Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture
The Moscow School of Painting and Architecture was one of the largest educational institutions in Russia. The school was formed by the 1865 merger of a private art college, established in Moscow in 1832, the Palace School of Architecture, established in 1749 by Dmitry Ukhtomsky. By the end of the 19th century, it vied with the state-run St. Petersburg Academy of Arts for the title of the largest art school in the country. In the 20th century and architecture separated again, into the Surikov Art Institute in Moscow and the Moscow Architectural Institute; the Palace School of Architecture goes back to the classes of Dmitry Ukhtomsky that operated in 1749-1764. Twenty years, the classes were reinstated by Matvey Kazakov, in 1804 acquired the title of Kremlin College Palace School of Architecture. Graduates were awarded the title of Architect's Assistant and had to earn their own licenses through work. Art Classes; the private art college was established in 1832 by Egor Makovsky and A. S. Yastrebilov as Classes of Nature, renamed Art Classes in 1833.
In 1843 the classes were incorporated as the School of Painting and Sculpture of the Moscow Art Society. In 1865, the Palace School was incorporated into School of Sculpture; the School was unique in Imperial Russia, being a private college in a country were education was state-managed. Its diplomas were ranked inferior to those of the Academy of Arts; the School failed. After the October Revolution of 1917, the school was transformed in 1918 into the Second Free State Art Workshop. Art workshops disintegrated. In 1939, Igor Grabar launched the new college of fine arts, which acquired the name of Surikov Institute in 1948. Architectural education concentrated around VKhUTEMAS and MVTU and was organized into the Moscow Architectural Institute in 1933. More democratic in comparison with the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, the school played an important role in developing Russian national realistic art in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Admissions were based on artistic merits, allowing students without formal high school diplomas.
For example, Konstantin Melnikov joined the School at the age of 15, having only two years of primary education. Melnikov completed a diploma in Arts after 9 years of training and a diploma in Architecture three years later. One of the leader instructors of sculpture was Sergei Volnukhin. Notable alumni of the school include Léopold Survage, Igor Babailov, Vasily Perov, Alexei Savrasov, Illarion Pryanishnikov, Vladimir Makovsky, Isaac Levitan, Alexei Stepanov and Konstantin Korovin, Abram Arkhipov, Mikhail Nesterov, Anna Golubkina, Sergey Konenkov, Boris Korolev, Feodor Rojankovsky, Aleksey Korin and Alexandru Plămădeală; the official papal portrait artist, Natalia Tsarkova, is an accomplished alumna of the institute and has painted portraits of numerous other celebrities. Shortly after coming to Rome, Tsarkova, a devout Orthodox Christian, was asked to paint a portrait of Pope John Paul II in 2000 for his 80th birthday. In April 2012, ahead of Pope Benedict XVI's 85th birthday, she presented to him a handsomely illustrated children's book about him and a fish, "The Mystery of a Small Pond".
A study of 100 architects working in Moscow in 1890s-1910s by Maria Naschokina shows that more than half of them graduated from the School. The fact that most School graduates lacked a full state diploma was a major drawback in state employment, but irrelevant for the private clients that dominated construction market in Moscow. Thus, architectural profession in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were divided between graduates of the Moscow School and the Saint Petersburg schools; the students had to demonstrate professional achievement during their education and were rated according to their graduate assignment. The best, earning a Large Silver medal, were rewarded with an official title of an Architect, sufficient for private order and state employment; the next tier, with a Small Silver medal, received a construction management license, sufficient for taking private orders but not state jobs. The rest had to return with new graduate projects; as an alternative, they could apply to the Imperial Academy and complete the courses at Saint Petersburg.
There were few moves in the opposite direction. Some, like Ilya Bondarenko, completed training overseas. Fyodor Schechtel was expelled from the School in 1878 and acquired the license only in 1894; these difficulties extended architectural training, from admission to professional license, to 10–15 years and more. There were, rare exceptions like Ivan Mashkov, who earned a license at the age of 19 and completed his first projects at the age of 23. Other notable alumni include: Il
House of Yusupov
The Yusupovs were a Russian noble family descended from the monarchs of the Nogai Horde, renowned for their immense wealth and art collections in the 18th and 19th centuries. Most notably, Prince Felix Yusupov II was famous for his involvement in the murder of Grigori Rasputin. In the 14th century, Edigu, a Tatar from the Manghud tribe and one of Tamerlane's greatest strategists, settled on the north shores of the Black Sea, establishing the Nogai Horde and laying the foundations for the Crimean Khanate. Edigu's death was followed by infighting between his descendants, until, in the 15th century, Khan Yusuf became the head of the Nogai Horde. Khan Yusuf allied himself with Tsar Ivan the Terrible, but the former allies became enemies. Khan Yusuf's daughter Sumbecca was Queen of Kazan, when Kazan was razed by Ivan, Khan Yusuf's daughter was taken as prisoner to Moscow. After Khan Yusuf died, another period of fighting between his descendants followed until the 17th century, when Abdul Mirza, another descendant, converted from Islam to Orthodox Christianity under the name of Dmitry.
After the conversion, Tsar Feodor I bestowed upon him the title of Prince Yusupov. The second son of the Steward Prince Dmitri Seyushevich Yusupov-Knyazhevo, married on March 6, 1774, Mitava, as his second wife, to Peter von Biron, the last Duke von Kurland and the first Duke von Sagan, without offspring Princess Alexandra Borisovna Yusupova, married to Senator Ivan Mikhailovich Izmailov Princess Elisaveta Borisovna Yusupova April 27, 1745 – August 29, 1770), married on February 13, 1764 to General-Major Prince Andrei Mikhailovich Galitzine, with large offspring Princess Anna Borisovna Yusupova, married in 1771 to Alexander Yakovlevich Protasov, Senator, Tutor of Alexander I The eldest son of Prince Boris, Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov, Minister of State Properties and Director of the Imperial Theatres, was a keen traveller who spoke five languages and was a patron of the arts. Nicholas served under a series of sovereigns, including Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I as a private councillor and diplomat.
As a diplomat, Prince Nikolai travelled throughout Europe, to France and Versailles, where he met Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, to Germany and Prussia, where he met Frederick the Great, to Austria, where he met Emperor Joseph II, to Italy. During his journey he purchased a large collection of art for the tsar and was appointed director of the Hermitage and the Kremlin Armoury. In 1804, Nicholas went to Paris and met Napoleon I, who presented him with a gift of three large tapestries. In 1793 Nikolai married Tatiana Vasilievna von Engelhardt, one of Prince Potemkin's nieces; the couple lived together in their luxurious summer residence in Moscow. Prince Nicholas built his own porcelain factory there, with much of the workers coming from France. In 1831 Nicholas died at the age of 80 and was succeeded by his second and only living son, Prince Boris, since their elder son, Prince Nikolai, died in infancy. At the age of 42, Prince Boris Nikolaievich Yusupov, Marshal of the Imperial Court, inherited his immense family wealth, including more than 675,000 acres of land and more than 40,000 serfs living on it.
But unlike his father, Prince Boris was not a patron of the arts. Instead, he was occupied with business concerns. Prince Boris moved to the Moika palace in St. Petersburg (Also known
Imperial Academy of Arts
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by the founder of the Imperial Moscow University Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, completed 25 years in 1789 by the Neva River; the academy promoted the neoclassical style and technique, sent its promising students to European capitals for further study. Training at the academy was required for artists to make successful careers. Formally abolished in 1918 after the Russian Revolution, the academy was renamed several times, it established free tuition. In 1947 the national institution was moved to Moscow, much of its art collection was moved to the Hermitage; the building in Leningrad was devoted to the Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture, named in honor of one of Russia's foremost realist artists. Since 1991 it has been called the St. Petersburg Institute for Painting and Architecture.
The academy was located in the Shuvalov Palace on Sadovaya Street. In 1764, Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned its first rector, Alexander Kokorinov, to design a new building, it took 25 years to complete the Neoclassical edifice, which opened in 1789. Konstantin Thon was responsible for the sumptuous decoration of the interiors, he designed a quayside in front of the building, with stairs down to the Neva River, adorned it with two 3000-year-old sphinxes, which were transported from Egypt. Ivan Betskoy reorganized the academy into a de facto government department; the academy vigorously promoted the principles of Neoclassicism by sending the most notable Russian painters abroad, in order to learn the ancient and Renaissance styles of Italy and France. It had its own sizable collection of choice artworks intended for study and copying. In the mid-19th-century, the Academism of training staff, much influenced by the doctrines of Dominique Ingres, was challenged by a younger generation of Russian artists who asserted their freedom to paint in a Realistic style.
The adherents of this movement became known as peredvizhniki. Led by Ivan Kramskoi, they publicly broke with the Academy and organized their own exhibitions, which traveled from town to town across Russia. Ilya Repin, Mikhail Vrubel and some other painters still regarded the academy's training as indispensable for the development of basic professional and technical skills. In 1893, Imperial Academy of Arts was divided into the Academy of Arts itself, responsible for all the artistic work in the Russian Empire, the Higher Art School of the Academy of Arts, which dealt only with academic affairs; the initiator of the reform was the vice-president of Count Ivan Ivanovich Tolstoy. The Charter, approved at the end of 1893, divided the former Academy into two institutions: Аcademy itself, a state institution «for the maintenance and dissemination of art in Russia». Educational institution — Higher Art School at the Academy, managed by the «Council of Professors» with the Rector at the head. Both institutions were located in St. Petersburg in the historic building of the Academy of Arts.
Instead of the old professors, peredvizhniki artists were invited to teaching positions at the Higher Art School. The program of study at the Higher School has changed significantly: the institute of professors and managers was established and free topics for competitive tests were established. New professors came among whom Ilya Repin stood out. Famous artists were invited by the heads of personal workshops: Vladimir Makovsky, Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Aleksey Kivshenko. Came: Alexander Kiselyov, Dmitry Kardovsky, Nikolay Dubovskoy, Nikolay Samokish, Vasily Mate; the Big Gold Medal, which granted the right to a foreign pensioner, was awarded in a competition to which the most talented graduates of the Academy were allowed to complete their studies, awarded to the beginning of the competition with the small gold medal of the Academy «For Success in Drawing». Graduates who received a large gold medal remained at the Academy of Arts for another year; those admitted to the competition were obliged to execute the «program», to draw a picture according to the program, one for all, approved by the Council of the Academy of Arts.
The task, most on a historical theme, was made in such a way that the participant showed all the professional skills and knowledge that he mastered during his studies. Category:Awarded with a large gold medal of the Academy of Arts Category:Imperial Academy of Arts alumni Members of the Imperial Academy of Arts Full Members of the Imperial Academy of Arts After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Imperial Academy passed through a series of transformations, it was formally abolished in 1918 and the Petrograd Free Art Educational Studios created in its place. After the Academ
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent. Arkhip Kuindzhi spent his youth in the city of Taganrog, his Christian name is a Russian rendering of the Greek, Ἄρχιππος, his surname came from his grandfather's vocational nickname meaning'goldsmith' in Tatar. He grew up in a poor family. Arkhip was six years old when he lost his parents, so he was forced to make a living working at a church building site, grazing domestic animals, working at the corn merchant's shop, he received the rudiments of an education from a Greek friend of the family, a teacher and went to the local school. In 1855, at age 13–14, Kuindzhi visited Feodosia to study art under Ivan Aivazovsky, however, he was engaged with mixing paints and instead studied with Adolf Fessler, Aivazovsky's student. A 1903 encyclopedic article stated: "Although Kuindzhi cannot be called a student of Aivazovsky, the latter had without doubt some influence on him in the first period of his activity. English art historian John E. Bowlt wrote that "the elemental sense of light and form associated with Aivazovsky's sunsets and surging oceans permanently influenced the young Kuindzhi."During the five years from 1860 to 1865, Arkhip Kuindzhi worked as a retoucher in the photography studio of Simeon Isakovich in Taganrog.
He without success. After that Kuindzhi left Taganrog for Saint Petersburg, he studied painting independently and at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, he was co-partner of travelling art exhibitions, a group of Russian realist artists who in protest to academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative which evolved into the Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions in 1870. In 1872 the artist worked as a freelancer; the painting On the Valaam Island was the first artwork which Pavel Tretyakov acquired for his art gallery. In 1873 Kuindzhi exhibited his painting The Snow which received the bronze medal at the International Art Exhibition in London in 1874. In the middle of the 1870s he created a number of paintings in which the landscape motif was designed for concrete social associations in the spirit of Peredvizhniki. In his mature period Kuindzhy aspired to capture the most expressive illuminative aspect of the natural condition, he applied composite receptions. Using light effects and intense colors shown in main tones, he depicted the illusion of illumination.
His works are remarkable for their decorative effects of color building. Kuindzhi lectured at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Among his students were artists such as Arkady Rylov, Nicholas Roerich, Konstantin Bogaevsky, others. Kuindzhi initiated the creation of the Society of Artists. In January 2019, his work Ai-Petri. Crimea was stolen in broad daylight from Moscow's Tretyakov Gallery and recovered. List of Russian artists V. S. Manin Arkhip Ivanovich Kuinji, Leningrad, 1990, ISBN 5-7370-0098-2 Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi Kuindzhi - Artist of Light Olga Atroshchenko. "An Artist of Unparallelled Originality". ARKHIP KUINDZHI’S LATER SKETCHES REDISCOVERED; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018 John E. Bowlt. A Russian Luminist School? ARKHIP KUINDZHI’S "RED SUNSET ON THE DNIEPER"; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018 Alina Yefimova. New Discoveries. ABOUT THE LIFE AND WORK OF ARKHIP KUINDZHI; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018 Angelika Myshkina, Yelena Prasolova. Arkhip Kuindzhi in St. Petersburg and Mariupol.
HISTORICAL LOCATIONS RELATING TO THE ARTIST. The Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018 Vladimir Syrkin. Kuindzhi and His Students. A MEMORABLE STUDY TRIP TO CRIMEA REASSESSED; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018 Sergei Koluzakov. A Funerary Memorial for Arkhip Kuindzhi; the Tretyakov Gallery magazine, #3 2018
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012