find the Black Unicorn. Abernathy is accidentally transported to Earth by one of Questor's ill-conceived spells. Meanwhile, a demonic imp is unleashed upon Landover. An inept conjurer/conman, Horris Kew, accidentally releases upon Landover an evil creature called the Gorse; the creature soon imprisons Ben, the dragon Strabo, the witch Nightshade in a device known as the Tangle Box.
They must find a way out. A usurper who claims to be from another world calls for Ben's abdication from the throne, begins to send evil, magic creatures against him. Meanwhile, Nightshade kidnaps Ben and Willow's daughter, Mistaya, in a dangerous attempt to subvert her and use her innate magic. Meanwhile and Abernathy are stuck back in Earth to meet up with an old friend, leaving Ben and Willow alone to deal with the new threat. Ben Holiday, Chicago lawyer and mere mortal turned monarch of enchanted Landover, has grappled with scheming barons, fire-breathing beasts, diabolical conjurers, wicked witches. None of whom have prepared him for the most daunting of challengers: a teenage daughter. Sent by Ben and his beloved sylph bride, Willow, to an exclusive girls' prep school, headstrong Mistaya Holiday has found life in the natural world a less-than-perfect fit, and when her latest rebellious antics get her indefinitely suspended, she's determined to resume her real education – learning sorcery from court wizard Questor Thews – whether her parents like it or not.
But back home in Landover, Mistaya's frustrated father is just as determined that the precocious princess learn some responsibility, he declares her grounded until she refurbishes the long-forsaken royal library. Mortified by the prospect of salvaging a king's ransom in moldy books – and horrified by word that the repulsive local nobleman Lord Laphroig seeks to marry her – Mistaya decides that the only way to run her own life is to run away from home. A seventh novel is planned; as of 2015 it is untitled. Author Terry Brooks has said in a Reddit AMA from June 2018 that the final book will be written in 2020 and published in 2021. Once a successful trial lawyer in Chicago, Ben's life takes a dramatic change when his wife Annie and their unborn child are killed in a traffic accident. Ben sinks into depression and no longer gains fulfillment through the law firm he established with his best friend, Miles Bennett. Seeing a Christmas catalog advertising a fairytale kingdom for sale, he purchases it for $1,000,000 in a desperate hope to find something meaningful again.
The kingdom, called Landover, turns out to be real and in need of a true king to restore it to its previous splendor. Ben is challenged at every step by a number of characters, all with different motives, he is able to gain the respect of the citizens of Landover and establish himself as the true High Lord. The daughter of Ben and Willow who in the Princess of Landover took over her father's role as the main protagonist. Growing magically fast into a teenager she wants nothing to do with her father's plans to give her a normal childhood and a grounding in reality, preferring instead of a life of magic and adventure; this gets her into trouble, which she is rescued from because every magical creature in Landover seems to know she has a great and miraculous destiny ahead of her. It is possible that Strabo the dragon has a little crush on her. Meeks is the half-brother of Questor, the one responsible for selling Ben the magic kingdom, he appears as a grizzled old man missing his right arm, is in fact a powerful wizard.
Meeks came into possession of the medallion that identifies the kings of Landover and developed a scheme to sell the kingdom with it. A buyer would purchase the medallion for access to Landover, when the victim either ab
Fred Olen Ray
Fred Olen Ray is an American film director and screenwriter. He is the producer and screenwriter of more than 150 low to medium-budget feature films in many genres, including horror, science fiction, action/adventure, crime dramas, holiday films. Most of his current output is released on The SyFy Channel and Ion. Ray is the head of Retromedia, which releases DVDs of both archival films, he has worked for other well-known independent studios and on a few occasions for major Hollywood studios. He is cited as an inspiration for many independent film-makers, he loaned a 16 mm camera to Quentin Tarantino so he could make My Best Friend's Birthday.*Aside from his work in the film industry, Fred Olen Ray was a professional wrestler. His wrestling name was Fabulous Freddie Valentine. Fred Olen Ray was born September 10th, 1954 in Wellston, just across the border from West Virginia where the Ray family had all been raised for the previous 150 years, he is a verified descendant of Charlemagne. He has always been a passionate film fan, as a teenager he read Famous Monsters of Filmland magazine.
Being a fan of horror and science fiction films such as Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein and the AIP movies of the 1950's and 1960's, Fred started making his own movies at the age of fourteen. He served in the navy; when he got out he went to work at a local television station. He worked as an credited still photographer on his first film in 1975, Shock Waves, with Peter Cushing and John Carradine, he began making movies on the weekend using station equipment, starting with The Brain Leeches made for $298. He made Alien Dead with film legend Buster Crabbe, he decided to move to Hollywood to be close to the film industry. Ray was interested in working in make-up and special effects, "probably from all of those years of reading Famous Monsters magazine," he said, he found out "it soon became apparent that you would always be between jobs and I was looking for something that would earn me a living. I think I became a director because, the fastest way to get a film made on the independent side of things."Ray succeeded in raising money for a low budget horror film, which featured cameos from Carroll Borland and Forrest J. Ackerman.
The Tomb starred John Carradine. Ray switched to action films with Armed Response, which starred Lee Van Cleef. Ray had affection for this movie because "it had a great cast and was one of the first times I had more than two nickels to rub together."He turned to science fiction: Deep Space, Cyclone. Beverly Hills Vamp was a horror comedy with Eddie Deezen. Hollywood Chainsaw Hookers turned out to be a big hit. Less popular was The Phantom Empire. After Alienator he was reunited with Deezen for another comedy, he entered sword and sorcery movies with Wizards of the Demon Sword and made the more popular Bad Girls from Mars. During this time he published a book he had written, The New Poverty Row: Independent Filmmakers as Distributors. Ray co-directed Scream Queen Hot Tub Party with Jim Wynorski, shot in one day. Ray moved into erotic thrillers with Inner Sanctum starring Tanya Roberts, it was a hit and Ray would make others in that genre, including Inner Sanctum 2, Mind Twister and Possessed by the Night.
Evil Toons was a comedy-horror he co-directed another with Wynorski, Dinosaur Island. Witch Academy was the last of his "scream queen" movies. After Attack of the 60 Foot Centerfold, he made Fugitive Rage, Friend of the Family II, Hybrid, The Shooter. Dear Santa was Billy Frankenstein a comedy. In 2001 he made the film Critical Mass, he said he was a "Critical Mass kind of guy. I like to shoot things and blow stuff up. I like comedies. Don't like erotic thrillers."He established a DVD company called Retromedia. Ray made a film called Bikini Airways "on a lark and it did well," said Ray; this led to a series of Bikini films. In 2007 he reflected on his career: Money is always a barrier; the more they give you, the more they expect, so you're always caught short, regardless. I don't think anything I've done was budgeted properly for what was expected of me, but that's just the nature of the business, I guess. There are films I did because there was a paycheck attached. It's a working man's world and it doesn't pay to get too idealistic about things like directing low-budget movies if you have a family to think about.
I try to find something that interests me in each and every project. It's not possible to phone it in. Making a film with no money or schedule is ten times harder than it is to make a big budget show where you're surrounded by a gang of super-talented people. In 2017, he received a "Living Legend Award" at the Buffalo Dreams Fantastic Film Festival. In his craft, Fred Olen Ray has used many pseudonyms, some used earlier by the B-movie director, Sam Newfield. Fred Olen Ray has four sons from two marriages. Two of his sons work in the film industry as the eldest being director Christopher Ray, he is unmarried, resides in Studio City California where he continues to write and direct. Sam Newfield, a filmmaker who uses the "Sherman Scott" and "Peter Stewart" pseudonyms. Official website Fred Olen Ray on IMDb
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, epiphytes and trees, includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, some are toxic, but many—including tomatoes, eggplant and chili peppers, tobacco—are used; the family belongs in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida. The Solanaceae consists of about 98 genera and some 2,700 species, with a great diversity of habitats and ecology; the name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". The etymology of the Latin word is unclear; the name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Alternatively, the name could originate from the Latin verb solare, meaning "to soothe" referring to the soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family.
The family has a worldwide distribution. The greatest diversity in species is found in Central America. In 2017, scientists reported on their discovery and analysis of a fossil tomatillo found in the Patagonian region of Argentina, dated to 52 million years B. P; the finding has pushed back the earliest appearance of the plant family Solanaceae. As tomatillos developed than other nightshades, this may mean that the Solanaceae may have first developed during the Mesozoic Era; the Solanaceae include a number of collected or cultivated species. The most economically important genus of the family is Solanum, which contains the potato, the tomato, the eggplant or aubergine. Another important genus, produces both chili peppers and bell peppers; the genus Physalis produces the so-called groundcherries, as well as the tomatillo, the Cape gooseberry and the Chinese lantern. The genus Lycium contains the wolfberry Lycium barbarum. Nicotiana contains, among other species, tobacco; some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia and Lycianthes, sources of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura and Atropa belladonna.
Certain species are known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects, or for being poisonous. Most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae, with the exceptions of tobacco and petunia. Many of the Solanaceae, such as tobacco and petunia, are used as model organisms in the investigation of fundamental biological questions at the cellular and genetic levels; the name "Solanaceae" comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Solanum, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word solanum, referring to nightshades, "probably from sol,'sun', + -anum, neuter of -anus." Plants in the Solanaceae can take the form of herbs, trees and lianas, sometimes epiphytes. They can be biennials, or perennials, upright or decumbent; some have subterranean tubers. They do not have coloured saps, they can have neither of these types. The leaves are alternate or alternate to opposed.
The leaves transformed into spines. The leaves are petiolate or subsessile sessile, they are inodorous, but on occasions, they are aromatic or fetid. The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate; the leaves lack a basal meristem. The laminae are dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities; the stomata are confined to one of a leaf's two sides. The flowers are hermaphrodites, although some are monoecious, andromonoecious, or dioecious species. Pollination is entomophilous; the flowers can be grouped into terminal, cymose, or axillary inflorescences. The flowers are medium-sized, fetid, or inodorous; the flowers are actinomorphic zygomorphic, or markedly zygomorphic. The irregularities in symmetry can be due to the androecium, to the perianth, or both at the same time. In the great majority of species, the flowers have a differentiated perianth with a calyx and corolla an androecium with five stamens and two carpels forming a gynoecium with a superior ovary.
The stamens are epipetalous and are present in multiples of four or five, most four or eight. They have a hypogynous disk; the calyx is gamosepalous, with the 5 segments equal, it has five lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and accrescent. The corolla has five petals that are joined together forming a tube. Flower shapes are rotate (wheel-shap
Pokémon known as Pocket Monsters in Japan, is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, Creatures. The franchise copyright is shared by all three companies, but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark; the franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995, is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which humans, known as Pokémon Trainers and train to battle each other for sport. The English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch'Em All". Works within the franchise are set in the Pokémon universe; the franchise began as Pokémon Red and Green, a pair of video games for the original Game Boy that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo in February 1996. Pokémon has since gone on to become the highest-grossing media franchise of all time, with $90 billion in total franchise revenue; the original video game series is the second best-selling video game franchise with more than 300 million copies sold and 1 billion mobile downloads, it spawned a hit anime television series that has become the most successful video game adaptation with over 20 seasons and 1,000 episodes in 124 countries.
In addition, the Pokémon franchise includes the world's top-selling toy brand, the top-selling trading card game with over 25.7 billion cards sold, an anime film series, a live-action film, manga comics and merchandise. The franchise is represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series. In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement; the Pokémon Company International oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia. The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006. In 2016, The Pokémon Company celebrated Pokémon's 20th anniversary by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50 in January, issuing re-releases of Pokémon Red and Blue and the 1998 Game Boy game Pokémon Yellow as downloads for the Nintendo 3DS in February, redesigning the way the games are played; the mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was released in July. The most released games in the main series, Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, were released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch on November 16, 2018.
The first live-action film in the franchise, Pokémon: Detective Pikachu, based on Detective Pikachu, began production in January 2018 and is set to release in 2019. The upcoming and latest games in the main series, Pokémon Sword and Shield, are scheduled to be released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch in late 2019; the name Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters. The term "Pokémon", in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself collectively refers to the 809 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the seventh generation titles Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! "Pokémon" is identical in the plural, as is each individual species name. Pokémon executive director Satoshi Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and name, around 1989, when the Game Boy was released; the concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect collecting, a popular pastime which Tajiri enjoyed as a child.
Players are designated as Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals: to complete the regional Pokédex by collecting all of the available Pokémon species found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete the national Pokédex by transferring Pokémon from other regions, to train a team of powerful Pokémon from those they have caught to compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may win the Pokémon League and become the regional Champion. These themes of collecting and battling are present in every version of the Pokémon franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, the Pokémon Trading Card Game. In most incarnations of the Pokémon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokémon is able to capture that Pokémon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a Poké Ball at it. If the Pokémon is unable to escape the confines of the Poké Ball, it is considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer. Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a lack of experience that the Pokémon would rather act on its own accord.
Trainers can send out any of their Pokémon to wage non-lethal battles against other Pokémon. In Pokémon Go, in Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, wild Pokémon encountered by players can be caught in Poké Balls, but cannot be battled. Pokémon owned by other Trainers cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side games. If a Pokémon defeats an opponent in battle so that the opponent is knocked out, the winning Pokémon gains experience points and may level up. Beginning with Pokémon X and Y, experience points are gained from catching Pokémon in Poké Balls; when leveling up, the Pokémon's battling aptitude statistics increase. At certain levels, the Pokémon may learn new moves, which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokémon can undergo a form of metamorphosis and