Karl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer and automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical automobile, he received a patent for the motorcar on 29 January 1886. Karl Benz was born Karl Friedrich Michael Vaillant, on 25 November 1844 in Mühlburg, now a borough of Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, part of modern Germany, to Josephine Vaillant and a locomotive driver, Johann Georg Benz, whom she married a few months later. According to German law, the child acquired the name "Benz" by legal marriage of his parents Benz and Vaillant; when he was two years old, his father died of pneumonia, his name was changed to Karl Friedrich Benz in remembrance of his father. Despite living in near poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. Benz was a prodigious student. In 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher. Benz had focused his studies on locksmithing, but he followed his father's steps toward locomotive engineering.
On 30 September 1860, at age 15, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, which he subsequently attended. Benz graduated 9 July 1864 aged 19. Following his formal education, Benz had seven years of professional training in several companies, but did not fit well in any of them; the training started in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in a mechanical engineering company. He moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory. In 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik, he went to Vienna for a short period to work at an iron construction company. In 1871, at the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter in launching the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim renamed Factory for Machines for Sheet-metal Working; the enterprise's first year went badly. Ritter turned out to be unreliable, the business's tools were impounded; the difficulty was overcome when Benz's fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritter's share in the company using her dowry.
On 20 July 1872, Karl Bertha Ringer married. They had five children: Eugen, Clara and Ellen. Despite the business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine. Benz finished his two-stroke engine on 31 December 1878, New Year's Eve, was granted a patent for it in 1879. Karl Benz showed his real genius, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, the water radiator. Problems arose again when the banks at Mannheim demanded that Bertha and Karl Benz's enterprise be incorporated due to the high production costs it maintained; the Benzes were forced to improvise an association with photographer Emil Bühler and his brother, in order to get additional bank support.
The company became the joint-stock company Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim in 1882. After all the necessary incorporation agreements, Benz was unhappy because he was left with five percent of the shares and a modest position as director. Worst of all, his ideas weren't considered when designing new products, so he withdrew from that corporation just one year in 1883. Benz's lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Eßlinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz & Companie Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik referred to as Benz & Cie. Growing to twenty-five employees, it soon began to produce static gas engines as well; the success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. Based on his experience with, fondness for, bicycles, he used similar technology when he created an automobile, it featured wire wheels with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator.
Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it "Benz Patent Motorwagen", it was the first automobile designed as such to generate its own power, not a motorized stage coach or horse carriage, why Karl Benz was granted his patent and is regarded as its inventor. The Motorwagen was patented on 29 January 1886 as DRP-37435: "automobile fueled by gas"; the 1885 version was difficult to control, leading to a collision with a wall during a public demonstration. The first successful tests on public roads were carried out in the early summer of 1886; the next year Benz created the Motorwagen Model 2, which had several modifications, in 1889, the definitive Model 3 with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history; the second customer of the Motorwagen was a Parisian bicycle manufacturer Emile Roger, building Benz engines under license from Karl Benz for several y
Bad Schwalbach is the district seat of Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. Bad Schwalbach is a spa town some 20 km northwest of Wiesbaden, it lies along the small river Aar. Over 56 percent of the municipal area is forest. Bad Schwalbach borders in the north on the community of Hohenstein, in the east on the town of Taunusstein, in the south on the community of Schlangenbad, in the west on the community of Heidenrod. Bad Schwalbach’s Stadtteile are Adolfseck, Bad Schwalbach, Heimbach, Langenseifen and Ramschied. Bad Schwalbach was first mentioned in a document in 1352 as Langinswalbach; the first reliable report of the mineral springs came in 1568 from the Worms doctor Tabernaemontanus, who made the place known in his 1581 work Neuw Wasserschatz. Although Langenschwalbach was utterly destroyed in the Thirty Years' War, it was rebuilt, the healing water trade began to blossom. At first, the water would be sold by the barrel throughout Europe by mail order. Only a few seekers of healing undertook the arduous journey to the Taunus.
The health resort started at the beginning of the 19th century only after the improvement of road conditions through construction. The Aartalbahn from Wiesbaden to Langenschwalbach, finished in 1889 contributed to its founding. Many crowned heads and counts came to take the waters and visit the gaming parlours where few strict rules applied. After the end of the First World War, the nobility lost importance and thus began the long, drawn-out and somewhat painful transition from a luxury spa to a public one, which only ended after the Second World War. In a wood near Bad Schwalbach in late 1800 or early 1801, Katharina Pfeifer is said to have borne the outlaw Schinderhannes a child; the municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: At the election on 4 November 2007 Martin Hußmann beat the incumbent mayor Michael Kalhoff in the first vote with 50.4% of the vote. Voter turnout was 40.3%. The Kurbahn, which operates on the rails of the former Moortransportbahn in the spa park, provides special access to the town’s and health resort’s history.
From April to October, the trains are run by the Bad Schwalbacher Kurbahn Verein e. V. on all Sundays and holidays. From Moorbadehaus Station the line leads to the Moorgruben by way of Golfhaus and Waldsee. Bad Schwalbach's only museum was reopened in 2002 with new exhibits. Through its exhibits, it attempts to lead visitors through Bad Schwalbach’s history and its life as a health resort. Among other things, the museum includes the pharmacy museum, once displayed in private rooms; the pharmacy museum contains the oldest pharmacy in the Taunus furnished. The museum houses the town archive. Worth seeing are the seven fountains and many temples, among them the Elisabethentempel, endowed by Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary while she was staying at the spa in Langenschwalbach, it affords a good view over the town. North of the town is found Alexander’s Rest – so called in German – a sheltered bench which serves as a memorial to a British spa visitor, killed at this spot in a bicycle accident in August 1896.
The largest employer is the Schwälbchen Molkerei Jakob Berz AG. Bad Schwalbach lies on Bundesstraße 260 known as the Bäderstraße, as well as Bundesstraßen 54 and 275; the nearest Autobahn interchange is on the A 66 15 km away. There is another interchange 20 km away at Idstein on the A 3. Bad Schwalbach lies on the Aartalbahn, but there has been no regular passenger service since 1986, only seasonal railway-museum tours by the Nassauische Touristikbahn. Bad Schwalbach is therefore the only Hessian district seat, no longer served by rail. There have been efforts to have the line reactivated; this line has been labelled a cultural monument and is Hesse's longest building monument – only the Roman Limes, a land monument, is longer. Nikolaus-August-Otto-Schule Wiedbachschule Janusz-Korczak-Schule Internationale Opernakademie Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg, Queen of Sardinia Charles Emmanuel, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, nephew of the above Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg, railway engineer Robert Philipp Nöll von der Nahmer, FDP politician Reinhard Suhren, frigate captain and U-boat commander in the Second World War Jörg Fauser and writer Klaus-Peter Willsch, CDU politician Christian Werner, competition cyclist Matthäus Merian the Elder, copper engraver and publisher, died in Bad Schwalbach Johann Heinrich Fenner von Fenneberg, balneotherapist Philipp Hoffmann and building master Adolphus Busch, died in Lindschied Paul Wallot, architect of the Reichstag building, died in Bad Schwalbach Friedrich Delitzsch, Assyriologist died here Julius Lippert NSdAP Politician, Mayor of Berlin, died in Bad Schwalbach Bernhard Bendel, founder of the Catholic organization Opus Spiritus SanctiThe Realschule in what was called Langenschwalbach was attended from 1846 bis 1848 by Nikolaus Otto, the inventor born in nearby Holzhausen an der Haide who developed the Otto engine.
Father Eugenio Barsanti named Nicolò, was an Italian engineer, who together with Felice Matteucci of Florence invented the first version of the internal combustion engine in 1853. Their patent request was granted in London on June 12, 1854, published in London's Morning Journal under the title "Specification of Eugene Barsanti and Felix Matteucci, Obtaining Motive Power by the Explosion of Gasses", as documented by the Fondazione Barsanti e Matteucci. Barsanti was born in Tuscany. Lean and short of stature, he studied in a Catholic scientific-oriented institute near Lucca, in Tuscany, became a novitiate of the Piarist Fathers or Scolopi, who were known for being open to scientific study, in Florence in 1838. In 1841 Barsanti began teaching in the Collegio San Michele, situated in Volterra. Here, during a lecture describing the explosion of mixed hydrogen and air, he realised the potential for using the energy of the expansion of combusting gases within a motor. Subsequently, when teaching in a college level institute in Florence he met Matteucci.
Matteucci appreciated the idea for the engine, the two men worked together on it for the rest of their lives. On 12 June 1854, they patented their invention in London, as Italian law at that time could not guarantee sufficient international protection on the patent; the construction of the prototype was completed in the 1860s. The main advantage of the Barsanti-Matteucci engine was the use of the return force of the piston due to the cooling of the gas. Other approaches based on the pushing force of the explosion, like the one developed by France's Etienne Lenoir, were slower; the Barsanti-Matteucci engine was proven to be much more efficient, won a silver medal from the institute of science of Lombardy. In 1856, Barsanti and Matteucci developed a two-cylinder 5 HP motor and two years they built a counter-working two-piston engine. Barsanti thought; the main target was to provide mechanical energy in factories and for naval propulsion. It was not light enough for use as automotive engine. After some searching and Matteucci selected the John Cockerill foundry in Seraing, Belgium to mass-produce a 4 hp engine.
Orders for soon followed from many countries within Europe. Barsanti died at Seraing of typhoid fever, on 30 March 1864, Matteucci was left alone to lead the business; the development of the engine failed and Matteucci returned to his first occupation, hydraulics. When Nikolaus Otto patented his engine, Matteucci unsuccessfully argued he and his partner Barsanti were the originators. Many documents concerning the patents of Barsanti and Matteucci’s motor are preserved in the archive of the Museo Galileo library in Florence. Reciprocating engine Two-stroke cycle Internal combustion engine History of the internal combustion engine List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9U-FqWbUcJA&list=UUAYtXHKyo-oFMd5garmMG2w Archive of Museo Galileo
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium air or other gases or gas mixtures. Michael Faraday described this phenomenon as "the beautiful flash of light attending the discharge of common electricity"; the rapid transition from a non-conducting to a conductive state produces a brief emission of light and a sharp crack or snapping sound. A spark is created when the applied electric field exceeds the dielectric breakdown strength of the intervening medium. For air, the breakdown strength is about 30 kV/cm at sea level. At the beginning stages, free electrons in the gap are accelerated by the electrical field; as they collide with air molecules, they create additional ions and newly freed electrons which are accelerated. At some point, thermal energy will provide a much greater source of ions; the exponentially-increasing electrons and ions cause regions of the air in the gap to become electrically conductive in a process called dielectric breakdown.
Once the gap breaks down, current flow is limited by the available charge or by the impedance of the external power supply. If the power supply continues to supply current, the spark will evolve into a continuous discharge called an electric arc. An electric spark can occur within insulating liquids or solids, but the breakdown mechanisms are different than for sparks in gases. Sometimes, sparks can be dangerous, they can burn skin. Lightning is an example of an electric spark in nature, while electric sparks, large or small, occur in or near many man-made objects, both by design and sometimes by accident. Around 600 BC, Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus observed that amber could be electrified when rubbed with a cloth and attract other objects and produce sparks. In 1671, Leibniz discovered. In 1708, Samuel Wall performed. In 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard, acting on an experiment proposed by Benjamin Franklin, arranged for a retired French dragoon named Coiffier in the village of Marly to collect lightning in a Leyden jar thus proving that lightning and electricity were equivalent.
In Franklin's famous kite experiment, he extracted sparks from a cloud during a thunderstorm. Electric sparks are used in spark plugs in gasoline internal combustion engines to ignite fuel and air mixtures; the electric discharge in a spark plug occurs between an insulated central electrode and a grounded terminal on the base of the plug. The voltage for the spark is provided by an ignition coil or magneto, connected to the spark plug with an insulated wire. Flame igniters use electric sparks to initiate combustion in some furnaces and gas stoves in place of a pilot flame. Auto reignition is a safety feature, used in some flame igniters that senses the electrical conductivity of the flame and uses this information to determine whether a burner flame is lit; this information is used to stop an ignition device from sparking after the flame is lit or restart the flame if it goes out. A spark-gap transmitter uses an electric spark gap to generate radio frequency electromagnetic radiation that can be used as transmitters for wireless communication.
Spark gap transmitters were used in the first three decades of radio from 1887–1916. They were supplanted by vacuum tube systems and by 1940 were no longer used for communication; the wide use of spark-gap transmitters led to the nickname "sparks" for a ship's radio officer. Electric sparks are used in different kinds of metalworking. Electric discharge machining is sometimes called spark machining and uses a spark discharge to remove material from a workpiece. Electrical discharge machining is used for hard metals or those that are difficult to machine with traditional techniques. Spark plasma sintering is a sintering technique that uses a pulsed direct current that passes through a conductive powder in a graphite die. SPS is faster than conventional hot isostatic pressing, where the heat is provided by external heating elements; the light, produced by electric sparks can be collected and used for a type of spectroscopy called spark emission spectroscopy. A high energy pulsed. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy that uses a high pulse energy laser to excite atoms in a sample.
LIBS has been called laser spark spectroscopy. Electric sparks can be used to create ions for mass spectrometry. Sparks can be hazardous to people, animals or inanimate objects. Electric sparks can ignite flammable materials, liquids and vapors. Inadvertent static-discharges, or small sparks that occur when switching on lights or other circuits, can be enough to ignite flammable vapors from sources like gasoline, propane, or dust concentrations in the air, such as those found in flour mills or more in factories handling powders. Sparks indicate the presence of a high voltage, or "potential field"; the higher the voltage. When a person is charged with high-voltage static-charges, or is in the presence of high-voltage electrical supplies, a spark can jump between a conductor and a person, in close enough proximity, allowing the release of much higher energies that can cause severe burns, shut down the heart and internal organs, or develop into an arc flash. High-voltage sparks those with low energy such as fro
Gustav Otto was a German aircraft and aircraft engine designer and manufacturer. Gustav was born in Cologne to Nikolaus August Otto, the founder of N. A. Otto & Cie. and inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine. It is therefore regarded that his interest in engines aircraft and the manufacture thereof, was something he inherited from his father at an early age. Gustav Otto was regarded as successful and career-minded, moved in elevated social circles, he attended higher secondary school in Cologne, had internships at machine tool manufacturers. He attended the Technical Colleges in Hanover and Munich for further engineering study, he is believed to have remained in Munich after completing his studies to co-found the Bayerische Auto-Garage company. Gustav had a difficult time getting out from under his father's long shadow, he was prone to bouts of depression. Otto raced cars and motorcycles in various competitive events, he was very active in the earliest days of aviation. On 10 April 1910 he obtained his pilot's licence on an Aviatik biplane.
He founded the Aeroplanbau Otto-Alberti workshop at the Puchheim airfield. In 1910, Gustav built a biplane which created a sensation throughout Germany. Otto, along with a few others, flew machines made of wood, wire and powered by Daimler aeroengines. Through their passion for flying machines, they helped transform aviation from a do-it-yourself hobby to an industry vital to the military after the breakout of World War I. Otto founded several companies for the purpose of building aircraft. For his first company, the following entry was recorded in the Munich Company Register under the number 14/364 on 15 March 1911: "Gustav Otto in Munich, Flugmaschinenfabrik, Office Karlstrasse 72". Shortly afterwards, Otto moved the workshop from its original location at 37, Gabelsberger Strasse to its new premises at 135, Schleissheimer Strasse, in 1913 started to construct a new factory at 76, Neulerchenfeldstrasse at the Oberwiesenfeld. Otto sold over 30 aircraft through his company, which included a flight school.
Ernst Udet, the second-highest scoring German flying ace of World War I, earned his pilot's license after private training with Otto. In 1913, after selling 47 aircraft to the Bavarian Army, Otto opened a factory Otto-Flugzeugwerke on Lerchenauer Strasse just east of the Oberwiesenfeld troop manoeuvre area in the Milbertshofen district of Munich, he wanted to be closer to the German government's procurement process for military sale. However, he was not skilled at the politics and payoffs necessary when dealing with the Bavarian war ministry and Prussian Army. Unable to navigate these politics while leaving his pride and integrity intact troubled him. Shortly after 1914, Otto established another company named AGO Flugzeugwerke at Berlin's Johannisthal Air Field; the name "AGO" stood for either Actien-Gesellschaft Otto or Aerowerke Gustav Otto – there seems to be some ambiguity – but during the early years of World War I the company licence-built Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik designs. Otto's designs were successful, but plagued with problems related to cost-effective production, revenue.
At the start of the war, Otto-Flugzeugwerke was supplying the German Air Force, but the production problems ended up being so great that government agencies urged the company to solve the issues. The stress of wartime seemed to prove too great a burden for Otto who suffered health issues which led to financial problems with the company: In 1915 he was admitted to a Munich mental hospital for treatment of depression. During his treatment, the company languished to the brink of bankruptcy. Otto was forced to resign and was offered a buyout that would compensate him for the business and cover his medical bills; the assets were taken over by a consortium which incorporated them into Bayerische Flugzeugwerke on 19 February 1916. Otto therefore no longer had a stake in this company and instead turned his interest to a just founded independent Otto-Werke Flugzeug- und Maschinenfabrik GmbH. After the First World War, Otto started a new attempt at car manufacturing with the Starnberger Automobilwerke.
The luxury Otto-Mercedes car built. In 1924 Otto was divorced from his wife Ada, he suffered badly from the emotional ordeal. Ada remarried, but in August 1925 died under mysterious circumstances that gave rise to much speculation. Although no longer married to her, Otto took her death most harshly and fell into a deep depression. In 1926, amid failed attempts at business, the death of his wife, health issues, Otto committed suicide at the age of 43. History of BMW BMW Group archives
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv