A dinghy is a type of small boat carried or towed for use as a lifeboat or tender by a larger vessel. The term is a loanword from the Bengali ḍiṅgi, Urdu ḍīngī & Hindi ḍieṁgī. Utility dinghies are rowboats or have an outboard motor, but while some are rigged for sailing, they are not to be confused with sailing dinghies which are designed first and foremost for this purpose. Dinghies range in length from about 2 to 6 m. Larger auxiliary vessels are called tenders, pinnaces or lifeboats. Folding and take-down multi-piece dinghies are used; some newer dinghies have much greater buoyancy, giving them more carrying capacity than older boats of the same size. Whaleboats are among the classic "pulling" boats, with a sharp bow, fine stern lines and a canoe stern. Despite being somewhat more tippy, with less cargo capacity than prams, they row and sail well because of their fine lines. Prior to the introduction of fibreglass as a construction material, dories were more popular because their ease of assembly and, lower cost.
Whitehall rowboats were the water taxis of the late 1800s until the invention of the small gasoline outboard. Considered one of the most refined rowboats for harbour and lake use, Whitehall rowboats are a descendant of the captain's gig, used for a similar purpose on a naval vessel. Dories are sharp-ended boats traditionally made of wood but now produced in fibreglass or aluminium, they cut the water well. Dories are not used as service boats to yachts. A dory can be launched through surf where a Whitehall may founder. Dories are called dinghies. Prams are short with transoms at both bow and stern, they are difficult to tip and carry a lot of cargo or passengers for their length but are slower to row because of their short length and extreme rocker, although a skeg and/or bilge runners can make a difference, without they will row better than an inflatable. Popular as tenders on sail boats with limited deck space; some inflatable boats have a rigid deck and transom which allows an engine to be used for propulsion.
They row poorly and do not tow well because of their blunt bows and large wetted surface area, but they are exceptionally buoyant. Rigid safety dinghies are designed to row, motor and sail. In addition to their self-rescue lifeboat functionality, these boats serve as everyday tenders and as recreational boats, they are buoyant and/or unsinkable and have great carrying capacity relative to length. See photo above. Dinghy is a term given to any small cars, trucks or suvs towed behind a motor home. On yachts shorter than 10 m, there is not enough room for a reasonably sized dinghy. A dinghy is useful to avoid the need for expensive dock or slip space, so owners of small yachts compromise by carrying a small rigid dinghy or deflated inflatable, or by towing a larger dinghy. Space can be saved by storing items in bags that are tied to the dinghy. Dinghies are sometimes used as lifeboats. Rigid dinghies for small yachts are small, about 2 m with a pram bow to get more beam in a shorter length. Larger dinghies are towed and should have reserve buoyancy, an automatic bailer, a cover to prevent them from being lost at sea.
Most masters prefer a tow cable long enough to put the dinghy on the back side of the swell to prevent the dinghy from ramming the transom of the yacht. Inflatables are inconvenient to tow and take extra time to inflate but are compact and fit into place while at sea. Space can be saved by using a sectional two-piece rigid dinghy, towed while in harbour and disassembled into two nesting pieces while off-shore. There are several types of collapsible rigid dinghy that dismantle into a series of flat panels for easy stowage. Inflatable tubes can be fitted to increasing buoyancy and stability. A dinghy should have a strong ring on the bow; the ring secures the painter, is used for towing and anchoring. Ideally, the dinghy should have two other rings which, with the bow ring, are used for lifting and securing the dinghy for stowage; the only other essential pieces of hardware are rowlocks. Conventionally, a dinghy will have an oar on each side. A single sculling oarlock or notch on the transom requires less space.
Many modern dinghies are made of synthetic materials. These require minimal care and do not rot but can suffer from fibre glass pox, caused by the ingress of saltwater through the gel coat. Inflatable dinghies can be made of fabrics coated with Hypalon, neoprene or PVC. Rigid dinghies can be made of glass-fibre reinforced plastic but injection-moulded one-piece hulls are available. Other materials for modern rigid dinghies include aluminium, marine plywood which tends to be much lighter than most types and, with the advent of sturdy, UV resistant polyurethane varnishes, wood; some wooden dinghies are built using the clinker methods. Favoured woods, in order o
Israel at the 2004 Summer Olympics
Israel competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004. This was the nation's thirteenth appearance at the Summer Olympics; the Olympic Committee of Israel sent a total of 36 athletes to the Games, 20 men and 16 women, to compete in 13 sports. The nation's team size was smaller by three athletes from the previous games. Nine athletes had competed in Sydney, including sprint canoer and Olympic bronze medalist Michael Kolganov and European judo champion Ariel Ze'evi, who became the nation's flag bearer in the opening ceremony. Notable Israeli athletes featured tennis men's doubles team Jonathan Erlich and Andy Ram, Russian imports Larissa Kosorukova in sprint canoeing and Alexander Danilov in men's pistol shooting, synchronized swimming pair Anastasia Gloushkov and Inna Yoffe, the youngest of the team at age 16. Apart from Kosorukova and Danilov, Georgian-born wrestler Gocha Tsitsiashvili and rifle shooter Guy Starik made their third Olympic appearances as the most experienced members of the team.
Israel left Athens with two medals, including its first Olympic gold from windsurfer Gal Fridman in men's mistral one design. On the other hand, the bronze medal was awarded to judoka Ariel Ze'evi in men's half-heavyweight division. Israeli athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events. KeyNote – Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in roundMen Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road events Qualification Legend: Q = Qualify to final. Women Men Five Israeli judoka qualified for the following events. MenWomen Israeli sailors have qualified one boat for each of the following events. MenWomenM = Medal race. Israel has qualified one taekwondo jin. Three Israeli tennis players qualified for the following events.
KeyVT - Victory by Fall. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's Greco-Roman Israel at the 2004 Summer Paralympics Official Report of the XXVIII Olympiad Olympic Committee of Israel
A Bermuda rig, Bermudian rig, or Marconi rig is a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats. This configuration was developed in Bermuda in the 17th century; the rig consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast with its head raised to the top of the mast. Developed for smaller Bermudian vessels, adapted to the larger, ocean-going Bermuda sloop, the Bermuda sail is set as the mainsail on the main mast; the Bermuda rigging has replaced the older gaff rigged fore-and-aft sails, except notably on schooners. The traditional design as developed in Bermuda features tall, raked masts, a long bowsprit, may or may not have a boom. In some configurations such as the Bermuda Fitted Dinghy vast areas of sail are achieved with this rig. Elsewhere, the design has omitted the bowsprit, has otherwise become less extreme. A Bermuda rigged sloop with a single jib is known as a Bermuda sloop, a Marconi sloop, or a Marconi rig. A Bermuda sloop may be a more specific type of vessel such as a small sailing ships traditional in Bermuda which may or may not be Bermuda rigged.
The foot of a Bermuda sail may be attached to the boom along its length, or in some modern rigs the sail is attached to the boom only at its ends. This modern variation of a Bermuda mainsail is known as a loose-footed main. In some early Bermudian vessels, the mainsails were attached only to the mast and deck, lacking booms; this is the case on two of the three masts of the newly built Spirit of Bermuda, a replica of an 1830s British Royal Navy sloop-of-war. Additional sails were often mounted on traditional Bermudian craft, when running down wind, which included a spinnaker, with a spinnaker boom, additional jibs; the main controls on a Bermuda sail are: The cunningham tightens the luff of a boom-footed sail by pulling downward on a cringle in the luff of a mainsail above the tack. The halyard used to raise the head, sometimes to tension the luff; the outhaul used to tension the foot by hauling the clew towards the end of the boom. The sheet used to haul the boom down and towards the center of the boat.
The vang or kicking strap which runs between a point partway along the boom and the base of the mast, is used to haul the boom down when on a run. The development of the rig is thought to have begun with fore-and-aft rigged boats built by a Dutch-born Bermudian in the 17th Century; the Dutch were influenced by Moorish lateen rigs introduced during Spain's rule of their country. The Dutch modified the design by omitting the masts, with the yard arms of the lateens being stepped in thwarts. By this process, the yards became raked masts. Lateen sails mounted; the Dutch called. A bezaan jacht is visible in a painting of King Charles II arriving in Rotterdam in 1660. After sailing on such a vessel, Charles was so impressed that his eventual successor, the Prince of Orange presented him with a copy of his own, which Charles named Bezaan; the rig had been introduced to Bermuda some decades before this. Captain John Smith reported that Captain Nathaniel Butler, the governor of Bermuda from 1619 to 1622, employed the Dutch boat builder, Jacob Jacobsen, one of the crew of a Dutch frigate, wrecked on Bermuda, who established a leading position among Bermuda's boat makers building and selling more than a hundred boats within the space of three years.
A poem published by John H. Hardie in 1671 described Bermuda's boats such: With tripple corner'd Sayls they always float, About the Islands, in the world there are, None in all points that may with them compare. Ships with somewhat similar rigs were in fact recorded in Holland during the 17th century; these early Bermuda rigged boats evidently lacked jibs or booms, the masts appear not to have been as robust as they were to become. In 1675, Samuel Fortrey, of Kew, wrote to the naval administrator and Member of Parliament, Samuel Pepys, a treatise entitled Of Navarchi, suggesting the improvement of the Bermoodn rig with the addition of a boom, but evidently nothing came of this. Bermudian builders did introduce these innovations themselves, though when they first appeared has been lost to record. By the 19th century, the design of Bermudian vessels had dispensed with square topsails and gaff rig, replacing them with triangular main sails and jibs; the Bermuda rig had traditionally been used on vessels with two or more masts, with the gaff rig favoured for single-masted vessels.
The reason for this was the increased height necessary for a single mast, which led to too much canvas. The solid wooden masts at that height were too heavy, not sufficiently strong; this changed. H. G. Hunt, a naval officer concluded in the 1820s that a single-masted sloop would be superior to the schooner he had been racing and was proved correct when the yacht he had commissioned won a secre
Planing is the mode of operation for a waterborne craft in which its weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift, rather than hydrostatic lift. Many forms of marine transport make use of planing, including fast ferries, racing boats, flying boats, seaplanes. Most surfboards are semi-planing hulls. Beyond planing, fast vessel designs have seen a transition to hydrofoil designs; the earliest documented planing sailboat was a proa built in 1898 by Commodore Ralph Munroe. It was capable of speeds of more than twice the hull speed. Planing a sailing dinghy was first popularised by Uffa Fox in Britain. In 1928 Fox introduced planing to the racing world in Avenger; that year he gained 52 first places, 2 seconds, 3 third places out of 57 race starts. This performance was noticed by other designers who developed them. Over the years many dinghies have acquired the ability to plane. Advances in building materials have allowed for lighter boats that will plane faster and in lighter air. There are now many high-performance dinghies.
When it is at rest, a vessel's weight is borne by the buoyant force. At low speeds every hull acts as a displacement hull, meaning that the buoyant force is responsible for supporting the craft; as speed increases, hydrodynamic lift increases as well. In contrast, the buoyant force decreases as the hull lifts out of the water, decreasing the displaced volume. At some speed, lift becomes the predominant upward force on the hull and the vessel is planing. A simple model of this effect is a solid slab of material, heavier than water but is shaped and oriented to have a positive angle of attack. At rest, the slab will sink. However, if the slab is kept in the same orientation and pulled horizontally through the water, it will force the incoming water downward; this results in a reactionary force upward on the slab. At a high enough speed, this reactionary force is larger than the force of gravity and the slab will stay afloat. In this way, the horizontal force is converted into a vertical force upwards.
The concept of planing is interpreted as analogous with aerodynamic lift, but in reality the acting forces are different. Although any hull will plane if enough power is provided and enough speed is attained, a hull designed for operation in the planing realm is sometimes distinguished by a flat run aft. In other words, in side view, the bottom is less a straight line towards the stern. In contrast, in a displacement, or non-planing hull, the bottom is curved in side view all the way from bow to stern, in order to minimize wave drag. In front view, the sections in the aft area may be straight, as in a racing hydroplane, to maximize planing forces and speed, but for practical reasons of stability and comfortable ride are V-shaped in boats intended for offshore use. To plane to initiate planing, the power-to-weight ratio must be high, since the planing mode of operation involves moving the hull at speeds higher than its natural hull speed. All boat designs for planing benefit from minimised weight.
Planing sailing boats need powerboats need a high-power engine. Steps and chine ridges may be incorporated into the design to encourage both ease of planing and stability. Most surfboards, although unpowered, are semi-planing hulls, they utilize the push of the waveform more or less in combination with gravity and specific angles of attack for the airfoil to maximise propulsive force and reduce the net downforce and thus achieve planing lift. Planing may be achieved in most sailing dinghies. In light to moderate conditions, planing is best initiated by a combination of the following. Maximise power: sail on a reach or broad reach to begin. Minimise surface-induced drag: raise the centreboard or daggerboard about half way Maintain power: when a gust hits, bear away and ease the sheets As a gust begins to pass, steer to windward to keep the apparent wind forward Maintain flat form of immersed sections of hull: keep the hull level side-to-side, trapeze if necessary Move your weight aft to lift the bow Maintain power if necessary: flick or pump the sails Seek optimal form and speed of immersed hull: if there are waves, surf down them to initiate planing.
Hydroplane Dinghy racing Dinghy sailing Windsurfing Videos of planing sailboards from the UK Windsurfing Association
Sailing as a sport involves a variety of competitive sailing formats that are sanctioned through various sailing federations and yacht clubs. Racing disciplines include matches within a fleet of sailing craft, between a pair thereof or among teams. Additionally, there are specialized competitions. Racing formats include both closed point-to-point contests. Most competitions are held within defined classes or ratings that either entail one type of sailing craft to ensure a contest of skill or rating the sailing craft to create classifications or handicaps. On water, a sailing competition among multiple vessels is a regatta, which consists of multiple individual races, where the boat crew that performs best in over the series of races is the overall winner. There is a broad variety of kinds of races and sailboats used for racing from large yacht to dinghy racing. Much racing is done around buoys or similar marks in protected waters, while some longer offshore races cross open water. All kinds of boats are used for racing, including small dinghies, boats designed for cruising, purpose-built raceboats.
The Racing Rules of Sailing govern the conduct of yacht racing, kitesurfing, model boat racing, dinghy racing and any other form of racing around a course with more than one vessel while powered by the wind. The World Sailing is recognized by the International Olympic Committee as the world governing body for the sport of sailing yacht racing, it was formed in 1904 as the International Yacht Racing Union and called the International Sailing Federation until rebranding 2014. Many town yacht clubs maintain their own racing teams for both adults. Several yacht clubs will get together to hold events that can include more than 100 entered boats per race making up the regatta. Although both adults and juniors sail the same classes of boat. Fleet races can have anywhere from four boats to hundreds of boats in a race. A regatta must have at least three races to be counted; each boat's place in each race is added to compile a final score. The lowest scorer wins. In match racing only two boats compete against each other.
The best known competition of this type is the America's Cup. The tactics involved in match racing are different from those of other races, because the objective is to arrive at the finish line before the opponent, not as fast as possible; the tactics involved at the start are special. Team racing is most between two teams of three boats each, it involves similar technique to match racing but has the added dimension that it is the overall scoring of the race that matters. In three on three team racing, this means. For this reason, many tactics are used to advance teammates to make stable combinations for winning; the stable combinations most sought are "Play one", 1-2-anything, "Play two"or2-3-4, "Play 4", a 1-4-5 combination. These are regarded as the best setups to win and the hardest for the opposing team to play offense against. Is managed by World Speed Sailing Record Council Is common to board sports Both windsurfing and kiteboarding are experimenting with new formats. Harbor or buoy races are conducted in protected waters, are quite short taking anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours.
All sorts of sailing craft are used for these races, including keel-boats of all sizes, as well as dinghies, trailer sailors, skiffs and other small craft. This kind of race is most run over one or more laps of a triangular course marked by a number of buoys; the course starts from an imaginary line drawn from a'committee boat' to the designated'starting' buoy or'pin'. A number of warning signals are given telling the crews how long until the race starts; the aim of each crew is to cross the start line at full speed as the race starts. A course involves tacking upwind to a'windward' marker or buoy. Bearing away onto a downwind leg to a second jibe marker. Next another jibe on a second downwind leg to the last mark, called the'downwind mark'. At this mark the boats turn into wind once again to tack to the finish line; the most famous and longest running of these events are: Olympics America's Cup Cowes Week Mug RaceThere are three starting techniques for short course racing: Reaching out and Reaching in: Trim your sails to a beam-reach on the opposite course you intend to sail on when the race starts.
Note the time remaining until the start horn as you cross the start line. When a little less than half of the remaining time elapses, either tack or jibe onto your intended course. You should cross the start line; the Vanderbuilt start: The Vanderbuilt start is similar to reaching out and reaching in, except this start requires the crew to trim to a broach reach bearing away from the start line on a port tack. Using the same timing method as the reaching in and reaching out method above, your vessel should be able to tack or jibe and hit the start line on the appropriate course at full speed as the start horn sounds. Port-tack approach: This starting technique was created to allow skippers take advantage of'holes' in the start line; every short course race starts with a windward leg. Each vessel is wind-powered and vessels to the windward of each other will block the'clean air.' As a result, many of the racers will group on one end of the start line trying to outmaneuver each other for clean air.
By taking a port-tack approach, the rogue skipper breaks away from the pack and sails down the s
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p