Ivan Nikitin (poet)
Ivan Savvich Nikitin was a Russian poet. Born in Voronezh into a merchant family, Nikitin was educated in a seminary until 1843, his father's violence and alcoholism brought the family to ruin and forced young Ivan to provide for the household by becoming an innkeeper. After his first publications, he joined a circle of local intelligentsia that included his future biographer Mikhail De-Lupé, he taught himself French and German and read in world literature, in 1859 he opened a bookstore and library that became an important center of literary and social life in Voronezh. His first poems appeared in 1849 and his first collection in 1856. A second collection came out in 1859, a prose "Seminarist's Diary" was published in 1861; some of his poems became the basis for popular songs, set to music by such composers as Vasily Kalinnikov, Eduard Nápravník, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. D. S. Mirsky wrote that his "principal claim to attention" was in "his realistic poems of the life of the poor": He was inclined sometimes to idealize and sentimentalize them, but his best things are free from this sin.
There is an epic calm in the long and powerful Night Rest of the Drivers, an unsweetened realism in such poems of tragic misery as The Tailor. In Kulák, his opus magnum, Nikitin introduced into poetry the methods of realistic prose, he succeeds in evoking terror by the simple account of sordid and trivial misery. But he was not strong enough to create a new art or a new attitude to poetry. Nikita Khrushchev was fond of Nikitin's verse. Texts set to music Ivan Savvich Nikitin. Poems Ivan Savvich Nikitin poetry at Stihipoeta.ru
Afanasy Nikitin was a Russian merchant of Tver and one of the first Europeans to travel to and document his visit to India. He described his trip in a narrative known as The Journey Beyond Three Seas. In 1466, Nikitin left his hometown of Tver on a commercial trip to India, he travelled down the Volga River, although he was attacked and robbed by Tatars near Astrakhan he succeeded in reaching Derbent, where he joined Vasili Papin, the envoy of Ivan the Great to the shah of Shirvan. At Derbent, Nikitin vainly endeavoured to get means of returning to Russia, he lived in Persia for one year. In the spring of 1469, Nikitin arrived at the city of Ormus and crossing the Arabian Sea, making several prolonged stays along the way, reached the sultanate of Bahmani, where he would live for three years. From what he tells us, he appears to have made his living by horse-dealing. During that time he visited the Hindu sanctuary of Perwattum, which he called "the Jerusalem of the Hindus". On his way back, Nikitin visited Muscat, the Arabian sultanate of Fartak and Trabzon, in 1472 arrived at Feodosiya by crossing the Black Sea.
On his way to Tver, Nikitin died not far from Smolensk in the autumn of that year. During his trip, Nikitin studied the population of India, its social system, military, its economy, religion and natural resources; the abundance and trustworthiness of Nikitin's factual material provide a valuable source of information about India at that time, his remarks on the trade of Hormuz, Calicut, Ceylon and China. After studying Nikitin's account, his references to Islam the prayers he transliterates from Arabic and Turkic into Cyrillic letters, Gail Lenhoff and Janet Martin speculated that Nikitin might have converted to Islam while in India, his loss of contact with Christianity and his life among Muslims bothered him and he mentions this several times in his account. Indeed, he begins his account calling it his "sinful voyage beyond three seas." He went on to explain that, while he continued to date events by Christian religious holidays and invoked the Mother of God and the saints, he could not remember when Christian holidays were, so he could not celebrate Easter and other movable feast days or keep the Christian fasts.
Thus, he broke fast when they did. He wrote that at Bindar in the third year of his journey he "shed many tears for the Christian faith." Near the end of his account, he wrote of his wish to return home and to the Christian faith: "I, Afanasy, a damned servant of Almighty God, Maker of heaven and earth, pondered over the Christian faith, the Baptism of Christ, the fasts established by the Holy Fathers, the apostolic commandments, I longed to go to Rus!"Yakov Lurye, an editor of Nikitin's Journey, sees his conversion as doubtful, pointing out that a circumcised convert should be persecuted or put to death in Rus', so if Nikitin had indeed become a Muslim, he would have avoided returning to his country, while in fact he died on his way back in Lithuania not far from the Muscovite border. In 1955, the local authorities of Tver erected a bronze monument to Afanasy Nikitin on the bank of the Volga River; the sculptor was Sergei Orlov. There is a folk legend that this statue was raised because Nikita Khrushchev, upon visiting India, told Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that there was a statue of Nikitin in Russia when in fact there was not.
So as not to be proven a liar, Khrushchev phoned back to Russia demanding that a statue of Nikitin be built before Nehru's state visit to Russia. The statue was featured on a Russian postage stamp in 2005 commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the establishment of the Tver region. Nikitin was featured on a coin commemorating the 525th anniversary of his journey. In 1958, Mosfilm produced a film entitled The Journey Beyond Three Seas with Oleg Strizhenov cast as Afanasy Nikitin. In 2000, a black obelisk was erected in Nikitin's honor at Revdanda, 120 km south of Mumbai, the probable location where he first set foot in India. In 2006, the Indian organization "Adventures & Explorers," with the support of the Embassy of India in Moscow and the Tver Regional Administration sponsored the "Nikitin Expedition", in which 14 travellers set out from Tver to retrace Nikitin's journey through Russia, the Middle East, Central Asia to India; the expedition lasted from 12 November 2006 to 16 January 2007. The Indian national newspaper, The Hindu, filed several reports of the expedition's progress.
After reaching India, two members of the "Nikitin Expedition" set out in March 2007 from Mumbai in SUVs to retrace Nikitin's travels around India itself. The Calcutta Telegraph filed a report on its progress in one of its March editions; the Afanasy Nikitin Seamount in the Indian Ocean is named in his honor. In 1957 a bollywood movie was made based on his memoirs called "Pardesi" starring Balraj Sahni, Prithvi Raj Kapoor,Oleg Strizheno
Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, the M4 highway, its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895. The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs. By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.
For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality. In the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa; the linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may be not only similar in sound, but united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Verona, etc. A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov.
His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh. It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, in the west to the Don; the historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest; this is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus. Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven and hedgehog into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which in turn provided the name for a settlement.
There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation. In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde, the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars; the city was named after the river. In the 17th century, Voronezh evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696; this fleet, the first built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was proclaimed the town's patron saint. Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region.
In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which morphed into the Voronezh Governorate. In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry as well as bread, cattle and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871. During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops; the Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city.
Tatyana Khashimovna Nikitina is a prominent Russian bard. She performs together with her husband, Sergey Nikitin, she was born Tatiana Sadykova in Dushanbe on December 31, 1945. In 1971, she graduated from the Department of Physics of Moscow State University. In 1968, she began singing in a quintet led by Sergey Nikitin, they worked together as biophysicists as well as singers. Together they recorded more than 15 Vinyls. In 1990, she abandoned her research work to become the Manager for Culture of the October District ispolkom of Moscow became Deputy Prefect of the Central District of Moscow, in 1992–1995 she was a deputy to the Minister for Culture of Russia. Since 1995, she has worked as a manager at an Italian firm that organizes art exhibitions. Biography of Tatiana and Sergey Nikitins Biography of Tatiana Nikitina
Victor Ivanovich Nikitin
Victor Ivanovich Nikitin, was a Soviet tenor soloist of the Alexandrov Ensemble, born in Syzran 12 February 1911 and died in Moscow 6 January 1994. He is notable for being the first Mr Kalinka, for being called "Ambassador Kalinka" by Erich Mückenberger after singing at the 1948 Berlin peace concert, he was buried at Pyatnitskoye cemetery in Moscow. He was a machine engineer in 1938, joined the Alexandrov Ensemble in the same year, he had started recording by 1936. He was known as "Mr Kalinka" before World War II; when he sang to entertain the Soviet troops at the Eastern Front in World War II, the Germans on the other side stopped shooting to listen. The German appreciation of Nikitin did not end there. At the Alexandrov Ensemble August 1948 Peace Concert, he sang encores of Kalinka and received high praise for his singing. Before the concert he had bought a book of 10 German folk songs, persuaded Boris Alexandrov and the Soviet commanders to let him sing some of them in German; this would be seen by the German audience as a great commitment to peace.
In a photograph taken from the back of the choir at the time, you can see some of the 30,000-strong audience with the destroyed city as a backdrop. You can just see the flowers along the front of the stage, to the left of the photo, standing in front of the balalaika players is a young soloist waiting for Boris to indicate the start of his song; this is the scene which Nikitin, the choir and the orchestra saw on that day in 1948. A 1985 Radio DDR recording exists of part of this 1948 Berlin concert. Nikitin sang Ich Freue Mich Ihnen Mein Lied Zu Singen and Kalinka. In connection with this, Nikitin was made Honoured Citizen of the German Democratic Republic. In 2007, Nikitin was still remembered by Leonid Maleev, director of the Ensemble, as the earliest "Mr Kalinka", it has been rumoured that Nikitin was in disgrace after singing in German in 1948, that this ended his career in 1952. He continued to be popular with Stalin. Nikitin could not have returned to the choir without Stalin's approval. With the Alexandrov Ensemble from 1938 to 1952 he recorded Meeting with the chief, Cold waves lapping, Samovary-samopaly duet with S. Tibaev, Red Fleet sailors, duet with N. Ustinov, Alas nothing to please me Prague, Come to me young laddie Prague, Alas nothing to please me Moscow, Come to me young laddie Prague, Troika Prague, Im schönsten Wiesengrunde Berlin, Kalinka Berlin, Heidenröslein Dresden, Evening on the waterfront solo and as duet with V.
N. Katerinsky, Winter evening Prague, Down by Mother Volga, he recorded Song of my country Prague. Alexandrov Ensemble Alexandrov Ensemble soloists Alexandrov Ensemble choir Alexandrov Ensemble discography
Sergey Nikitin (musician)
Sergey Yakovlevich Nikitin is a prominent Soviet and Russian bard and biophysicist. He performs both solo and in a duet with his wife, Tatyana Nikitina all over Russia, the former Soviet republics, other countries with significant Russian-speaking diaspora. Sergey Nikitin is known as a composer and performer of songs for children. Sergey Nikitin graduated from the Physics Department of Moscow State University in 1968. After completing postgraduate studies at the department of Biophysics at Moscow State University, he worked as a researcher in Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry in Moscow. In 1980-1987 he was a researcher at the Institute of Biophysics in Pushchino and received a Ph. D. in Physics in 1983. Nikitin wrote music to his first song, En route, in 1962. In 1963, he founded an all-male quartet in the Department of Physics at Moscow State University, together with Sergey Smirnov, Boris Geller, Aleksei Monakhov, Vadim Khait. From 1968-77, he appeared at numerous concerts, together with other members of his quintet, including his wife, Tatyana Nikitina, Carmen Santacreu, Vladimir Ulin, Nikolai Turkin.
In 1987-1995, he was Musical Director at the Oleg Tabakov Studio-Theater in Moscow, became a full-time singer and composer since 1995. Nikitin has an adult son, Alexander. 1980 The movie Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears for which Sergey Nikitin wrote the music received an Oscar in the'best foreign film' category. In 1997, Sergey Nikitin was awarded the title of the Meritorious Actor of Russia and, together with Tatiana Nikitina, became a laureate of the Tzarsko-Selsky Artistic Prize. CDs Records of 1971-1975, quintet of the Department of Physics in Moscow State University To the Music of Vivaldi, 1994 Sergei Nikitin, 1994 A Big Secret for a Small Company, 1995 Yesterday the Crocodile smiled, 1995 Rubber hedgehog, songs for children on verses by Yunna Morits Brich-Mulla, 1996 Sentries of Love Field of miracles, 1998 We don't choose times, 1998 The Girl and the Plasticine, 1998 Something is Happening to Me, 1999 Concert, 2000 Retro for the Two of Us Black and White Cinema, 2002 Winter Holiday, 2002 Soundtracks to live-action films: Almost a laughable story Trips in an old car Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears Irony of Fate, - "Snowing On" on YouTube a song from the film, lyrics by Boris Pasternak and performance by Nikitin, English subtitles by V. Chetin Old New Year Soundtracks to animated films: A Big Secret for a Small Company The Boy Was Walking, the Crow Was Flying The Wolfskin Music for the theater Mary Poppins, a collaboration with Viktor Berkovsky Ali Baba and 40 songs of Persian Bazaar a collaboration with Viktor Berkovsky, libretto by Veniamin Smekhov Opera Why are you wearing tails and many others Full list of published songs by Nikitin with digital recordings Facebook account VK account Concert by Nikitin
Ivan Nikitin (painter)
Ivan Nikitich Nikitin was a Russian painter, an author of portraits and battle paintings. Ivan Nikitin was born in Moscow to a family of an Orthodox priest, he received his first artistic lessons from a Dutch artist Schwonbek at the engraving shop of the Kremlin Armoury. In 1711 the Armory together with Ivan Nikitin was moved to Saint Petersburg. In 1716–1720 he and his brother Roman Nikitin were sent to Italy by Peter the Great; the brothers learnt the art of painting at Venice. After returning to Russia Nikitin became the favorite court painter of Peter the Great, he worked in Saint Petersburg. After Peter's death in 1725 Nikitin continued to work at the court until 1732, when he and his brothers Roman and Rodion were arrested for the distribution of pamphlets against vice-Procurator of Synod Feofan Prokopovich. Ivan was tortured, for five years imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress whipped and exiled to Tobolsk. In 1740 Anna of Russia signed an amnesty for the brothers; the amnesty came into force in 1741.
By request of the new Empress Elizabeth of Russia, Nikitin travelled back from Tobolsk to Saint Petersburg and died somewhere on the road either in late 1741 or in early 1742. The early portraits by Nikitin had a strong influence of the traditional 17th century parsuna style: no perspective, rigid local colors, dark backgrounds; the portraits are typical Baroque paintings. Most art historians consider the Nikitin's best portraits to be Chancellor G. I. Golovkin and A Malorossian Hetman. There are problems with attributing of the subject of the portrait, with different historians arguing that he is Ivan Mazepa or Ivan Skoropadsky or Kazimir Ian Sapega, or Pavlo Polubotok, but they all are equal in emphasising the psychological depth of the portrait. Besides portraits, Ivan Nikitin is considered to be the first notable Russian battle painter due to his paintings of the Battle of Poltava and Battle of Kulikovo. Nikitin's site – in Russian Biography – in Russian Biography – in Russian