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Nikkei 225

The Nikkei 225, more called the Nikkei, the Nikkei index, or the Nikkei Stock Average, is a stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange. It has been calculated daily by the Nihon Keizai Shinbun newspaper since 1950, it is a price-weighted index, operating in the Japanese Yen, its components are reviewed once a year. The Nikkei measures the performance of 225 large, publicly owned companies in Japan from a wide array of industry sectors; the Nikkei 225 began to be calculated on 7 September 1950, retroactively calculated back to 16 May 1949. Since January 2010, the index is updated every 15 seconds during trading sessions; the Nikkei 225 Futures, introduced at Singapore Exchange in 1986, the Osaka Securities Exchange in 1988, Chicago Mercantile Exchange in 1990, is now an internationally recognised futures index. The Nikkei average has deviated from the textbook model of stock averages, which grow at a steady exponential rate; the average hit its all-time high on 29 December 1989, during the peak of the Japanese asset price bubble, when it reached an intra-day high of 38,957.44, before closing at 38,915.87, having grown sixfold during the decade.

Subsequently, it lost nearly all these gains, closing at 7,054.98 on 10 March 2009 — 81.9% below its peak twenty years earlier. Another major index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the Tokyo Stock Price Index. On 15 March 2011, the second working day after the massive earthquake in the northeast part of Japan, the index dropped over 10% to finish at 8605.15, a loss of 1,015 points. The index continued to drop throughout 2011, bottoming out at 8160.01 on 25 November, putting it at its lowest close since 10 March 2009. The Nikkei fell over 17% in 2011, finishing the year at 8455.35, its lowest year-end closing value in thirty years, when the index finished at 8016.70 in 1982. The Nikkei started 2013 near 10,600. However, shortly afterward, it plunged by 10% before rebounding, making it the most volatile stock market index among the developed markets. By 2015, it has reached over 20,000 mark. However, by 2018, the index growth has been more moderate at around the 22,000 mark. There is concern that the rise since 2013 is due to purchases by the Bank of Japan.

From a start in 2013, by end 2017, The BOJ owned circa 75% of all Japanese Exchange Traded Funds, are a top 10 shareholder of 90% of the Nikkei 225 constituents. The index is a price-weighted index; as of late 2014, the company with the largest influence on the index is Fast Retailing. The following table shows the annual development of the Nikkei 225, calculated back to 1914; as of April 2018, the Nikkei 225 consists of the following companies: S&P/TOPIX 150 Nikkei 225 Components — official website at indexes. Nikkei.co.jp Index detail: Nikkei Stock Average 225 — at Reuters Nikkei 225 page – NKY:IND — on Bloomberg Markets Nikkei 225 index — on Google Finance Nikkei 225 index — on Yahoo! Finance Nikkei 225 profile — at Wikinvest

Palmer, Texas

Palmer is a town in Ellis County, United States. It is part of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, its population was 2,000 at the 2010 census, up from 1,774 at the 2000 census. Palmer is located in northeastern Ellis County at 32°25′46″N 96°40′8″W. Interstate 45 passes through the east side of the town, with access from Exits 258 through 260. Waxahachie, the county seat, is 11 miles to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which 3.0 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.04%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,776 people, 556 households, 454 families residing in the town; the population density was 627.7 people per square mile. There were 591 housing units at an average density of 209.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.70% White, 1.80% African American, 0.85% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 8.68% from other races, 1.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.32% of the population.

There were 556 households out of which 44.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.19 and the average family size was 3.55. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.5% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,729, the median income for a family was $44,922. Males had a median income of $29,695 versus $23,300 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,483. About 6.7% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.

Portions of Tender Mercies, a 1983 film about a country western singer, were filmed in Palmer, although the majority was filmed in Waxahachie. In both towns, director Bruce Beresford deliberately filmed more barren and isolated locations that more resembled the West Texas area; the Texas town portrayed in Tender Mercies is never identified. Palmer has three schools: Palmer High and Elementary School. Palmer built the current elementary school in 2015, leaving the old school for gym and cafeteria use. Palmer Elementary has over 350 students ranging from pre-K to 3rd grade; the junior high and middle school were combined a few years earlier to become the Palmer Middle School, housing 4th grade through 8th grade, with around 350 students. Palmer High School is the second newest building and serves over 300 students between 9th and 12th grade. Palmer High School and Palmer Middle School have athletics ranging from 7th to 12th grade. Sports include track and field, football, softball, cross country, golf.

Extracurricular activities include band, National Honor Society, many more clubs. Interstate 45 The city is served by the owned Dallas South Port Airport. City of Palmer official website

Seonjo of Joseon

Seonjo of Joseon was the fourteenth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1567 to 1608. Known for encouraging Confucianism and renovating state affairs at the beginning of his reign, political chaos and his incompetent leadership during the Japanese invasions of Korea marred his years. King Seonjo was born Yi Yeon in 1552 in Hanseong, capital of Korea, as the third son of Prince Deokheung, himself son of King Jungjong and Royal Noble Consort Changbin Ahn-ssi, he was given the title of Prince Haseong. When King Myeongjong died young without an heir, Prince Haseong was the next in the line of succession. By decision of the royal court, he was crowned king in 1567 at the age of 16; as a result, his father was promoted to the status of Daewongun King Seonjo focused on the improvement of the lives of the common people, as well as rebuilding the nation after the political corruption during the chaotic reign of Yeonsangun and King Jungjong. He encouraged Sarim scholars, persecuted by entrenched aristocrats in four different purges between 1498 and 1545 during reign of Yeosangun and Jungjong.

Seonjo continued the political reforms of King Myeongjong, put many famous Confucian scholars, including Yi Hwang, Yi I, Jeong Cheol, Yu Seong-ryong, in office. Seonjo reformed the civil service examination system the civil official qualification exam; the previous exam was concerned with literature, not with politics or history. The king himself ordered the system to be reformed by increasing the importance of these other subjects, he restored the reputations of executed scholars such as Jo Gwang-jo, who died in Third Literati Purge of 1519, denounced the accomplishments of corrupt aristocrats, notably Nam Gon, who instigated the purge under Jungjong and contributed to the corruption of the era. These acts earned the king the respect of the general populace, the country enjoyed a brief era of peace. Among the scholars King Seonjo called to the government were Kim Hyowon. Sim was a relative of the queen, conservative. Kim was the leading figure of the new generation of officials, called for liberal reforms.

The scholars who supported King Seonjo began to split into two factions, headed by Kim. Members of the two factions lived in the same neighborhood; the two factions began to be called the Western Faction and the Easterners. At first the Westerners earned the favor of the king, since Sim was related to the queen and had larger support from wealthy nobles. However, their attitudes on reformation and Sim's indecisiveness helped the Easterners take power, the Westerners fell out of favor. Reforms were accelerated during the first period of influence of the Easterners, but many Easterners began to urge others to slow down the reforms; the Easterners were once again divided into the Southern Faction. Yu Seong-ryong led the Southern faction while the Northerners divided further after arguments over many issues; the political divisions caused the nation to be weakened, since the size of the military was one of the issues on the reform agenda. Yi I, a neutral conservative, urged the king to increase the size of the army to prepare against future invasions from the Jurchens and Japanese.

However, both factions rejected Yi's suggestions, the size of the army was decreased further since many believed the peaceful period would last. The Jurchens and Japanese used this opportunity to expand their influence in East Asia, resulting in the Seven-Year War, the foundation of the Qing Dynasty in China, both of which would lead to devastation on the Korean Peninsula. King Seonjo faced many difficulties dealing with both new threats, sending many skilled military commanders to the northern front, while contending with Japanese leaders Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu in the south. However, after Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified Japan, the Japanese soon proved themselves to be the greater threat. Many officials concerned with the defense of the kingdom urged the king to send delegates to Hideyoshi, their major purpose being to find out whether Hideyoshi was preparing for invasion or not. However, the two government factions could not agree on this issue of national importance.

When they returned to Korea, their reports only caused confusion. Hwang Yun-gil, of the Westerners faction, reported that Hideyoshi was raising huge numbers of troops, but Kim Seong-Il, of the Easterners faction, told the king that he thought these large forces were not for the war against Korea, since he was trying to complete his reforms to prevent lawlessness and quash the bandits now roaming the countryside. Since the Easterners had the bigger voice in government at the time, Hwang's reports were ignored and Seonjo decided not to prepare for war though the attitude of Hideyoshi in his letter to Seonjo showed his interest in the conquest of Asia. In 1591, after the delegates had returned from Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent his own delegates to visit King Seonjo, asked permission to pass through the Korean Peninsula t

Chris Neville

Chris Neville is a NASCAR pit road reporter who most worked for Fox Sports. He is best known for his work with Fox, as well as calling the Rolex Sports Car Series on SPEED, NASCAR Sprint Cup Series for NASCAR on TNT, the IndyCar Series for NBC Sports. Neville began, he signed up for his first professional event when he was 18. Chris Neville attended Purdue University, where he graduated in 1995. While at Purdue, Neville continued to race, he became an instructor at the Bob Bondurant School of High Performance Driving located in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1998, Neville signed up to race in the SCCA Trans-Am Series, he continued to race in the Trans-Am Series until 2000, winning events such as the SPEED World Challenge. In 2001, Neville decided to stop racing and became a pit road reporter for SPEED, bringing knowledge that came from his racing days, he has continued to work on television, moving to NASCAR on TNT and most to Fox NASCAR. On November 29, 2017 it was announced that Neville would not be returning as a Fox NASCAR Reporter in 2018.

Chris Neville lives in Ohio with his wife and two daughters. He was elected to the Road Racing Drivers Club in 2011. "Chris Neville". FoxSports.com. Fox Sports Interactive Media, LLC. January 1, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015. "Chris Neville Biography". Rlrassociates.net. RLR Vertigrated Entertainment. 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2015

New Abbey

New Abbey is a village in the historical county of Kirkcudbrightshire in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. It is around 6 miles south of Dumfries; the summit of the prominent hill Criffel is 2.5 miles to the south. The village has a wealth of history including the ruined Cistercian abbey Sweetheart Abbey, founded by Lady Devorgilla in 1273 in memory of her husband John Balliol, she kept his embalmed heart close to her for the rest of her life. The monks named the abbey dulce cor; the village has the New Abbey Corn Mill. Loch Kindar has a crannog and the village has the remains of Kirk Kindar on an island located just outside the village; the village has a saw mill, a hotel, a village shop, a coffee shop, a primary school, a doctor's surgery, a village hall, a bowling green, a football pitch - Maryfield Park, a Church of Scotland church. A Roman Catholic church, St Mary's, designed by the New Abbey born architect Walter Newall, closed in 2013, it is now The Thomas Bagnall Centre with occasional retreats and Mass said here.

Two burns flow through the village: the New Abbey Pow which runs into the River Nith Estuary and the Sheep Burn. Dougie Sharpe - Scottish League internationalist footballer and long time servant to Queen of the South from the club's days in Scotland's top division. Sir William Patterson, founder of the Bank of England, was buried in the village in 1719. Francis Campbell Boileau Cadell, Scottish colourist artist, friend of the Stewart family and frequent visitor to their home Shambellie House. James MacKenzie, recipient of the Victoria Cross for bravery List of listed buildings in New Abbey and Galloway Parish of New Abbey on historical Kirkcudbright County website

Hitzig v Canada

Hitzig v Canada is a 2003 civil case that challenged the constitutionality of the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations, now the Medical Marihuana Access Division. MMAR provided for exemptions from the law for approved medicinal users while allowing for no legal source of therapeutic cannabis products; the case was brought by Warren Hitzig, along with seven medical marijuana users. Warren Saul Hitzig co-founded the Toronto Compassion Centre in 1997 to provide high quality cannabis products to those with a documented medicinal need and to act as a medical marijuana information resource for the Canadian general public; the Centre's formation was announced in early 1998 with a press conference and letter to the Canadian government requesting authorization for their activities. The Hitzig applicants argued that the MMAR provided an illusory access to cannabis medicine, encouraged sick Canadians to look to the black market for their legal medication, and/or the seeds/plants needed to'grow their own.'

Ontario Superior Court judge Sidney Lederman agreed that this situation violated the rights of the applicants as set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. He gave the Canadian government six months from January 9, 2003 to remedy the situation, which prompted the controversial announcement on July 8 that Health Canada would begin distribution of marijuana grown under contract to Prairie Plant Systems in Flin Flon, Manitoba. Alison Myrden first approached Law Professor Alan Young in the Spring of 1999 to form and submit a lawsuit to sue the Government of Canada for a safe and affordable source of marijuana; this became the'Hitzig et al.' Lawsuit. Warren was the only person involved, not a medical user and could front the suit as a Cannabis Compassion Club. In 1995, Alison retired from law enforcement and was given her first prescription for Medical Marijuana by a Canadian Physician, she was sent to the street to buy her medicine by the government of Canada before there was such a thing as'The Medical Marijuana Access Regulations'.

Alison was one of the first twenty people in Canada to receive a Federal Licence to smoke and grow medical marijuana for health reasons. Battling multiple sclerosis from the age of 13 years, Alison's worst physical problem today is a stabbing pain in her face 24 hours a day associated with MS, called'Tic Douloureux'. Having been allotted one of the largest prescriptions in the country for cannabis and having not to depend on 32 pills a day and 2000 mg of morphine everyday any more from the past 15 years, Alison's life has improved. So much so, that in 2004 Alison ran for the New Democratic Party in Oakville, more than doubling the votes for the New Democratic Party from the previous federal election. Hitzig v. Canada, 2003 CanLII 30796 Judgement and case synopsis website of Alison Myrden, one of Canada's most vocal Drug Policy Activists L. E. A. P. - Law Enforcement Against Prohibition