National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Battle of Stalingrad (film)
The Battle of Stalingrad is a 1949 two-part Soviet epic war film about the Battle of Stalingrad, directed by Vladimir Petrov. The script was written by Nikolai Virta. In the Kremlin, Stalin analyzes the Wehrmacht's movements and concludes that the Germans aim to capture Stalingrad. Hitler, who believes the city is the key to final victory, orders his Generals take it at all costs; as the enemy approaches Stalingrad, the Red Army and the local population rally to defend it in a bitter house-to-house combat, stalling the German advance. In Moscow, Stalin plans the counter-offensive; the Wehrmacht launches a massive assault, intended to overwhelm the defenders of Stalingrad. As the Red Army is pushed back to the Volga, Stalin orders to commence Operation Uranus; the Germans are encircled, efforts to relieve the Stalingrad pocket fail. Paulus, ordered by Hitler to hold to the end, refuses to surrender; the Soviets close on the city. After Red Army soldiers enter his command post, Paulus orders his remaining troops to surrender.
The Soviets hold a victory rally in liberated Stalingrad. The film is the last of the'Artistic Documentaries', a series of propaganda epics that recreated the history of the Second World War with a Stalinist interpretation of the events. Like all of the other films in the genre, The Battle of Stalingrad consists of battle scenes and staff meetings, reconstructing the campaign from the point of view of the soldiers and the generals, in a heroic manner fitting the state's ideology; the movie won the Crystal Globe in the 1949 Karlovy Vary Film Festival. Aleksei Dikiy, who portrayed Stalin, received the 1949 Gottwaldov Film Festival's prize, director Vladimir Petrov won the Czechoslovak Workers' Film Festival Best Director Award. Petrov, cinematographer Yuri Yekelchik and four actors - Aleksei Dikiy, Nikolai Simonov, Yuri Shumski and Vladimir Gaidarov - were awarded the Stalin Prize at 1950 for their role in the film. French critic André Bazin wrote that the film portrayed Stalin as a super-human leader, showing him planning the Soviet war effort on his own: "Even if we grant Stalin a hyper-Napoleonic military genius...
It would be childish to think that events in the Kremlin unfolded as they are seen here." Richard Taylor listed The Battle of Stalingrad as "a personality cult film". Aleksei Dikiy as Joseph Stalin Nikolai Ryzhov as Lazar Kaganovich Maxim Schtrauch as Vyacheslav Molotov Viktor Khokhryakov as Georgi Malenkov Yuri Tolubeyev as Andrei Zhdanov Yuri Shumski as General Alexander Vasilevsky Boris Livanov as General Konstantin Rokossovsky Vladimir Golovin as General Nikolai Vatutin Vasili Merkuryevas General Nikolay Voronov Nikolai Simonov as General Vasily Chuikov Nikolai Kryuchkov as Colonel Ivanov Mikhail Nazvanov as Colonel Ivan Lyudnikov Alexander Antonov as Colonel Popov Leonid Kniazev as Sergeant Yakov Pavlov Viktor Stanitsyn as Winston Churchill/General Fedor Tolbukhin Nikolay Cherkasov as Franklin Delano Roosevelt Konstantin Mikhailov as W. Averell Harriman Mikhail Astangov as Adolf Hitler Nikolai Komissarov as Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel Boris Svoboda as General Alfred Jodl Nikolai Rybnikov as Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs Rostislav Plyatt as General Hermann Hoth Vladimir Gaidarov as Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus Vladimir Vsevolodov as General Arthur Schmidt Yevgeni Kaluzhski as General Wilhelm Adam Nikolai Nikolaievski as General Wilhelm Adam Part I and Part II on the IMDb.
The Battle of Stalingrad on Kino-teatr.ru. The Battle of Stalingrad original East German posters on ostfilm.de
Tambov Governorate was the administrative unit of the Russian Empire, Russian Republic, the Russian SFSR with the centre in the city of Tambov. The governorate was located between 51°14' and 55°6' of north latitude and between 38°9' and 43°38' east longitude, it was bordering to the north with Vladimir Governorate and Nizhny Novgorod Governorate, to the east with Penza Governorate and Saratov Governorate, to the south and the west with Voronezh Governorate, to the west with Oryol Governorate, Tula Governorate, Ryazan Governorate. The governorate was created in 1796 when it was reformed out of Tambov Viceroyalty, organized in 1779; the borders of it were unchanged until 1926 when the northern half of the governorate was split between other two governorates of Penza and Ryazan. Due to the administrative reform of 1928 Tambov governorate was divided into three okrugs: Tambov Okrug, Kozlov Okrug, Borisoglebsk Okrug. In 1937 a substantial part of the governorate was transformed into Tambov Oblast out of Voronezh Oblast.
During the times of Tambov rebellion 1920-1922 some part of the governorate became the separatist political formation, the Republic of Tambov, with Shendiapin as the head of the state. The republic was overwhelmed by the forces of the RKKA. In the 1920s, ethnologist Pyotr Petrovich Ivanov has conducted a major excavation that uncovered evidence of the culture of Mordvins that inhibited the area in the first millennium CE; the governorate was divided into twelve uyezds. In 1864, when the Zemstvo Law was passed, the uyezds and governorates received a certain degree of self-government governed by zemstvo. Borisoglebsk Kirsanov Kozlov Lebedyan Lipetsk Morshansk Shatsk Spassk Tambov Temnikov Usman YelatmaBig cities of over 10,000 were Tambov, Morshansk and Borisoglebsk; the population of the governorate consisted of the ethnic Russians with some Mordvins and Volga Tatars residing in the north and northwest. In 1825 the Russian Subbotniks were expelled from the governorate by authorities while being labelled as Jews.
Since 18th century and until 1858 the Russian government conducted the population revisions of around 10 that were documented. According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897 the population of the governorate constituted 2.1% of whole population of the Russian Empire, accounting for 2,684,030 people out of which 1,301,723 were males and 1,382,307 were females. The estimated population in 1906 was 3,205,200; the following list is based upon the Russian Empire Census of 1897 with ethnic groups that were accounted for at least over 1000 people. Great Russians 2,562,677 Mordvins 89,704 Tatars 16,976 Minor Russians 5,884 White Russians 2,406 Jews 2,046 Poles 1,836 Germans 1,244 others 1,257 Remarkably half of the population of the Spask uyezd was Mordvins, the highest concentration of people that differentiate themselves from the ethnic Russians. Everybody were the followers of the Russian Eastern Orthodoxy with insignificant number of Muslims and Molokans. Tambov was one of the largest and most fertile governments of central Russia, extending from north to south between the basins of the Oka and the Don, having the governments of Vladimir and Nizhniy-Novgorod on the north and Saratov on the east, Voronezh on the south, Orel and Ryazan on the West.
It has an area of 25,703 sq. miles, consisted of an undulating plain intersected by deep ravines and broad valleys, ranging 450 to 800 ft. above sea-level. Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits, thickly covered with boulder-clay and loess, were spread over its surface, concealing the underlying Devonian and Carboniferous strata; these last crop out in the deeper ravines, seams of coal have been noticed at several places. Iron ore, limestone and gypsum are obtained, traces of petroleum have been discovered; the mineral waters of Lipetsk, similar to those of Franzensbad in their alkaline elements, chalybeate like those of Pyrmont and Spa, are well known in Russia. The Oka touches the north-west corner of the region, but its tributaries, the Moksha and the Tsna, are important channels of traffic; the Don merely touches Tambov, of its affluents none except the Voronezh and the Khoper and the Vorona, a tributary of the Khoper, are at all navigable. As a whole, it is only in the north; the climate is continental, although the average temperature at Tambov is 42° F. the winter is comparatively cold.
The rivers remain frozen for four and a half months. The soil is fertile throughout; the region included in the north of the government was settled by Russians during the earliest centuries of the principality of Moscow, but until the end of the 17th century the fertile tracts in the south remained too insecure for settlers. In the following century a few immigrants began to come in from the steppe, landowners who had received large grants of land from the tsars began to bring their serfs from central Russia. Tambov Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kropotkin, Peter Alexeivitch. "Tambov". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Profile Historical adminis
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website