Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint." From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.
In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the Long Tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term "crowdsourcing", as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.
The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.
Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.
Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.
The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdraw
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from latent heat, it is derived from the Greek word πιέζειν. French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity in 1880; the piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical states in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process: materials exhibiting the piezoelectric effect exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect, the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field. For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material.
The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in the production of ultrasonic sound waves. Piezoelectricity is exploited in a number of useful applications, such as the production and detection of sound, piezoelectric inkjet printing, generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, to drive an ultrasonic nozzle, ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies, it forms the basis for a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies, such as STM, AFM, MTA, SNOM. It finds everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters, push-start propane barbecues, used as the time reference source in quartz watches, in amplification pickups for some guitars; the pyroelectric effect, by which a material generates an electric potential in response to a temperature change, was studied by Carl Linnaeus and Franz Aepinus in the mid-18th century. Drawing on this knowledge, both René Just Haüy and Antoine César Becquerel posited a relationship between mechanical stress and electric charge.
The first demonstration of the direct piezoelectric effect was in 1880 by the brothers Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie. They combined their knowledge of pyroelectricity with their understanding of the underlying crystal structures that gave rise to pyroelectricity to predict crystal behavior, demonstrated the effect using crystals of tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar, Rochelle salt. Quartz and Rochelle salt exhibited the most piezoelectricity; the Curies, did not predict the converse piezoelectric effect. The converse effect was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic principles by Gabriel Lippmann in 1881; the Curies confirmed the existence of the converse effect, went on to obtain quantitative proof of the complete reversibility of electro-elasto-mechanical deformations in piezoelectric crystals. For the next few decades, piezoelectricity remained something of a laboratory curiosity. More work was done to define the crystal structures that exhibited piezoelectricity; this culminated in 1910 with the publication of Woldemar Voigt's Lehrbuch der Kristallphysik, which described the 20 natural crystal classes capable of piezoelectricity, rigorously defined the piezoelectric constants using tensor analysis.
The first practical application for piezoelectric devices was sonar, first developed during World War I. In France in 1917, Paul Langevin and his coworkers developed an ultrasonic submarine detector; the detector consisted of a transducer, made of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates, a hydrophone to detect the returned echo. By emitting a high-frequency pulse from the transducer, measuring the amount of time it takes to hear an echo from the sound waves bouncing off an object, one can calculate the distance to that object; the use of piezoelectricity in sonar, the success of that project, created intense development interest in piezoelectric devices. Over the next few decades, new piezoelectric materials and new applications for those materials were explored and developed. Piezoelectric devices found homes in many fields. Ceramic phonograph cartridges simplified player design, were cheap and accurate, made record players cheaper to maintain and easier to build; the development of the ultrasonic transducer allowed for easy measurement of viscosity and elasticity in fluids and solids, resulting in huge advances in materials research.
Ultrasonic time-domain reflectometers could find flaws inside cast metal and stone objects, improving structural safety. During World War II, independent research groups in the United States and Japan discovered a new class of synthetic materials, called ferroelectrics, which exhibited piezoelectric constants many times higher than natural materials; this led to intense research to develop barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate materials with specific properties for particular applications. One significant example of the use of piezoelectric crystals was developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories. Following World War I, Frederick R. Lack, working in radio telephony in the engineering department, developed the “AT cut” crystal, a crystal that operated through a wide range of temperatures. Lack's crystal didn't nee
The iPhone 5C is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the sixth generation of the iPhone; the device was part of the iPhone series and was unveiled on September 10, 2013, released on September 20, 2013, along with its higher-end counterpart, the iPhone 5S. The iPhone 5C is a variant of the iPhone 5, with similar hardware specifications but a hard-coated polycarbonate shell instead of the aluminium of the original iPhone 5; the iPhone 5C was available in several color options, shipped with iOS 7. The iPhone 5C was sold at a discounted price point in comparison to the 5S: unlike Apple's usual practice of lowering the price of the previous model upon release of a new version, the iPhone 5 was explicitly discontinued and replaced by the 5C. On September 9, 2014, the 16 and 32 GB iPhone 5C models were replaced by the 8 GB model with the announcement of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. On September 9, 2015, the 8 GB version was discontinued; the iPhone 5C was redesigned using polycarbonate housing, strengthened by a steel band.
However, due to the material of design changes, the phone weighs 132 grams, 20 grams heavier than both the 5 and the 5S, but still lighter than older iPhone models. The design of the iPhone 5C is considerably thicker but similar to the design of the iPod Touch models, available in a variety of colors, but in a different coating finish. Other minor changes include the design of the mute/ringer switch; this iPhone received positive reviews for its design claiming that it was the most durable iPhone ever. Unlike subsequent models excluding the iPhone XR, the iPhone 5C was offered in several colours; the iPhone 5C features Apple's mobile operating system. The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation using multi-touch gestures. Interlock control elements consist of sliders and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface.
Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device or rotating it vertically. The iPhone 5C was supplied with iOS 7, released on September 20, 2013. Jony Ive, the designer of iOS 7's new elements, described the update as "bringing order to complexity", highlighting features such as refined typography, new icons, layering and gyroscope-driven parallaxing as some of the major changes to the design; the design of both iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks noticeably depart from skeuomorphic elements such as green felt in Game Center, wood in Newsstand, leather in Calendar, in favor of flatter graphic design. The phone can act as a hotspot, sharing its Internet connection over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or USB, accesses the App Store, an online application distribution platform for iOS developed and maintained by Apple; the service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and the iOS SDK and were published through Apple.iOS 7 adds AirDrop, an ad-hoc Wi-Fi sharing platform.
Users can share files with the iPod Touch, iPad, or iPad Mini. The operating system adds Control Center, which gives iOS users access to used controls and apps. By swiping up from any screen–including the Lock screen–users can do such things as switch to Airplane mode, turn Wi-Fi on or off, adjust the display brightness and similar basic functions of the device, it includes a new integrated flashlight function to operate the reverse camera's flash LED as a flashlight. The iPhone 5C functions as a media player, includes Apple Maps and Passbook; the mapping application includes turn-by-turn navigation spoken directions, 3D views in some major cities and real-time traffic. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access a collage of album covers; the 5C includes an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator. The application uses a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Web services.
Apple claims that the software adapts to the user's individual preferences over time and personalizes results. IOS 7 adds new male and female voices, new system setting functionalities, a redesign to match the rest of the operating system, integration with Twitter, Wikipedia and Photos; the highest operating system it supports is iOS 10 in 2016. IOS 11 will not support this iPhone, as the phone ceased production in September 2015 and it is a 32-bit iPhone. Facebook comes integrated through Apple's native apps. Facebook features can be directly accessed from within native apps such as Calendar which can sync Facebook events, or use Facebook's like button from within the Apple App Store. ITunes Radio, an internet radio service, is included on the iPhone 5C, it is a free, ad-supported service available to all iTunes users, featuring Siri integration on iOS. Users are able to skip tracks, customize stations, purchase the station's songs from the iTunes Store. Users can search through their history of previous songs.
The iPhone 5C uses most of the same hardware as the iPhone 5, with some minor changes. The iPhone 5C uses a system on chip, called the Apple A6, the same chip that powered the iPhone 5; the SoC comprises a 1.3 GHz dual-core processor, 1 GB of RAM and a tri-core PowerVR
The iPhone 5S is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the seventh generation of the iPhone, succeeding the iPhone 5; the device was unveiled on September 2013, at Apple's Cupertino headquarters. It was released on September 20, 2013, along with its lower-cost counterpart, the iPhone 5C; the iPhone 5S maintains the same external design as its predecessor, the iPhone 5, although the 5S received a new white/gold color scheme in addition to white/silver and space gray/black. The 5S introduced the A7 64-bit dual-core system-on-chip, the first 64-bit processor to be used on a smartphone, accompanied by the M7 "motion co-processor". A redesigned home button with Touch ID, a fingerprint recognition system which can be used to unlock the phone and authenticate App Store and iTunes Store purchases, was introduced; the camera was updated with a larger aperture and a dual-LED flash optimized for different color temperatures. The iPhone 5S shipped with iOS 7, which introduced a revamped visual appearance and other new features.
Designed by Jony Ive, iOS 7 departed from skeuomorphic elements used by previous versions of iOS in favor of a flat, colorful design. Among new software features introduced to the iPhone 5S were AirDrop, an ad-hoc Wi-Fi sharing platform. Earphones known as EarPods were included with the 5S, Apple released accessories including a case and a dock. Reception towards the device was positive, with some outlets considering it to be the best smartphone available on the market due to its upgraded hardware, Touch ID, other changes introduced by iOS 7; some criticized the iPhone 5S for keeping the design and small display of the iPhone 5, others expressed security concerns about the Touch ID system. Nine million units of the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C were sold on their weekend of release, breaking Apple's sales record for iPhones; the iPhone 5S was the best selling phone on all major U. S. carriers in September 2013. The iPhone 5S was succeeded as Apple's flagship smartphone by the larger iPhone 6 in September 2014.
On March 21, 2016, the 5S received a direct replacement with the announcement of the iPhone SE, which incorporated internal hardware similar to the iPhone 6S while retaining the smaller form factor and design of the 5S. The iPhone 5S is the first iPhone to be supported through six major versions of iOS, the second iOS device to support six major updates behind the iPad 2, launching with iOS 7 in September 2013 while the latest update is iOS 12, released on September 17, 2018. Before its official unveiling, media speculation centered on reports that the next iPhone would include a fingerprint scanner. Similar ring-based imagery was seen on the official invitation to Apple's iPhone press event in September 2013, where the new device was unveiled. Shortly before its official unveiling, The Wall Street Journal reported the rumor. Apple announced the iPhone 5C and the iPhone 5S during a media event at its Cupertino headquarters on September 10, 2013. While the iPhone 5C became available for preorder on September 13, 2013, the iPhone 5S was not available for preorder.
Both devices were released on September 20, 2013. While most of the promotion focused on Touch ID, the 64-bit Apple A7 processor was a highlight during the event; this is the first-ever 64-bit processor in a phone of any kind. I don’t think the other guys are talking about it yet. Why go through all this? The benefits are huge; the A7 is up to twice as fast as the previous-generation system at CPU tasks, up to twice as fast at graphics tasks, too. Schiller showed demos of Infinity Blade III to demonstrate the A7's processing power and the device's camera using untouched photographs; the release of iOS 7 on September 18, 2013 was announced during the keynote. The iPhone 5S was released on September 20, 2013, in the United States, United Kingdom, China, Germany, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, it was released in 25 additional countries on October 25, 2013, in 12 countries on November 1, 2013. Indonesia was the last country to receive the iPhone 5S, on January 26, 2014. On September 19, 2014, the iPhone 5S was succeeded as Apple's flagship smartphone by the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, but the older model remained available for purchase at a reduced price, while the 64GB version was discontinued.
The gold edition of the iPhone 5S was discontinued on September 9, 2015, when Apple revealed the iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S PlusThe iPhone 5S was discontinued on March 21, 2016, succeeded by the iPhone SE, which continues the same form factor but features vastly upgraded internals similar to the flagship iPhone 6S. This was a break with Apple's product positioning trend, starting with iPhone 4S released in October 2011, which gave each newly released model one year as the flagship phone moving it to midrange for its second year of production, with the third and final year as the entry-level offering before discontinuation. While the iPhone 5S was expected to continue on sale until September 2016, replacing it and its A7 processor early meant that Apple "just reduced its long-term chip support window by a year" for iOS. In addition, a new iPhone launch was meant to stimulate demand, as sales of iPhone 6S and 6S Plus had not met expectat
The iPhone 4 is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the fourth generation iPhone, succeeding the 3GS and preceding the 4S. Following a number of notable leaks, the iPhone 4 was first unveiled on June 7, 2010, at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference in San Francisco, was released on June 24, 2010, in the United States, United Kingdom, France and Japan; the iPhone 4 introduced a new hardware design to the iPhone family, which Apple's CEO Steve Jobs touted as the thinnest smartphone in the world at the time. The iPhone 4 introduced Apple's new high-resolution "Retina Display" with a pixel density of 326 pixels per inch while maintaining the same physical size and aspect ratio as its precursors; the iPhone 4 introduced Apple's A4 system-on-chip, along with iOS 4—which notably introduced multitasking functionality and Apple's new FaceTime video chat service. The iPhone 4 was the first iPhone to include a front-facing camera, the first to be released in a version for CDMA networks, ending AT&T's period as the exclusive carrier of iPhone products in the United States.
The iPhone 4 received positive reception, with critics praising its revamped design and more powerful hardware in comparison to previous models. While it was a market success, with over 600,000 pre-orders within 24 hours, the release of the iPhone 4 was plagued by publicized reports that abnormalities in its new antenna design caused the device to lose its cellular signal if held in a certain way. Most human contact with the phone's outer edge would cause a significant decrease in signal strength; the iPhone 4 spent the longest time as Apple's flagship iPhone model at fifteen months. Although the succeeding 4S was announced in October 2011, the 4 continued to be sold as a midrange model until September 2012, thereafter as the entry-level offering in Apple's lineup until September 2013 with the announcement of the iPhone 5S/iPhone 5C; the iPhone 4 had the longest lifespan of any iPhone produced, spanning close to four years and available in some developing countries until early 2015. Before the official unveiling of the iPhone 4 on June 7, 2010, two prototypes were brought to the attention of the media, breaching Apple's secretive development process.
Many of the speculations regarding technical specifications proved accurate. On January 27, 2010, gadget website Engadget received leaked images of the unreleased iPad. Unbeknownst to the editors and readers these images contained two of the unreleased iPhone 4s, it wasn't until the subsequent Gizmodo release were they aware of the complete contents of the images. On April 19, 2010, gadget website Gizmodo reported that they had purchased an iPhone prototype for $5000, furthermore, had conducted a product teardown of the device; the prototype is reported to have been lost by an Apple employee, Gray Powell, in Redwood City, California. Shortly after Gizmodo published detailed information about the prototype, Apple's legal associates formally requested for the phone to be returned to Apple, Gizmodo responded with the intent to cooperate. On April 23, officers from the Rapid Enforcement Allied Computer Team task force of the California HTTAP Program raided the home of Jason Chen, the Gizmodo editor responsible for reviewing the prototype, seizing all of his computers and hard drives.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation criticized the raid as violating journalist source protection laws that forbid the seizure of journalist computers as well as the suspicion that Apple had used its influence as a member of the steering committee, charged with direction and oversight of the California REACT task force to push police into action in a way that would not be conducted for this type of incident. Apple had received the iPhone prototype before the raid when it was returned by Gizmodo; the District Attorney has stated that the investigation has been suspended, discontinued searching through the Gizmodo editor's belongings as they determine whether the shield laws are applicable, cautioned that no charges have been issued at this point. Pictures and video of a second prototype were published on a Vietnamese website, Taoviet, on May 12, 2010, it was identical to the first, used an A4 chip manufactured by Apple. The website purchased the prototype for $4,000. DigiTimes reported that the screen resolution of the new phone was 960-by-640, confirmed by Apple at the iPhone 4's official announcement.
The iPhone 4 was available for pre-order on June 15, 2010. Customers attempting to pre-order the iPhone 4 reported problems with the pre-order process on the US and UK online Apple Stores which crashed due to the surge in traffic; the same issue was reported with AT&T and SoftBank, Apple's exclusive partners in the United States and Japan who suspended advance sales of the iPhone 4 as demand threatened to exceed supply. Retail stores were unable to complete pre-order transactions due to the servers crashing. Apple and its partner carriers received 600,000 pre-orders for the iPhone 4 in the first 24 hours, the largest number of pre-orders Apple had received in a single day for any device up to that point. Engadget reported. 1.7 million iPhone 4s were sold in its first three days of availability. The iPhone 4 has been released through Orange in Tunisia and was available in eight cities at the launch. On July 30, 2010, iPhone 4 was made available for sale in Australia, New Zealand and 15 other countries with free bumper cases.
In South Korea, it was released by KT on September 10. In Israel, it was released, too, on September 24, thr
Paula Jane Radcliffe, MBE is a British long-distance runner. She is a three-time winner of the London Marathon, three-time New York Marathon champion, 2002 Chicago Marathon winner, she is the fastest female marathoner of all time and has held the Women’s World Marathon Record in a time of 2:15:25 since 2003. Radcliffe is a former world champion in half marathon and cross country, she has been European champion over 10,000 metres and in cross country. On the track, Radcliffe won the 10,000 metres silver medal at the 1999 World Championships and was the 2002 Commonwealth champion at 5000 metres, she represented Great Britain at the Olympics in four consecutive games, although she never won an Olympic medal. Her running has earned her a number of accolades including the BBC Sports Personality of the Year, Laureus World Comeback of the Year, IAAF World Athlete of the Year, AIMS World Athlete of the Year and a Member of the Order of the British Empire, she has been nominated for World Sportswoman of the year on several occasions.
In 2010, she was inducted into the England Athletics Hall of Fame. She ended her competitive running career at the 2015 London Marathon. Radcliffe was born on 17 December 1973 in Davenham near Cheshire, her family moved to nearby Barnton where she attended Little Leigh Primary School. Despite suffering from asthma and anaemia, she took up running at the age of seven, influenced by her father, a keen amateur marathon runner and joined Frodsham Athletic Club, her family moved to Kingsley. When Radcliffe was aged 12, the family moved to Oakley and she became a member of Bedford & County Athletics Club, her joining the club coincided with a talented and dedicated coach, Alex Stanton, building the women's and girls' sections into one of the strongest in the country, in spite of Bedford's small size. Radcliffe's father became club vice-chairman and her mother, a fun-runner, managed the women's cross-country team, her first race at a national level came as a 12-year-old in 1986 when she placed 299th out of around 600 in the girls' race of the English Schools Cross Country Championships.
She finished fourth in the same race one year later. Radcliffe attended Community College, she went on to study French and economics at Loughborough University, gaining a first-class honours degree in modern European studies. Radcliffe's father was a keen marathon runner as a young man, he took up the hobby again in an attempt to lose weight after giving up smoking. Despite suffering from asthma Radcliffe took up running at the age of seven. In 1992 Radcliffe discovered. Radcliffe was diagnosed with exercise induced asthma at the age of 14 after blacking out whilst training. During her father's training jogs in the woods Radcliffe and her brother would run with him for a mile or two. Radcliffe attended Frodsham Athletic Club until the age of nine, Radcliffe became a member of Bedford & County Athletics Club, when they moved to Oakley. There she was coached by Alex Stanton. Stanton started to coach Radcliffe at the age of 12. At the age of 10 Radcliffe, accompanied by her father, watched Ingrid Kristiansen run in the London Marathon, inspiring her to become an athlete.
Her first race at a national level came as a 12-year-old in 1986, when she placed 299th in the English Schools Cross Country Championships. In 1991 Radcliffe won the English Schools 1500 metres title. At the 1992 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, took the Junior title, beating Wang Junxia and Gete Wami in Boston, after recovering from a bad asthma attack in the weeks beforehand. Radcliffe went to the Junior track World championships and finished fourth in the 3,000 metres. In her first senior race, in Durham at the start of 1993, Radcliffe finished second to Olympic Champion Derartu Tulu. At the age of 19 Radcliffe finished in seventh place at the 1993 World Championships. Radcliffe claimed back to back World Cross Challenge wins at Durham and Mallusk to start the 1994 season. Radcliffe missed the World Cross Country Championships with a foot injury. Radcliffe was misdiagnosed with the injury which forced her to miss all of 1994 and thought about quitting as the injury would not get better.
At the Fanny Blankers-Koen Games in Hengelo in 1995 Radcliffe outkicked Tulu to run the third fastest time by a British woman for the 5,000 metres. At the World championships, Radcliffe qualified comfortably for the final of the 5,000 metres, where she finished fifth. At the 1996 Securicor Games Radcliffe ran the 5,000 metres finishing second; the Olympic Games saw. Radcliffe rounded off 1996 by finishing third in a cross country race in Durham. 1997 saw Radcliffe split Wami and Tulu, win the silver medal at the 1997 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. Radcliffe became the first woman to defend the Fifth Avenue Mile title. In the 1997 World Championships, Radcliffe finished in 4th place over the 5,000 metres. Wami again outsprinted Radcliffe in the Brussels cross country event. Radcliffe had dropped out of Durham's cross country race with flu at the start of 1998, but bounced back to finish third in Dublin. At the 1998 edition of the World Cross Country, Radcliffe again won the silver medal.
Radcliffe set a new world best for 5 miles on the road around Balmoral Castle. At the European Cup Radcliffe, captaining the team, won the 5,000 metres and finished second in the 1500 metres. Radcliffe finished fifth. Ra
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the industrial and medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz, building personal area networks. It was conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing and consumer electronics; the IEEE standardized no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. A network of patents apply to the technology; the development of the "short-link" radio technology named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24.
Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund. Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecommunications company Ericsson in 1994; the first consumer bluetooth launched in 1999. It was a hand free mobile headset which earned the technology the"Best of show Technology Award" at COMDEX; the first Bluetooth mobile phone was the Sony Ericsson T36 but it was the revised T39 model which made it to store shelves in 2001. The name Bluetooth is an Anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom; the implication is. The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes and, Harald's initials. Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3.5 MHz wide at the top. This is in the globally unlicensed industrial and medical 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses. Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels; each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. It performs 1600 hops per second, with adaptive frequency-hopping enabled. Bluetooth Low Energy uses 2 MHz spacing. Gaussian frequency-shift keying modulation was the only modulation scheme available. Since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8-DPSK modulation may be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate mode where an instantaneous bit rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible; the term Enhanced Data Rate is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8-DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively.
The combination of these modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a BR/EDR radio. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master/slave architecture. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves in a piconet. All devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs, two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets, the master transmits in slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, receives in slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long, but in all cases the master's transmission begins in slots and the slave's in odd slots; the above excludes Bluetooth Low Energy, introduced in the 4.0 specification, which uses the same spectrum but somewhat differently. A master BR/EDR Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet, though not all devices reach this maximum; the devices can switch roles, by agreement, the slave can become the master.
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. At any given time, data can be transferred between one other device; the master chooses. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; the specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets. Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications proto