Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Jack David Laugher is a British diver competing for Great Britain and England. A specialist on springboard, he competes in individual springboard events, in synchronised events with Chris Mears; the duo became Britain’s first diving Olympic champions by winning a gold medal in the men's synchronised 3m springboard event at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio, an achievement many had expected double world 10m champion Tom Daley would achieve first. A week Laugher won a silver in the men's individual 3m springboard at the same Games, becoming the first British diver to win multiple Olympic diving medals at the same Games. Laugher was a double Commonwealth Games champion for England at the 2014 Games in Glasgow, a triple champion in 2018, the first British diver to win two medals at the same World Championships, the 2015 World Championships. In 2015, Laugher won the overall title in the FINA Diving World Series for 3-metre springboard. Laugher was born on 30 January 1995 in Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, to David and Jackie Laugher.
He was educated at Ripon Grammar School, a co-educational state grammar school in Ripon, North Yorkshire. Laugher became interested in diving when he was seven during a family visit to Harrogate Hydro Swimming Pool and a lifeguard told him to go for diving lessons, he began to learn diving at the District Diving Club at the Hydro. He broke his upper arm when he was 14 during a trampolining competition, had a metal plate inserted to hold his humerus bone together. Laugher has stated that his name is pronounced'Law'. Laugher won the one-metre and three-metre springboard titles at the 2010 European Junior Championships and the 2010 World Junior Championships. In September 2010, he competed at the World Junior Championships in Tucson and won gold at both the 1m and 3m springboard events. In October that year, he represented England at the 2010 Commonwealth Games where he was partnered with Oliver Dingley in the synchro. Greg Louganis was reported as being impressed with Laugher's diving. In 2012 Laugher was selected for the Great Britain 2012 London Olympics team.
On 6 August 2012, he competed in the Men's 3-metre springboard, but he failed to make it to the semi-final stage. In October 2012, Laugher became the Junior World champion again, winning the 3m springboard in Adelaide, Australia, he won the 3m Synchro competition with Tom Daley. Laugher first teamed up with Chris Mears in the 3-metre Springboard in 2013. In October 2013 he took on the role of Ambassador for the sport of VX. In July 2014, he won bronze in the 3m springboard at the World Cup held in Shanghai. Soon afterwards at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, he won the Gold medal in the 1m springboard a second gold in the 3m synchro with Chris Mears. At the 2015 World Championship in Kazan, Russia and Mears won bronze in the 3m springboard synchro, thus qualifying for the Rio Olympics. Laugher won a second bronze in the individual 3m springboard, making him the first Briton to win two medals in a World Championships. In January 2016, Laugher suffered a foot injury while training. In May 2016, he won the 3m synchronised springboard at the European Championships in London with Mears, a silver in the individual 3m springboard.
At the 2016 Olympics and Mears became the first diving gold medal winners for Great Britain in the men's synchronised 3-metre springboard. First Olympic diving gold medal with victory in the men's synchronised 3m springboard in Rio, they scored 454.32, beating the American Sam Dorman and Michael Hixon and the Chinese pair Qin Kai and Cao Yuan in bronze. Laugher won Silver medal in the individual 3-metre springboard. Laugher and Mears won three silvers in the 3m Synchro in four events of the Fina/NVC Diving World Series, two in China and one in Russia; however they finished out of the medal position in fourth at the 2017 World Aquatics Championships. At the 2018 Commonwealth Games held on the Gold Coast, Laugher defended his title on the 1m springboard The next day, he added another gold after winning the 3m springboard event followed it up with a third gold of the Games after winning the men's 3 metre synchronised springboard with Chris Mears. At the 2018 European Championships in Glasgow/Edinburgh, Laugher won gold in the men's 1 metre springboard.
He won a second gold in the men's 3 metre springboard, added a silver to this tally in the championships with a second place in the 3 metre synchro springboard with Chris Mears. He won a total of 5 international titles in 2018, for which he was honoured with European male diver of the year a second time by Ligue Europeenne de Natation. Jack Laugher partnered with Dan Goodfellow in men's synchronised 3m springboard as his regular partner Chris Mears took a year out from competition. Laugher started dating Lois Toulson early 2017, he shares a flat with diving partner Chris Mears in Leeds. Laugher is supportive of those who chose to be gay and said: "I have quite a few gay friends, just from school and people I've met through diving and my journey. Everyone should feel comfortable to be gay and be who they are." In 2017 Laugher won Diver of the Year at the British Swimming Awards. At the 2018 British Swimming Awards, he won both the Diving Athlete of the Year and the Overall Athlete of the Year.
He was named European male diver of the year for 2016 by Ligue Europeenne de Natation, again in 2018. Laugher, along with Mears, was awarded the Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2017 New Year Honours for services to diving. Jack Laugher careers statistics from www.swimming.org Official Website – Jack Laugher
United States at the 2004 Summer Olympics
The United States competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. 533 competitors, 279 men and 254 women, took part in 254 events in 31 sports. * - Indicates the athlete competed in preliminaries but not the final Three U. S. archers qualified each for the men's and women's individual archery, a spot each for both men's and women's teams. MenWomen U. S. athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events. The team was selected based on the results of the 2004 United States Olympic Trials. Adam Nelson claimed a silver medal in men's shot put. On December 5, 2012, the International Olympic Committee and the IAAF stripped off Ukrainian shot putter Yuriy Bilonoh's gold medal after drug re-testings of his samples were discovered positive. Following the announcement of Bilonoh's disqualification, Nelson's medal was upgraded to gold. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – DecathlonWomen Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – Heptathlon The United States had been represented in one out of five events.
Summary RosterThe following is the United States roster in the men's basketball tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Group play Quarterfinals Semifinals Bronze medal final RosterThe following is the United States roster in the women's basketball tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Group play Quarterfinals Semifinals Gold medal final, they claimed a gold and a bronze. Two boxers lost their first bouts. Four made the quarterfinals, with two falling there, one falling in the semifinal, the fourth taking the gold by going undefeated; the combined record of the nine Americans was 12-8. The U. S. was fifth in the boxing medal count. MenWomenQualification Legend: Q = Qualify to final. S. divers qualified for eight individual diving spots at the 2004 Olympic Games. Three US synchronized diving teams qualified through the 2004 FINA Diving World Cup and the rest of the divers qualified for the Olympics through the 2004 U. S. Olympic Trials for diving. MenWomen Because only three horse and rider pairs from each nation could advance beyond certain rounds in the individual events, five American pairs did not advance despite being placed sufficiently high.
They received rankings below all pairs. "#" indicates that the score of this rider does not count in the team competition, since only the best three results of a team are counted. MenWomen Summary Roster The following is the American squad in the women's football tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Head coach: April Heinrichs Group play Quarterfinals Semifinals Gold medal final Men TeamIndividual finalsWomen TeamIndividual finals Twelve U. S. judoka qualified for the 2004 Summer Olympics. MenWomen Four U. S. athletes qualified to compete in the modern pentathlon event through the 2003 Pan American Games in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The U. S. rowers qualified the following boats: MenWomenQualification Legend: FA=Final A. S. sailors have qualified one boat for each of the following events. MenWomenOpenM = Medal race. S. shooters qualified to compete in the following events: MenWomen SummarySquadResultsGroup Stage All times are Eastern European Time Final Group Standings The top four teams advanced to the semifinal round.
SemifinalsGrand final U. S. swimmers earned qualifying standards in the following events: Swimmers qualified at the 2004 U. S. Olympic Trials. MenWomen Nine U. S. synchronized swimmers qualified a spot in the women's team. Seven U. S. table tennis players qualified for the following events. Ilija Lupulesku and Jasna Fazlić competed for Yugoslavia since the sport made its debut at the 1988 Summer Olympics. MenWomen Two U. S. taekwondo jin qualified to compete. The United States Tennis Association nominated six male and six female tennis players to compete in the tennis tournament. MenWomen Six U. S. triathletes qualified for the following events. Summary Roster The following is the American roster in the men's volleyball tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Head coach: Doug Beal Group play Quarterfinal Semifinals Bronze medal match Roster The following is the American roster in the women's volleyball tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Head coach: Toshi Yoshida Group play Quarterfinals The U. S. men's and women's water polo teams qualified by winning the water polo event at the 2003 Pan American Games.
Summary Roster The following is the American roster in the men's water polo tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Head coach: Ratko Rudić Group play7th to 10th place classification7th place match Roster The following is the American roster in the women's water polo tournament of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Head coach: Guy Baker Group playSemifinalBronze medal final Five U. S. weightlifters qualified for the following events: The U. S. wrestlers qualified to c
Great Britain at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The United Kingdom, represented by the British Olympic Association, competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016 and the team of selected athletes was known as Team GB. British athletes have appeared in every Summer Olympic Games of the modern era, alongside Australia, France and Switzerland, though Great Britain is the only country to have won at least one gold medal at all of them. Although the British Olympic Association is the National Olympic Committee for Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Northern Irish athletes can choose whether to compete for Great Britain or for the Republic of Ireland, as they are entitled to citizenship of either nation under the Good Friday Agreement. In 2016 Northern Ireland born representatives in Team GB included returning rowers Alan Campbell, Peter Chambers and Richard Chambers, archer Patrick Huston and four members of the men's field hockey team: David Ames, Mark Gleghorne, Iain Lewers and Ian Sloan; the team represents, included representation from, the Crown dependencies, among which were Guernsey's Heather Watson and Carl Hester, from the ten of the thirteen British Overseas Territories represented by the BOA rather than their own NOC, whose representatives include Turks and Caicos-born sprinter Delano Williams and Anguillan-born long jumper Shara ProctorThese Games were the most successful for Great Britain since 1908, winning a total of 67 medals, which exceeded its London 2012 tally of 65 medals, therefore becoming the first nation to surpass its medal total at the Olympics following one that it hosted.
Great Britain became one of only two nations to increase the number of medals achieved in five consecutive Games. In cycling male cyclist Jason Kenny become only the second British athlete since 1908 to win three gold medals at the same Olympic Games to join Sir Chris Hoy as the most successful all time British Olympians with six gold medals and a silver, while gold for Sir Bradley Wiggins confirmed him as the most decorated British Olympian, with eight medals over five Games. Kenny became the sixth British Olympian to win an Olympic gold in the same event at three successive Games, joining three pre-war water polo players Paul Radmilovic, George Wilkinson and Charles Sydney Smith, rower Steve Redgrave ) and sailor Ben Ainslie. Kenny was followed onto this list by a seventh'three-peat', fellow cyclist Ed Clancy, who sealed his third consecutive team pursuit gold medal. Indeed and Kenny, along with American road cyclist Kristin Armstrong became the first three cyclists to achieve the feat. Cyclist Laura Trott won two gold medals to become Britain's most successful all time female Olympian with a total of four golds, dressage rider Charlotte Dujardin having taken that title with three golds and a silver from previous incumbent cyclist Victoria Pendleton.
Katherine Grainger's fifth consecutive medal, a silver, made her Britain's joint most decorated female Olympian, with Kathleen McKane Godfree and made her one of only five British Olympians to win medals in five Games running. Gymnast Max Whitlock won Britain's first gold medals in gymnastics, in men's floor and pommel horse, while Great Britain's seven gymnastics medals, a record for the team, included first medals in men's individual all-around, men's horizontal bar for Nile Wilson, women's floor, for the youngest member of the team, 16 year old Amy Tinkler and trampoline for Bryony Page, while pommel silver medalist Louis Smith became the first British gymnast to medal across three Games. In rowing, Britain took gold in both the men's coxless four and the men's eights for the first time since 2000, as well as a first medal for the women's eight, a silver. Pete Reed and Andrew Triggs Hodge in the eight won their third successive gold medals, having won double gold in the four in 2008 and 2012.
Alistair Brownlee became the first triathlete to defend an Olympic title and his younger brother Jonny Brownlee upgraded his London bronze to a silver in the men's triathlon, one of three events with the men's pommel and men's individual sprint where Great Britain finished first and second. No British woman having defended an individual Olympic title, Dujardin, taekwondo-ka Jade Jones and boxer Nicola Adams became the first four British female Olympians to defend individual Olympic titles, with Trott becoming the first British female, fourth Briton with Mo Farah, Chris Hoy and Jason Kenny to defend two Olympic titles at the same Games. In athletics in both the men's 5,000 and 10,000 metres Mo Farah defended his Olympic titles to become Britain's most successful Olympic track and field athlete with four golds between 2012 and 2016, while Christine Ohorougu, despite failing to reach the 400 metres final, became the second British track and field athlete, after Steve Backley, to win medals in three successive Games anchoring the Great Britain team to bronze in the 4 × 400 metres relay.
In swimming Adam Peaty won gold in the 100 metres breaststroke, the first British male swimmer to win gold since 1988 and won silver in the 4 × 100 metres medley relay. James Guy, Duncan Scott and Jazz Carlin each won two silvers, the men in the medley relay and the 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay, Carlin in the'distance double' of 400 metre and 800 metre freestyles behind Katie Ledecky; the six medals was the nation's largest in-pool haul, wa
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli, used since the 1928 Games; this rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.
The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC President Jacques Rogge, left Athens with a improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, subway system. There have been arguments regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the Greek government-debt crisis, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation; the 2004 Olympics were deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several World and Olympic records were broken during these Games. Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004.
The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based on Athens' appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. Furthermore, unlike their bid for the 1996 Games, criticized for its overall disorganization and arrogance—wherein the bid lacked specifics and relied upon sentiment and the notion that it was Athens' right to organize the Centennial Games—the bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, its detailed bid concept; the 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – Athens' infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, politicization of Games preparations. Athens' successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events.
Another factor which contributed to Athens' selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost during the criticized over-commercialization of Atlanta 1996 Games. Subsequently, the selection of Athens was motivated by a lingering sense of disappointment among IOC members regarding the numerous organizational and logistical setbacks experienced during the 1996 Games. After leading all voting rounds, Athens defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996; these cities were Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Saint Petersburg and Cali. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage. According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive.
The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games. As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million; the State's contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an anticipated 14%. The overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc. totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income came from broadcasting rights; the overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million. Analysts refer to the "Cost of the Olympic Games" by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee's budget directly related to the Olympic Games, but the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country's infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, airports, power grid etc.
This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the act
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally recognized sport, part of the Olympic Games. In addition and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime. Diving is one of the most popular Olympic sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts and dancers, including strength, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness; some professional divers were gymnasts or dancers as both the sports have similar characteristics to diving. Dmitri Sautin holds the record for most Olympic diving medals won, by winning eight medals in total between 1992 and 2008. Although diving has been a popular pastime across the world since ancient times, the first modern diving competitions were held in England in the 1880s; the exact origins of the sport are unclear, though it derives from the act of diving at the start of swimming races. The 1904 book Swimming by Ralph Thomas notes English reports of plunging records dating back to at least 1865.
The 1877 edition to British Rural Sports by John Henry Walsh makes note of a "Mr. Young" plunging 56 feet in 1870, states that 25 years prior, a swimmer named Drake could cover 53 feet; the English Amateur Swimming Association first started a "plunging championship" in 1883. The Plunging Championship was discontinued in 1937. Diving into a body of water had been a method used by gymnasts in Germany and Sweden since the early 19th century; the soft landing allowed for more elaborate gymnastic feats in midair as the jump could be made from a greater height. This tradition evolved into'fancy diving', while diving as a preliminary to swimming became known as'Plain diving'. In England, the practice of high diving – diving from a great height – gained popularity; the event consisted of running dives from either 15 or 30 feet. It was at this event that the Swedish tradition of fancy diving was introduced to the sport by the athletes Otto Hagborg and C F Mauritzi, they demonstrated their acrobatic techniques from the 10m diving board at Highgate Pond and stimulated the establishment of the Amateur Diving Association in 1901, the first organization devoted to diving in the world.
Fancy diving was formally introduced into the championship in 1903. Plain diving was first introduced into the Olympics at the 1904 event; the 1908 Olympics in London added'fancy diving' and introduced elastic boards rather than fixed platforms. Women were first allowed to participate in the diving events for the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm. In the 1928 Olympics,'plain' and'fancy' diving was amalgamated into one event –'Highboard Diving'; the diving event was first held indoors in the Empire Pool for the 1934 British Empire Games and 1948 Summer Olympics in London. Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1 m and 3 m springboards, the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives on either the five, seven and a half, nine, or ten meter towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games and the World Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height. Divers have to perform a set number of dives according to established requirements, including somersaults and twists.
Divers are judged on whether and how well they completed all aspects of the dive, the conformance of their body to the requirements of the dive, the amount of splash created by their entry to the water. A possible score out of ten is broken down into three points for the takeoff, three for the flight, three for the entry, with one more available to give the judges flexibility; the raw score is multiplied by a degree of difficulty factor, derived from the number and combination of movements attempted. The diver with the highest total score. Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers perform dives simultaneously; the dives are identical. It used to be possible to dive opposites known as a pinwheel, but this is no longer part of competitive synchronized diving. For example, one diver would perform a forward dive and the other an inward dive in the same position, or one would do a reverse and the other a back movement. In these events, the diving would be judged both on the quality of execution and the synchronicity – in timing of take-off and entry and forward travel.
There are rules governing the scoring of a dive. A score considers three elements of the dive: the approach, the flight, the entry; the primary factors affecting the scoring are: if a hand-stand is required, the length of time and quality of the hold the height of the diver at the apex of the dive, with extra height resulting in a higher score the distance of the diver from the diving apparatus throughout the dive the properly defined body position of the diver according to the dive being performed, including pointed toes and feet touching at all times the proper amounts of rotation and revolution upon completion of the dive and entry into the water angle of entry – a diver should enter the water straight, without any angle. Am