Salah called salat and namaz, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times; when they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates himself, concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses and prayers; the word "salah" is translated as "prayer". Given how that word is used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship", as it is worship rather than petition. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words; the number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances. Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "communication". In its English usage, the reference of the word is always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ in Islamic usage. Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used; the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia, the term solat is used. Indonesia uses the term shalat. ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ Translation:2.
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, spend out of what We have provided for them,4, and who believe in what has been revealed to you, what was revealed before you, of the Hereafter they are certain.5. Those are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the successful. وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱرْڪَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰڪِعِينَ Translation: And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow. Guard your communication and middle communication. If you fear on foot or riding, and offer communication at the two ends of day and at the approach of night. Offer communication at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee. Say call God or call Merciful, and offer communication and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite, revealed to you as a book and offer communication; the chief purpose of salah is to remembrance of God.
By reciting "The Opening", the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise him, ask for guidance along the "Straight Path". In addition, daily worship reminds Muslims to give thanks for God's blessings and that submission to God takes precedence over all other concerns, thereby revolving their life around God and submitting to His will. Worship serves as a formal method of dhikr or remembering God. Muslims believe that all prophets of God offered daily prayers and were humble in submission to the oneness of God. Muslims believe that the main duty of the prophets of God is to teach mankind to humbly submit themselves to oneness of God. In Quran, it is written that: "For, Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, when they hear his signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, put their trust in their Lord.
Hudud is an Arabic word meaning "borders, limits". In the religion of Islam it refers to punishments that under Islamic law are mandated and fixed by God; these punishments were applied in pre-modern Islam, their use in some modern states has been a source of controversy. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence divides crimes into those against man; the former are seen to violate God's hudud or "boundaries", they are associated with punishments specified in the Quran and in some cases inferred from hadith. The offenses incurring hudud punishments are zina, unfounded accusations of zina, drinking alcohol, highway robbery, some forms of theft. Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy from Islam and rebellion against a lawful Islamic ruler are hudud crimes. Hudud punishments range from public lashing to publicly stoning to death, amputation of hands and crucifixion. Hudud crimes cannot be pardoned by the victim or by the state, the punishments must be carried out in public; these punishments were implemented in practice, because the evidentiary standards were impossibly high.
For example, meeting hudud requirements for zina and theft was impossible without a confession, which could be invalidated by a retraction. Based on a hadith, jurists stipulated that hudud punishments should be averted by the slightest doubts or ambiguities; the harsher hudud punishments were meant to deter and to convey the gravity of offenses against God, rather than to be carried out. During the 19th century, sharia-based criminal laws were replaced by statutes inspired by European models nearly everywhere in the Islamic world, except some conservative regions such as the Arabian peninsula; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia. Reinstatement of hudud punishments has had particular symbolic importance for these groups because of their Quranic origin, their advocates have disregarded the stringent traditional restrictions on their application. In practice, in the countries where hudud have been incorporated into the legal code under Islamist pressure, they have been used sparingly or not at all, their application has varied depending on local political climate.
Their use has been a subject of debate. Hudud is not the only form of punishment under sharia. For offenses against man — the other type of crime in Sharia — that involve inflicting bodily harm Islamic law prescribes a retaliatory punishment analogous to the crime or monetary compensation. Criminals who escaped a hudud punishment could still receive a ta'zir sentence. In practice, since early on in Islamic history, criminal cases were handled by ruler-administered courts or local police using procedures that were only loosely related to sharia. Hudud crimes are defined in the Sunnah; the Qur'an describes several hudud crimes and in some cases sets out punishments. The hudud crime of theft is referred to in Quranic verse 5:38: As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power; the crime of "robbery and civil disturbance against Islam" inside a Muslim state, according to some Muslim scholars, is referred to in Quranic verse 5:33: The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land:, their disgrace in this world, a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.
The crime of illicit consensual sex is referred to in several verses, including Quranic verse 24:2: The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication - whip each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment; the crime of "accusation of illicit sex or rape against chaste women without four witnesses" and a hudud punishment is based on Quranic verses 24:4, 24:6, 9:66 and 16:106, among others Quranic verse. And those who accuse chaste women and do not bring four witnesses - flog them with eighty stripes and do not accept their witness thereafter. Indeed they themselves are impure; the crime of intoxication is referred to in Quranic verse 5:90, hudud punishment is described in hadiths: O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling and arrows, are an abomination, - of Satan's handwork: eschew such, that ye may prosper; the sahih hadiths, a compilation of sayings and traditions of Muhammad as observed by his companions, are considered by Sunni Muslims to be the most trusted source of Islamic law after the Quran.
They extensively describe hudud punishments. In some cases Islamic scholars have used hadiths to establish hudud punishments, which are not mentioned in the Quran. Thus, stoning as punishment for zina is based on hadiths that narrate episodes where Muhammad and his successors prescribed it; the tendency to use existence of a shubha to avoid hudud punishments is based on a hadith that states "avert hadd punishment in case of shubha". The offences subject to hudud punishment are: Some types of theft. Punished with amputation of a hand. Traditionally defined as bandit
Zināʾ or zina is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse. According to traditional jurisprudence, zina can include adultery, prostitution and rape. Classification of homosexual intercourse as zina differs according to legal school; the Quran disapproved of the promiscuity prevailing in Arabia at the time, several verses refer to unlawful sexual intercourse, including one that prescribes the punishment of 100 lashes for fornicators. Four witnesses are required to prove the offense. Zina thus belongs to the class of hadd crimes. Although stoning for zina is not mentioned in the Quran, all schools of traditional jurisprudence agreed on the basis of hadith that it is to be punished by stoning if the offender is muhsan, with some extending this punishment to certain other cases and milder punishment prescribed in other scenarios; the offenders must have acted of their own free will. According to traditional jurisprudence, zina must be proved by testimony of four eyewitnesses to the actual act of penetration, or a confession repeated four times and not retracted later.
Rape was traditionally prosecuted under different legal categories which used normal evidentiary rules. Making an accusation of zina without presenting the required eyewitnesses is called qadhf, itself a hadd crime. Aside from "a few rare and isolated" instances from the pre-modern era and several recent cases, there is no historical record of stoning for zina being carried out. Zina became a more pressing issue in modern times, as Islamist movements and governments employed polemics against public immorality. During the Algerian Civil War, Islamist insurgents assassinated women suspected of loose morals, the Taliban have executed suspected adultresses using machine guns, zina has been used as justification for honor killings. After sharia-based criminal laws were replaced by European-inspired statutes in the modern era, in recent decades several countries passed legal reforms that incorporated elements of hudud laws into their legal codes. Iran witnessed several publicized stonings for zina in the aftermath of the Islamic revolution.
In Nigeria, local courts have passed several stoning sentences, all of which were overturned on appeal or left unenforced. In Pakistan, the Hudood Ordinances of 1979 subsumed prosecution of rape under the category of zina, making rape difficult to prove and exposing the victims to jail sentences for admitting illicit intercourse forced upon them. Although these laws were amended in 2006, they still blur the legal distinction between rape and consensual sex. According to human rights organizations, stoning for zina has been carried out in Saudi Arabia. Muslim scholars have considered zināʾ a hudud sin, or crime against God, it is mentioned in the Hadiths. The Qur'an deals with zināʾ in several places. First is the Qur'anic general rule that commands Muslims not to commit zināʾ: "Nor come nigh to fornication/adultery: for it is a shameful and an evil, opening the road." Most of the rules related to zināʾ, fornication/adultery, false accusations from a husband to his wife or from members of the community to chaste women, can be found in Surat an-Nur.
The sura starts by giving specific rules about punishment for zināʾ: "The woman and the man guilty of fornication/adultery,- flog each of them with a hundred stripes: Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment." "And those who accuse chaste women do not bring four witnesses, flog them, eighty stripes, do not admit any evidence from them ever. Except those who repent after this and act aright, for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." In Hadiths, the books most trusted in Islam after Quran, the definitions of Zina have been described as all the forms of sexual intercourse, penetrative or non-penetrative, outside lawful marriage. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Apostle as saying: “Allah has decreed for every son of Adam his share of zina, which he will commit; the zina of the eyes is looking, the zina of the tongue is speaking, one may wish and desire, the private parts confirm that or deny it.”
The public lashing and public lethal stoning punishment for zina are prescribed in Hadiths, the books most trusted in Islam after Quran in Kitab Al-Hudud.'Ubada b. As-Samit reported: Allah's Messenger as saying: Receive teaching from me, receive teaching from me. Allah has ordained a way for those women; when an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death. Ma'iz came to the Prophet and admitted having committed adultery four times in his presence so he ordered him to be stoned to death, but said to Huzzal: If you had covered him with your garment, it would have been better for you. Hadith Sahih al Bukhari, another authentic source of sunnah, has several entries which refer to death by stoning. For example, Narrated'Aisha:'Utba bin Abi Waqqas said to his brother Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, "The son of the slave girl of Zam'a is from me, so take him into your custody."
So in the year of Conquest of Mecca, Sa'd said. My brother's son whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody."'Abd bin Zam'a got up before him and said, my brother and the son of the
The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims, a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, can support their family during their absence. Speaking, Hajj means heading to a place for the sake of visiting. In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the ‘House of God’, in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia; the rites of Hajj, which according to Islam go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who re-built Kaaba after it had been first built by Prophet Adam, are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat and Sawm; the Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world, after the Arba'een Pilgrimage in Karbala, Iraq.
The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, a Muslim who fulfils this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, their submission to God; the word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions. The pilgrimage occurs from the last month of the Islamic calendar; because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions; the Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba, runs back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars.
After the sacrifice of their animal, the Pilgrims are required to shave their head. They celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha. Pilgrims can go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year; this is sometimes called the "lesser pilgrimage", or ‘Umrah. However if they choose to perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so, because Umrah is not a substitute for Hajj. In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform hajj was reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122; the word in Arabic: حج comes from the Hebrew: חג ḥag, which means "holiday", from the triliteral Semitic root ח-ג-ג. The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around". Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of Sukkot and on Simchat Torah. From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday and festivity.
In the Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. In Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to turn around the Kaaba and to offer sacrifices; the present pattern of Hajj was established by Muhammad. However, according to the Quran, elements of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham. According to Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hajara and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. In search of water, Hajara ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot. Abraham was commanded to build the Kaaba and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there; the Quran refers to these incidents in verses 2:124-127 and 22:27-30. It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Kaaba. In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Kaaba became surrounded by pagan idols.
In 630 CE, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Kaaba by destroying all the pagan idols, reconsecrated the building to Allah. In 632 CE, Muhammad performed his only and last pilgrimage with a large number of followers, instructed them on the rites of Hajj, it was from this point. During the medieval times, pilgrims would gather in big cities of Syria and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims under state patronage. Hajj caravans with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj; this was done in order to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards, a
A rakat, or rakʿah, consists of the prescribed movements and words followed by Muslims while offering prayers to God. It refers to a single unit of Islamic prayers. After performing the ablution, evoking the intention to pray for the sake of God, the worshipper will stand while reciting verses of the Qur'an; the second part of the rakat involves bowing low with hands on knees, as if waiting for God's orders. The third movement is to prostrate oneself on the ground, with forehead and nose on the floor and elbows raised, in a posture of submission to God; the fourth movement is to sit with the feet folded under the body. In the concluding portion of the prayers, the worshiper recites "Peace be upon you, God's blessing" once while facing the right, once while the face is turned to the left; this action reminds Muslims of the importance of others around them, both in the mosque, in the rest of the world. Takbir Standing in salah Supplications / iftitah Recitation of Sura Al-Fatiha Recitation of another sura Ruku Straightening up from ruku Sujud Rising from sujud The second sujud Sitting in prayers Salam Each daily prayer has a different number of rakats per prayer: Fajr — The dawn prayer: 2 rakat sunnah + 2 rakat fardh Dhuhr — The midday or afternoon prayer: 4 rakat sunnah + 4 rakat fardh + 2 rakat sunnah Asr — The late afternoon prayer: 4 rakats fardh Maghrib — The dusk prayer: 3 rakat fardh + 2 rakat sunnah Isha — The night prayer: 4 rakat fardh + 2 rakat sunnah 3 rakat witr Regarding Jumu'ah prayers, this consists of 2 rakats after the Imam delivers the khutbah.
Dhikr Tasbih Sign prayer
Ihram is, in Islam, a sacred state which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage or the minor pilgrimage. A pilgrim must enter into this state before crossing the pilgrimage boundary, known as Miqat, by performing the cleansing rituals and wearing the prescribed attire. A man in the state of ihram must not wear any stitched items. Sandals and flip flops must not be stitched either and should allow the ankle and back of foot to be exposed. Whilst in the state of ihram, a Muslim must not use any scents on the robes. If the robe has been fouled by najas material or has been wiped, rubbed or touched by scented liquids a new iḥrām clothing must be worn, or the Umrah or Hajj will be invalid. During ihram, women must have their faces uncovered. However, the Hijab or Dupatta is obligatory. There is no gender segregation during the Hajj. Unlike in mosques and women pray together, not just in the same area but on the same prayer line; this is to remind everyone that on the Day of Judgment, both men and women will be standing together, side by side, in the same rows.
Aside from being as clean as they are for prayer, male Muslims are expected to refrain from cutting their nails, trimming their hair and beards. They must not wear any scent, including deodorant, they have to wear ihram clothing, a white, seamless garment. Many shave their head as this is considered hygienic. Most will wait to shave their heads until after they have finished Umrah or Hajj, as this is a requirement to leave the state of ihram. Female Muslims are expected to be clean. During the pilgrimage, sexual activity and swearing are forbidden. Other forbidden activities include killing animals, using profane language, quarrelling or fighting, taking oaths, in addition to any other prohibited acts. Males should refrain from looking at women. Women must exercise strict modesty in their appearance and should not apply make-up, perfume or any other cosmetics. Muslims are not allowed to use scented soap. Unscented soap is available for pilgrims during hajj. All flirtatious and rude thoughts are to be put aside, as well as day-to-day life.
Muslims must forget about studies and relationships, focus on God. When flying on pilgrimage, appropriate measures are taken to assure that the pilgrim will be in the state of ihram when flying above or alongside the stations of miqat. For this reason some airports in Muslim areas have dedicated ihram rooms. Eid al-Adha Masjid ash-Shajara Mut'ah of Hajj The Five Pillars of Islam, The Fifth Pillar of Islam, Holy Sites/Mistakes of Pilgrims - An article on the many different beliefs surrounding the wearing of ihram by Sheikh Dr. Ghanim Saleh Al-Sadlan, professor of Higher Islamic Studies at the Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University. Ihram Encyclopædia Britannica online
Islamic marriage contract
An Islamic marriage contract is an Islamic prenuptial agreement. It is a formal, binding contract considered an integral part of an Islamic marriage, outlines the rights and responsibilities of the groom and bride or other parties involved in marriage proceedings. In Sunni Islam, a marriage contract must have at least two male witnesses. Proper witnessing is critical to the validation of the marriage acting as a protection against suspicions of adulterous relationships; the importance of this is demonstrated in a narration in which a case was brought before the second caliph Umar concerning a marriage, witnessed by only one man and one woman. Had I been the first to come upon it, I would have ordered them to be stoned."In Shia Islam, witnesses to a marriage are deemed necessary, but in case are not available the two parties may conduct the nikah between themselves. It is believed that temporary marriage, or Nikah Mut'ah was prohibited in Sunni Islam, the necessity of witnessing was introduced by Sunni caliphs Umar, to ensure that no couples engaged in secret union.
Marriages are not held in mosques, because men and women are separated during the ceremony and reception. Islam doesn't authorize any official clergy, so any Muslim who understands the Islamic tradition can be the official for the wedding. However, if a Muslim wedding is held in a mosque a marriage officiant, known as qadi, qazi or madhun, may preside over the wedding. While it is customary for marriage contracts to be written down when the bride and groom wish to make any stipulations, classical jurists required only oral offer and acceptance for the contract's validity. Among the stipulations that can be included in the contract include giving up, or demanding, certain responsibilities; the contract may be used to regulate the couple's physical relationship, if needed. The marriage contract can specify where the couple will live, whether or not the first wife will allow the husband to take a second wife without her consent; the wife has the right to initiate divorce, it is called khula. She either does not, depending on the reason for divorce.
The man has the right to divorce. The marriage contract somewhat resembles the marriage settlements once negotiated for upper-class Western brides, but can extend to non-financial matters ignored by marriage settlements or pre-nuptial agreements. One important purpose of the contract is to make sexual intercourse legal; this is supported by various Hadiths and quotations: Sahih Bukhari, Book 62, #81: Narrated'Uqba: The Prophet said: "The stipulations most entitled to be abided by are those with which you are given the right to enjoy the private parts."Al-Mughni, Kitab al Nikah:... the Prophet: "The most deserving of conditions to be fulfilled are those by means of which sexual intercourse becomes permissible for you."Cited in the common problem of translation of marriage contracts is due to the varieties of word synonyms in the legal Arabic system which have no equivalence in the English system in terms of marriage contracts, such as. الخ, Shabkah, Sadaq-, all of these examples attributed and affected by the culture and tradition of the Arabic language.
Beena marriage, a pre-Islamic form of marriage. Islamic view of marriage. Islamic marital jurisprudence. Islamic marital practices. Islamic sexual jurisprudence. Islamic views on concubinage. Islamic views on prostitution. Mahr, a mandatory payment, paid or promised to be paid by the groom or his father to the bride at the time of marriage. Marriage in Islam Minangkabau marriage, marriage practices of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Nikah Halala, the marriage of a woman to a second man after a triple talaq. Nikah Ijtimah, a pre-Islamic form of marriage. Nikah Misyar, a marriage practice in Sunni Islam. Nikah mut‘ah, a form of temporary marriage in Shia Islam known as sigeh or sigheh in Iran. Nikah'urfi, a "customary" Sunni Muslim marriage contract. Rights and obligations of spouses in Islam. Women in Islam. Divorce in Islam. Ketubah, the Jewish marriage contract. Articles / Knowledge on Marriage within Islam at muslimwedding.org. Nikkah Builder, a tool to create a nikkah