The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The Lenin Prize was one of the most prestigious awards of the Soviet Union for accomplishments relating to science, arts and technology. It was created on June 23, 1925 and awarded until 1934. During the period from 1935 to 1956, the Lenin Prize was not awarded, being replaced by the Stalin Prize. On August 15, 1956, it was reestablished, continued to be awarded on every even-numbered year until 1990; the award ceremony was Vladimir Lenin's birthday. The Lenin Prize is different from the Lenin Peace Prize, awarded to foreign citizens rather than to citizens of the Soviet Union, for their contributions to the peace cause; the Lenin Prize should not be confused with the Stalin Prize or the USSR State Prize. Some persons were awarded both the USSR State Prize. On April 23, 2018, the head of the Ulyanovsk Oblast, Sergey Ivanovich Morozov reintroduced the Lenin Prize for achievements in the humanities and art to coincide with the 150th birthday of Lenin in 2020. Note: This list is incomplete and differs in detail from the complete and much longer Russian list, is in chronological order.
Nikolai Kravkov Alexander Chernyshov Nikolai Demyanov Sergei Sergeyev-Tsensky Giorgi Melikishvili Dimitri Nalivkin Okhotsimsky Dmitrii Evgenievich Pyotr Novikov Sergei Prokofiev Dmitri Shostakovich Nikolay Bogolyubov Grigori Chukhrai Vladimir Veksler Mikhail Sholokhov Alexander Bereznyak Sviatoslav Richter Juhan Smuul Aleksei Pogorelov Korney Chukovsky Nikolai Aleksandrovich Nevsky Vladimir Marchenko Chinghiz Aitmatov Hanon Izakson Mikhail Kalashnikov Vladimir Kotelnikov, 1964, Innokenty Smoktunovsky Vladimir Igorevich Arnol'd, Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov Alexander Sergeevich Davydov Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Antonina Prikhot'ko Emmanuel Rashba Vladimir Broude Igor Grekhov Igor Moiseyev Ilya Lifshitz Mikhail Svetlov Valery Panov Yevgeny Vuchetich Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk Agniya Barto Yuri Ozerov for his work Liberation, 1972 Yuri Bondarev writer, for his work Liberation, 1972 Igor Slabnevich Cinematographer for his work Liberation, 1972 Alexander Myagkhov Art Director for his work Liberation, 1972 Konstantin Simonov Vladimir Lobashev Mikhail Simonov Gavriil Ilizarov Anatol Zhabotinsky Boris Pavlovich Belousov Otar Taktakishvili Boris Babaian Vladimir Teplyakov Eugene D. Shchukin Kaisyn Kuliev Alykul Osmonov Irena Sedlecká 1988 year Rudolf M. MuradyanFor a series of innovative works “New quantum number – color and establishment of dynamical regularities in the quark structure of elementary particles and atomic nuclei” published during 1965 – 1977.
1958 year Alexander M. Andrianov Lev Andreevich Artsimovich Olga A. Bazilevskaya Stanislav I. Braginskiy Igor' N. Golovin Mikhail A. Leontovich Stepan Yu. Lukyanov Samuil M. Osovets Vasiliy I. Sinitsin Nikolay V. Filippov Natan A. YavlinskiyFor research of powerful pulse discharges in gas for production of the high-temperature plasma, published in years.1964 year Aleksandr Emmanuilovich Nudel'man For a series of innovative automatic cannons.1966 year Yuri Raizer1972 year Vsevolod A. Belyaev Oleg Borisovich Firsov For a series of work "Elementary processes and non-elastic scattering at nuclear collisions”. Vadim I. Utkin1978 year Vladilen S. Letokhov and Veniamin P. Chebotayev 1982 year Viktor V. OrlovFor the work on fast neutron reactors.1984 year Valentin F. DemichevFor production of special chemical compounds and development of conditions of their application.1984 year Boris B. Kadomtsev Oleg P. Pogutse Vitaliy D. ShafranovFor a series of work "The theory of thermonuclear toroidal plasma".
1976 year Nikolai Krasovski Alexander B. Kurzhanski Yury Osipov A. Subbotin 1965 year Sergei S. Bryukhonenko For his work on Advanced R
Soviet people or citizens of the USSR was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union. Used as a nonspecific reference to the Soviet population, it was declared to be a "new historical and international unity of people". Through the history of the Soviet Union, both doctrine and practice regarding ethnic distinctions within the Soviet population varied over time. Minority national cultures were not abolished in the Soviet Union. By Soviet definition, national cultures were to be "socialist by content and national by form", to be used to promote the official aims and values of the state. While the goal was always to cement the nationalities together in a common state structure, as a pragmatic step in the 1920s and early 1930s under the policy of korenizatsiya the leaders of the Communist Party promoted federalism and the strengthening of non-Russian languages and cultures. By the late 1930s, policy shifted to more active promotion of Russian language and still to more overt Russification efforts, which accelerated in the 1950s in areas of public education.
Although some assimilation did occur, this effort did not succeed on the whole as evidenced by developments in many national cultures in the territory after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Reinforcing the distinctions in national identities, the Soviet state maintained information about "nationality" on many administrative records, including school and military records, as well as in the periodic censuses of population; the "fifth record" was the section of the obligatory internal passport document which stated the citizen's ethnicity. Nikita Khrushchev had used the term in his speech at the 22nd Communist Party Congress in 1961, when he declared that in the USSR there had formed a new historical community of people of diverse nationalities, having common characteristics—the Soviet people; the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union finalized this definition. This single all-Soviet entity—the Soviet people, Sovietskiy narod—was attributed many of the characteristics that official doctrine had ascribed to nations and nationalities composing the multi-national Soviet state.
The "Soviet people" were said to be a "new historical and international community of people having a common territory and socialist content. According to the 2010 Russian Census 27,000 Russians identified themselves as members of the Soviet people. Demographics of the Soviet Union Homo Sovieticus Melting pot New Soviet man Orthodoxy and Nationality Rootless cosmopolitan Russification Zhonghua minzu, the equivalent notion in the People's Republic of China Yugoslavs
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union
The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was created as part of Mikhail Gorbachev's reform agenda, was enabled by Gorbachev's first constitutional change. On 1 July 1988, the fourth and last day of the 19th Party Conference, Gorbachev won the backing of the delegates for his last minute proposal to create a new supreme legislative body called the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union. Frustrated by the'old guard's resistance to his attempts to liberalise, Gorbachev changed tack and embarked upon a set of constitutional changes to try and separate party and state, thereby isolate his conservative opponents. Detailed proposals for the new Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union were published for public consultation on 2 October 1988, to enable the creation of the new legislature the Supreme Soviet, during its 29 November to 1 December 1988 session, implemented the amendments to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, enacted a law on electoral reform, set the date of the election for 26 March 1989.
The Congress consisted of 2,250 deputies elected in three different ways: 750 deputies were elected according to the system used in Soviet of the Union elections in the 1936–1989 period. 750 deputies were elected according to the system used in Soviet of Nationalities elections in the 1936–1989 period. 750 deputies representing "public organizations", such as the Communist Party and the trade unions. The election law would allocate a fixed number of seats to organizations; the congress would gather twice a year and would elect the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union consisting of a smaller number of deputies. The Supreme Soviet would serve as a permanent legislature, deciding all but the most important issues, such as amendments to the Soviet constitution, which were left to the full Congress only; the month-long nomination of candidates for the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR lasted until 24 January 1989. For the next month, selection among the 7,531 districts nominees took place at meetings organized by constituency-level electoral commissions.
On 7 March, a final list of 5,074 candidates was published. In the two weeks prior to the 1,500 districts polls, elections to fill 750 reserved seats of public organizations, contested by 880 candidates, were held. Of these seats, 100 were allocated to the CPSU, 100 to the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, 75 to the Communist Youth Union, 75 to the Soviet Women's Committee, 75 to the War and Labour Veterans' Organization, 325 to other organizations such as the Academy of Sciences; the selection process was completed in April. In the 26 March general elections, voter participation was reported at 89.8%. With this polling, 1,958 – including 1,225 district seats – of the 2,250 CPD seats were filled. In the district races, run-off elections were held in 76 constituencies on 2 and 9 April and fresh elections were organized on 20 April and 14 to 23 May in the 199 remaining constituencies where the required absolute majority was not attained. At its first session commencing on 25 May, the CPD proceeded to choose the 542 Supreme Soviet members from among 573 candidates.
Final results were announced on 27 May. The Supreme Soviet, a "permanent legislative and central body of state authority of the USSR", is to be convened annually by its Presidium for its recurrent spring and autumn sessions to last, as a rule, three to four months each; the Supreme Soviet was convened for its first session on 3 June. On 21 July, the composition of the new Council of Ministers, headed by Nikolai Ryzhkov, was announced. Only one Congress was elected, in March 1989; the fundamental difference from previous elections in Soviet Union was that elections were competitive. Instead of one Communist Party-approved candidate for each seat, multiple candidates were allowed. A variety of different political positions, from Communist to pro-Western, were represented in the Congress, lively debates took place with different viewpoints expressed; as a result of the attempted coup in August 1991, the Congress dissolved itself on 5 September 1991, handing on its powers to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and newly created USSR State Council, which ceased to exist on 26 December 1991, along with the Soviet Union itself.
Congress of People's Deputies of Russia Congress of Soviets
Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the most authoritative legislative body of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics beginning 1936, the only one with the power to approve constitutional amendments. It elected the Presidium, served as the collective head of state of the USSR, appointed the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Court, the Procurator General of the USSR; the Supreme Soviet was composed of two chambers, each with equal legislative powers, with members elected for four-year terms: The Soviet of the Union, elected on the basis of population with one deputy for every 300,000 people in the Soviet federation. The Soviet of Nationalities, represented the ethnic populations as units, with members elected on the basis of 32 deputies from each union republic, 11 from each autonomous republic, five from each autonomous oblast, one from each autonomous okrug; the administrative units of the same type would send the same number of members regardless of their size or population. By the Soviet constitutions of 1936 and 1977, the Supreme Soviet was defined as the highest organ of state power in the Soviet Union, was imbued with great lawmaking powers.
In practice, however, it did little more than approve decisions made by the USSR's executive organs and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This was in accordance with the Communist Party's principle of democratic centralism, became the norm for other Communist legislatures; the Supreme Soviet convened twice a year for less than a week. For the rest of the year, the Presidium performed its ordinary functions; the CPSU bypassed the Supreme Soviet altogether and had major laws enacted as Presidium decrees. Nominally, such decrees had to be ratified by the full Supreme Soviet–- a process, a mere formality. However, in some cases this formality was not observed. After 1989 it consisted of 542 deputies; the meetings of the body were more frequent, from six to eight months a year. Between 1938 and February 1990, more than 50 years, only 80 laws were passed by the Supreme Soviet, less than 1% of total legislative acts. Mikhail Kalinin 1938–1946 Nikolay Shvernik 1946–1953 Kliment Voroshilov 1953–1960 Leonid Brezhnev 1960–1964 Anastas Mikoyan 1964–1965 Nikolai Podgorny 1965–1977 Leonid Brezhnev 1977–1982 Yuri Andropov 1982–1984 Konstantin Chernenko 1984–1985 Andrei Gromyko 1985–1988 Mikhail Gorbachev 1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989 Mikhail Gorbachev 25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990 Anatoly Lukyanov 15 March 1990 – 22 August 1991 1st convocation session 1938 – 1946, World War II 2nd convocation session 1946 – 1950 3rd convocation session 1950 – 1954 4th convocation session 1954 – 1958 5th convocation session 1958 – 1962 6th convocation session 1962 – 1966 7th convocation session 1966 – 1970 8th convocation session 1970 – 1974 9th convocation session 1974 – 1979 10th convocation session 1979 – 1984 11th convocation session 1984 – 1989 1st convocation 1989 – 1991, sessions were conducted in the form of Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union New composition 1991, unlike previous convocations, there were no elections for the new composition of the Supreme Council instead members of the council were delegated from the council of union republics that continued to be members of the Soviet Union.
Beside the Supreme Council, in the Soviet Union supreme councils existed in each of the union and autonomous republics. The supreme councils of republican level had presidiums, but all those councils consisted of one chamber. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, some councils of the succeeded independent republics changed their name to their more historic name or to emphasise the importance of the council as a national parliament, while others changed to double-chamber assemblies. All republics in the USSR were soviet, yet 15 were of union level, while the other, autonomous republics, were subordinated to the union republics. Supreme Council of Russia, until 4 October 1993 when it was dissolved as part of the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis. Supreme Council of Georgia, during 1992 changed its name to State Council of Georgia. Supreme Council of Kazakhstan, until 1995. Supreme Council of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, during 1940–1956. Supreme Council of Belarus, until 1996.
Supreme Council of Lithuania, during 1991 changed its name to the Seimas. Supreme Council of Moldavia, during 1991 changed its name to the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. Supreme Council of Azerbaijan, during 1991 changed its name to National Assembly of Azerbaijan. Supreme Council of Ukraine, during 1991 adopted the Ukrainian transliterated name Verkhovna Rada. Supreme Council of Armenia, until 1995. List of known autonomous republics councils: Supreme Council of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, existed during 1938–1994, except for the 1940–1956 when the erstwhile Karelian ASSR was a union republic, the Karelo-Finnish SSR. Supreme Council of Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, during 1938–
Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within society at large; the press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton, its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's Lectures on Moral Philosophy. Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two existing local publishers, that of the Princeton Alumni Weekly and the Princeton Press; the new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, The Daily Princetonian, added book publishing to its activities. Beginning as a small, for-profit printer, Princeton University Press was reincorporated as a nonprofit in 1910.
Since 1911, the press has been headquartered in a purpose-built gothic-style building designed by Ernest Flagg. The design of press’s building, named the Scribner Building in 1965, was inspired by the Plantin-Moretus Museum, a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium. Princeton University Press established a European office, in Woodstock, north of Oxford, in 1999, opened an additional office, in Beijing, in early 2017. Six books from Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes: Russia Leaves the War by George F. Kennan Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War by Bray Hammond Between War and Peace by Herbert Feis Washington: Village and Capital by Constance McLaughlin Green The Greenback Era by Irwin Unger Machiavelli in Hell by Sebastian de Grazia Books from Princeton University Press have been awarded the Bancroft Prize, the Nautilus Book Award, the National Book Award. Multi-volume historical documents projects undertaken by the Press include: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau The Papers of Woodrow Wilson The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Kierkegaard's WritingsThe Papers of Woodrow Wilson has been called "one of the great editorial achievements in all history."
Princeton University Press's Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, a 1943 project of Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation. From 1945, the foundation had independent status and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study, including archaeology and psychology; the Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969. Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton Series in Astrophysics Princeton Series in Complexity Princeton Series in Evolutionary Biology Princeton Series in International Economics Princeton Modern Greek Studies The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History, by Jill Lepore The Meaning of Relativity by Albert Einstein Atomic Energy for Military Purposes by Henry DeWolf Smyth How to Solve It by George Polya The Open Society and Its Enemies by Karl Popper The Hero With a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The Wilhelm/Baynes translation of the I Ching, Bollingen Series XIX. First copyright 1950, 27th printing 1997.
Anatomy of Criticism by Northrop Frye Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature by Richard Rorty QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter by Richard Feynman The Great Contraction 1929–1933 by Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz with a new Introduction by Peter L. Bernstein Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle by Stephen Biddle Banks, Eric. "Book of Lists: Princeton University Press at 100". Artforum International. Staff of Princeton University Press. A Century in Books: Princeton University Press, 1905–2005. ISBN 9780691122922. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Official website Princeton University Press: Albert Einstein Web Page Princeton University Press: Bollingen Series Princeton University Press: Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton University Press Centenary Princeton University Press: New in Print