2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
The Sabre is one of the three disciplines of modern fencing. The sabre weapon is for cutting with both the cutting edge and the back of the blade. Unlike other modern fencing weapons, the épée and foil, where the methods of making a hit are scored using the point of the blade; the informal term "sabreur" refers to a male fencer. "Sabreuse" is the female equivalent. "The blade, which must be of steel, is rectangular in section. The maximum length of the blade is 88 cm; the minimum width of the blade, which must be at the button, is 4 mm. The cross-sectional profile of the sabre blade is a V-shaped base which transitions to a flat rectangular shaped end with most blade variants, however this is dependent on the how it is manufactured; this allows the blade to be flexible towards the end. According to regulation, manufacturers must acknowledge that the blade must be fixed horizontally at a point 70 cm from the tip of the blade. Standardised Adult blades are 88 cm in length.. At the end of the blade, the point is folded over itself to form a "button" which, when viewed end on, must have a square or rectangular section of 4 mm - 6 mm no larger or smaller.
The button must not be any more than 3 mm from the end of the 88 cm blade section. The guard is full in shape, made in one piece and is externally smooth, the curvature of the guard is continuous without any aesthetic perforations or rims; the interior of the guard is insulated by either paint or a pad. The guard is designed to provide the hand adequate protection to ensure that injury does not occur which may hinder the performance of the fencer. Guards are dimensionally measured 15 cm by 14 cm in section where the blade is parallel with the axis of the gauge. On electrical sabres, a socket for the body wire is found underneath the bell guard. A fastener known as a pommel is attached to the end of the sword to keep the bell guard and handle on, it electrically separates the handle and the guard; the conventional handle of the sabre is shaped so that it may be held so that the hand may slide down to gain further extension of the weapon relative to the fencer. Other grips which form various shapes are incompatible and impractical with sabre as they limit the movement of the hand, are to be ergonomically incompatible with the guard.
The entire weapon is 105 cm long. It is shorter than the foil or épée, lighter than the épée, hence physically easier to move swiftly and decisively; however the integrity of the sabre blade is not as strong as other weapons as it is more to break due to the design. Like other weapons used in fencing, the modern sabre uses an electrical connection to register touches; the sabreur wears a lamé, a conductive vest, to complete the circuit and register a touch to a valid target. Sabre was the last weapon in fencing to make the transition over to using electrical equipment; this occurred in 32 years after foil and 52 years after the épée. In 2004 following the Athens Summer Olympics, the timing for recording a touch was shortened from its previous setting altering the sport and method in which a touch is scored. Unlike the other two weapons, there is little difference between an electric sabre and a steam or dry one; the blade itself is the same in steam and electric sabres, as there is no need for a blade wire or pressure-sensitive tip in an electric sabre.
An electric sabre has a socket, a 2-prong or bayonet foil socket with the two contacts shorted together. The electric sabre has insulation on the pommel and on the inside of the guard to prevent an electrical connection between the sabre and the lamé; this is undesirable because it extends the lamé onto the sabre, causing any blade contact to be registered as a valid touch. Early electric sabres were equipped with a capteur socket; the capteur was a device, intended to detect a parry by use of an accelerometer. If a parry was detected, the electronics were supposed to invalidate any subsequent closing of the scoring circuit due to the flexible blade whipping around the parry; this device never worked as intended and was discarded, the whipover effect was mitigated when the FIE mandated stiffer sabre blades in the S2000 specification. The general target area for the discipline contains the entire torso above the waist, the head, the arms up to the wrist of which a valid hit may be scored; the legs and feet are excluded from the target area.
A single circuit for the entire target area used in scoring systems is formed by multiple conductive equipment: Glove: Gloves provide the conductive'manchette' / cuff used in physical conjunction and contact with the lamé. Worn over the lamé; the hand may not be conductive. Lamé: The conductive lamé which covers the torso and arms of the fencer. Conductivity of the lamé does not extend past the waistline to meet with the target criteria. Mask: The conductive mask directly connected to the Lamé through a wire with a crocodile clip on each ends; because touches can be scored using the edge of the blade, there is no need for a pressure-sensitive head to be present on the end of the blade. When fencing "electric" a current runs through the sabre blade; when the blade comes into contact with the lamé, the electrical mask, or the manchette, the current flows through the body cord and interacts with the scoring equipment. Known as the'Scoring apparatus'. A
Rareș Dumitrescu is a Romanian sabre fencer, World silver medal in 2009. With the Romanian team he was European champion in 2006, World champion in 2009 and Olympic team silver medal in 2012. Dumitrescu discovered fencing at age ten by circumstance: his mother, a teacher, had a pupil whose father was a fencing coach, he began training at his local club CS Tractorul under Cătălin Albu, who served as sparring partner in the absence of other sabre fencers in Brașov: the Olympic center was in Iași. He was frustrated by a lack of money: his parents had to pay for his travel expenses and entrance fees when he began competition, he did not have dedicated fencing shoes either and wore out dozens of ordinary trainers on the piste. The hard training regimen made him quit fencing when he was in high school, but he persevered and transferred in 2003 to CS Dinamo București. Dumitrescu graduated in 2006 from the Faculty of physical education and sport of the Transilvania University of Brașov and earned in 2008 a master's degree in marketing and sport management from the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University in Iași.
He married in 2009 his high school girlfriend. Dumitrescu earned his first major title in 2005 with a team bronze medal at the European Championships in Zalaegerszeg. In March 2006 he got on the podium for the first time in a World Cup event with a silver medal in Athens, he won the European Champion Clubs' Cup with CS Dinamo. A few months he earned a team gold medal at the European Championships in Izmir. In 2008 Dumitrescu won his first World Cup title in Madrid, he made his Olympic debut in the Beijing Games, but was eliminated in the table of 16 by France's Julien Pillet. He was again tempted to retire because he was tired of commuting between Brașov and Bucharest, but his former teammate Mihai Covaliu, now coach of the national team, persuaded him to go on. In 2009 he won two World Cup stages in Warsaw, he was eliminated early in the individual event of the European Championships in Plovdiv, but took the silver medal with Romania. At the World Championships in Antalya he made his way to the final, where he was defeated by Germany's Nicolas Limbach and took the silver medal.
He was noted for his "his intelligence" as well as his technical progress. In the team event Romania created an upset by beating favourites Germany and Hungary to meet Italy in the final. Dumitrescu entered for the last bout on 40–34 for Italy and beat Aldo Montano 11–4 to win Romania their first World gold medal in sabre. Dumitrescu finished the 2008–09 season number two in FIE rankings. For this performance he was granted the title of master emeritus in sport. At the men's sabre competition at the 2012 Summer Olympics Dumitrescu was beaten in the match for the third place by Nikolay Kovalev and missed the podium, but won a silver medal in the team sabre event, he retired. Profile at CS Dinamo's page Profile at Nahouw
Men's team sabre at the 2013 World Fencing Championships
The Men's team sabre event of the 2013 World Fencing Championships was held on August 10, 2013. Bracket Bracket 1–8 Bracket 3–4 Bracket 5–8 Bracket 7–8 Bracket 9–16 Bracket 11–12 Bracket 13–16 Bracket 15–16
Aleksey Andreyevich Yakimenko is a Russian sabre fencer, six-time team world champion, eleven-time European champion, team bronze medallist in the 2004 Summer Olympics. He won the Fencing World Cup series three times, with fifteen titles to his name, earned five gold medals in the Universiade. Yakimenko started fencing at the age of 7 in his hometown Barnaul under coach Aleksey Fitsev, a friend of his father's, he practiced football and athletics, but fencing soon had his preference. Within two months of training he became champion of Altai Krai for his age group. At the age of 13 he moved to Moscow to train at MGFSO under national coach Aleksandr Filatov. In 2002 he won the silver medal and the team gold medal at the European Junior Championships in Conegliano and became double Junior World champion in Antalya, he was noted for his "dazzling technique, sparkling physique and excellent coordination". These results caused him get selected into the senior national team at the age of 18. Yakimenko's debut senior competition was the team event of the 2002 World Championships in Lisbon, where he won a gold medal together with Sergey Sharikov, Stanislav Pozdnyakov and Aleksey Frosin.
He claimed his first individual medal at the 2003 European Championships in Bourges: his winning streak was interrupted only in the final by his captain, four-time Olympic champion Pozdnyakov. He came away with a silver medal, he was defeated in the second round of the World Championships. In the 2003–04 season Yakimenko climbed his first World Cup podium with a gold medal in Bonn, followed a few months by a second place in the Nancy Grand Prix, he made his Olympic début in the team event of the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens along with Sharikov and Aleksey Dyachenko. Russia lost against Italy in the semi-final, but narrowly prevailed over the United States to earn the bronze medal; the 2004–05 season saw Yakimenko win four World Cup events in Budapest, Moscow and Thiès. He was stopped in the second round at the 2005 European Championships in Zalaegerszeg, like all his teammates, they took. At the World Championships in Leipzig Yakimenko claimed his first individual World medal, a bronze, after being stopped in the semi-finals by Pozdnyakov.
In the team event, Pozdnyakov's contribution allowed Russia to edge out Italy in the final and Yakimenko took his third team World title. With 280 points he became the second Russian after Pozdnyakov to win the World Cup in men's sabre, he won the individual and team events at the 2005 Summer Universiade in Belgrade. In the 2005–06 season Yakimenko won the Budapest and Santiago World Cups. At the 2006 European Championships in İzmir he edged past Romania's Florin Zalomir in the semi-finals defeated Ukraine's Volodymyr Lukashenko to earn his first European individual title. In the team event Yakimenko was trusted to close the matches, a role Pozdnyakov had fulfilled for ten years. Another change was the line-up of young Nikolay Kovalev. Russia were narrowly beaten by Romania in the semi-finals, but prevailed over Belarus to win the bronze medal. In the World Championships Yakimenko was defeated in the first round by Belarus' Aliaksandr Buikevich. Russia's director of fencing Sergey Kolganov attributed this below-par performance to overtraining and mental exhaustion after a long season.
Yakimenko finished the season No.4. Yakimenko climbed four World Cup podiums in the 2006–07 season, including victories in Tunis and Madrid. At the 2007 European Championships in Ghent, he prevailed over Pozdnyakov in the semi-finals, but he was defeated in the final by an unexpected Jorge Pina from Spain and was relegated to the silver medal. Pozdnyakov commented that Yakimenko had underestimated the Spaniard. In the team event Yakimenko became the second most senior fencer of the team as national coach Boris Pisetsky brought young Veniamin Reshetnikov in the line-up. After a strong beginning in the semi-finals Russia were surprised by Ukraine's comeback. Yakimenko entered the piste on 31–40 and managed 14–4 in his last bout to get his team to the final, where Russia crushed Belarus 45–30, allowing him to claim his 5th European title in a row. Yakimenko earned his second gold medal in the 2007 Summer Universiade in Bangkok, as well as a bronze medal in the team event. In the World Championships at home in Saint-Petersburg, No.1 Yakimenko was defeated by Ukraine's Lukashenko, to whom he had never lost before.
In the team event Russia were defeated by Hungary by a single hit in the first round and finished 5th. Yakimenko finished the season World No.1 for the second time of his career. In the 2007 -- 08 season Yakimenko earned two World Cup medals in Warsaw. At the 2008 European Championships in Kiev he disposed of Olympic champion Mihai Covaliu in the semi-final and met in the final Belarus' Buikevich, who had stopped him in the first round of the 2006 Worlds. Yakimenko came away with the silver medal. In the team event Russia met France in the final; the match was much less close than previous encounters and Russia won 45–29 to give Yakimenko his 6th team European title in a row. Yakimenko took part in his second Olympics in Beijing. A favourite for the men's sabre event, he was defeated in the first round by his bête noire Aliaksandr Buikevich, his teammates did not fare any better. In the team event, No.3 seed Russia disposed of China in the quarter-final met the United States. After a difficult beginning by Russia, Yakimenko gave his team a 5-hit lead.
Chosen to close the match
2006 World Fencing Championships
The 2006 World Fencing Championships were held at the Oval Lingotto in Turin, Italy. The event took place from 29 September to 7 October 2006. Same Thing of the 2006 Winter Olympics * Host nation FIE Results
2010 World Fencing Championships
The 2010 World Fencing Championships were held at the Grand Palais in Paris, France 4–13 November. * Host nation A record of 110 nations competed, with many making their debuts including Curaçao and Sri Lanka among others. FIE Organizing Committee official website