Transnistrian Republican Bank
The Transnistrian Republican Bank is the central bank of Transnistria. It issues its own currency, the Transnistrian ruble and a series of memorable gold- and silver coins, among them The Outstanding People of Pridnestrovie. In October 2006, the bank inaugurated a new headquarters of a size of 40,000 square feet in Tiraspol. Vyatcheslav Zagryadsky Vitaly Kanysh, acting Vladimir Borisov, acting Oleg Natakhin Eduard Kosovsky Aleksei Melnik, acting Eduard Kosovsky Aleksei Melnik, acting Oxana Ionova Olga Radulova, acting Eduard Kosovsky Trans-Dniester Republican Bank Pridnestrovie's own currency
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing micro-organisms. The term refers to those practices used to promote or induce asepsis in an operative field of surgery or medicine to prevent infection; the goal of asepsis is to eliminate infection. Ideally, a surgical field is sterile, meaning it is free of all biological contaminants, not just those that can cause disease, putrefaction, or fermentation. At present, there is no method to safely eliminate all of a patient's contaminants without causing significant tissue damage; the modern concept of asepsis evolved in the 19th century. Ignaz Semmelweis showed. After the suggestion by Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister introduced the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic, in doing so, reduced surgical infection rates. Lawson Tait went from antisepsis to asepsis, introducing principles and the iconic statutes that have remained valid to this day. Ernst von Bergmann introduced the autoclave, a device used for the practice of the sterilization of surgical instruments.
Asepsis refers to any procedure, performed under sterile conditions. This includes medical and laboratory techniques; this can incorporate techniques such as flame sterilization, methods to protect wounds and other susceptible sites from organisms that could cause infection. This ensures that only sterile equipment and fluids are used during invasive medical and nursing procedures; the largest example of aseptic techniques is in hospital operating theatres where the aim is to keep patients free from hospital micro-organisms. Ayliffe et al. suggests that there are two types of asepsis -- surgical. Medical or clean asepsis prevents their spread. In an operating room, while all members of the surgical team should demonstrate good aseptic technique, it is the role of the scrub nurse or surgical technologist to set up and maintain the sterile field. Medical procedure rooms should be laid out according to guidelines, including regulations concerning filtering and airflow. Members of the surgical teams may wash their hands and arms with germicidal solution, may wear sterile gloves and gowns.
Staff members' hair are covered and surgical masks worn. Instruments should be sterilized by using disposable equipment. Suture material or xenografts need to be sterilized beforehand. Dressing material should be sterile. Antibiotics may be used, dirty, biologically-contaminated material should be subject to regulated disposal. Antiseptic Barrier nursing Body substance isolation Cleanliness Contamination control Disinfectant Ignaz Semmelweis Sterilization Transmission-based precautions
Poltava is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine. It is of the surrounding Poltava Raion of the oblast. Poltava is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion, it is still unknown when Poltava was founded, although the town was not attested before 1174. However, for reasons unknown, municipal authorities chose to celebrate the city's 1100th anniversary in 1999; the settlement is indeed an old one, as archeologists unearthed a Paleolithic dwelling as well as Scythian remains within the city limits. The present name of the city is traditionally connected to the settlement Ltava, mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle in 1174. According to the chronicle, on Saint Peter's Day of 1182, Igor Sviatoslavich, chasing hordes of the Cuman khans Konchak and Kobiak, crossed the Vorskla River near Ltava and moved towards Pereyaslav, where Igor's army was victorious over the Cumans. During the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1238–39 many cities of the middle Dnieper region were destroyed including Ltava.
In the mid 14th century the region was part of the Duchy of Kiev, a vassal of the Algirdas' Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to the Russian historian Aleksandr Shennikov, the region around modern Poltava was a Cuman Duchy belonging to Mansur, a son of Mamai. Shennikov claims that the Mansur Duchy joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as an associated state rather than a vassal state, that the city of Poltava existed at that time. In 1399 the army of Mansur assisted the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the battle of the Vorskla River, while a legend says that after the battle, the Cossack Mamay helped Vytautas to escape his death; the city is mentioned for the first time under the name of Poltava no than 1430. In 1430 the Lithuanian duke Vytautas gave the city, along with Glinsk and Glinitsa, to Murza Olexa, who moved to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the Golden Horde. In 1430 Murza Olexa was baptized as Alexander Glinsky, a progenitor of the Glinsky family. According to Shenninkov, Alexander Glinsky must have been baptized in 1390 by Cyprian, Metropolitan of Kiev, who had just regained his title of Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia and on 6 March 1390 permanently moved to Muscovy.
In 1482 Poltava was razed by the Crimean Khan Mengli I Giray. In 1537 Ografena Vasylivna Glinska passed Poltava to her son-in-law Mykhailo Ivanovych Hrybunov-Baibuza. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the territory around Poltava became part of the Crown of Poland. In 1630 Poltava was passed to Bartholomew Obalkowski. In 1641 it changed ownership again, to Alexander Koniecpolski. In 1646 Poltava became part of Wiśniowiecki Ordynatsia, governed by the Ruthenian-Polish magnate Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. In 1648 the city became the base of a distinguished regiment of Ukrainian Cossacks, served as a Cossack stronghold during the Khmelnytsky Uprising. In 1650, to commemorate a victory of the Cossack Host over the Polish army at the Poltavka River, the Metropolitan of Kiev, Sylvester Kossov, ordered the establishment of the monastery of the Exaltation of the Cross in Poltava; the project was financed by a number of prominent local residents, including Martyn Pushkar, Ivan Iskra, Ivan Kramar and many others.
During the 1654 Pereyaslav Council, the Poltava city delegates pledged their allegiance to the Czar of Muscovy, after which stolnik Andrei Spasitelev arrived in Poltava and recorded 1,335 residents who had pledged their allegiance. In 1658 Poltava became a center of anti-government revolt led by Martyn Pushkar, who contested the legitimacy of Ivan Vyhovsky's election to the post of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host; the uprising was extinguished with the help of Crimean Tatars. On the issue boyar Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev wrote to Alexei Mikhailovich on 8 June 1658: "... the Cherkas city of Plotava is ravaged and burned to the ground and only if the Great Sovereign orders to rebuilt on the Tatar Sokma of Bakeyev Route and protect many his sovereign cities from Tatar visits. And if the Great Sovereign allows to place a voivode in the city and rebuilt the city until the fall that in Plotava Cherkasy and residents built their houses and stock-piled their food". With the signing of the 1667 truce of Andrusovo, the city was subjected to the Tsardom of Muscovy, while remaining part of the Cossack Hetmanate.
The city suffered from the Great Turkish War when in 1695 Petro Ivanenko led an anti-Muscovite uprising with the help of Crimean Tatars, who ravaged the local monastery. The same year the Poltava Regiment participated in the Azov campaigns which resulted in the taking of the Turkish fortress of Kyzy-Kermen. On 8 July or 27 June 1709 the battle of Poltava took place near the city during the Great Northern War between the Muscovite and Swedish armies; this battle had great historical importance for the Russians. In 1710 there was a plague in its surrounding area. In the mid-18th century the Kolomak Woods near Poltava became a base of haidamaks. By 1770 Poltava had several brick factories, a regimental doctor, a pharmacy. In 1775 it became a city of Novorossiysk Governorate, guarded by the 8th Company of the Dnieper Pike Regiment headquartered in Kobeliaky. In 1775 Poltava's Mona
Transnistria, or Transdniestria the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, is a unrecognised state that split off from Moldova after the dissolution of the USSR and consists of a narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the territory of Ukraine. Transnistria has been recognised only by three other non-recognised states: Abkhazia and South Ossetia; the region is considered by the UN to be part of Moldova. Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status, or Stînga Nistrului. After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between Moldova and the breakaway Transnistrian territory escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year; as part of that agreement, a three-party Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, military, postal system and vehicle registration.
Its authorities have adopted a constitution, national anthem and coat of arms. It is the only country still using the sickle on its flag. After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities; this agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine took force in 2005. Most Transnistrians have Moldovan citizenship, but many Transnistrians have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship; the main ethnic groups in 2015 were Russians and Ukrainians. Transnistria, South Ossetia, Artsakh are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones; these four recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations. The region can be referred to in English as "Trans-Dniestr" or "Transdniestria"; these names are adaptations of the Romanian colloquial name of the region, "Transnistria" meaning "beyond the River Dniester".
The documents of the government of Moldova refer to the region as Stînga Nistrului meaning "Left Bank of the Dniester". According to the Transnistrian authorities, the name of the state is Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; the short form of this name is Pridnestrovie. "Pridnestrovie" is a transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье" meaning " by the Dniester". Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria and an adjacent area around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time formed part of Romania. One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to incorporate Bessarabia; the Moldavian SSR, organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed out of a part of Bessarabia and out of a part of the Moldavian ASSR equivalent to present-day Transnistria. In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union during the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it.
Romania controlled the entire region between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, including the city of Odessa as local capital. The Romanian-administered territory – called the Transnistria Governorate – with an area of 44,000 km2 and a population of 2.3 million inhabitants, was divided into 13 counties: Ananiev, Berzovca, Golta, Movilau, Odessa, Ovidiopol, Rîbnița, Tiraspol and Tulcin. This enlarged Transnistria was home to nearly 200,000 Romanian/Moldovan-speaking residents; the Romanian administration of Transnistria attempted to stabilise the situation in the area under Romanian control, implementing a process of Romanianization. During the Romanian occupation of 1941–44, between 150,000 and 250,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews were deported to Transnistria. After the Red Army reconquered the area in 1944, Soviet authorities executed, exiled or imprisoned hundreds of the Moldavian SSR inhabitants in the following months on charges of collaboration with the "German-fascist occupiers". A campaign was directed against the rich peasant families, who were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia.
Over the course of two days, 6–7 July 1949, a plan named "Operation South" saw the deportation of over 11,342 families by order of the Moldovian Minister of State Security, Iosif Mordovets. In the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union
Imperial Moscow University
Imperial Moscow University - the oldest of the universities of the Russian Empire, established in 1755. The first of the twelve imperial universities of the Russian Empire. Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on 25 January 1755; the first lectures were given on 26 April. Russians still celebrate 25 January as Students' Day; the present Moscow State University occupied the «Aptekarskij dom» on Red Square from 1755 to 1787. Catherine the Great transferred the University to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. In the 18th century, the University had three departments: philosophy and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility; the university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia: Moskovskie Vedomosti.
Moscow University was transferred from the Senate to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Empire. Under the new «Charter of the Imperial University of Moscow» in 1804, the university was to be run by the University Council, which included ordinary and distinguished professors headed by the rector; the rector was annually elected by a professorial assembly and was approved by the Emperor of the Russian Empire. The deans of the faculties were subject to election; the first elected rector was geographer Khariton Chebotarev. At the meetings of the Council, not only the appointment of professors, honorary members, adjuncts of the university was decided, but the appointment of teachers in the gymnasium and the school of the district, the annual test of students; the meetings were to be held at least once a month. Annually the Council elected deans of faculties; the university was divided into four departments: moral and political sciences and mathematical sciences, verbal sciences and medical sciences.
Each department held its own meetings, on which a schedule was drawn up, tests were conducted for those wishing to obtain a degree and financial issues were considered. The Faculty of Medicine was divided into departments: clinical, obstetrics. At the Faculty of Law, the teaching of natural and Roman rights was introduced. In total, according to the statute of 1804, 28 chairs were laid. By the time Napoleon invaded the university, there were 215 students. Napoleon's invasion was a serious test for the Moscow University, which lost buildings, museum collections, scientific equipment, a library, an archive that had lost many professors and students during the war in the Moscow fire that destroyed Moscow. In August 1812, Moscow University was evacuated to Nizhny Novgorod. 42 boxes with the most valuable exhibits of the Museum of Natural History, books and instruments were sent. In the evacuation were sent to the professors and students, the university treasury, the most valuable books and things.
The road to Nizhny Novgorod, where Moscow University received a temporary shelter, took 19 days. At the beginning of September, the main building of the University on Mokhovaya burned to ashes, as well as all university buildings in the adjacent territory. After the French retreat in December 1812, the rector of the university returned to Moscow and a temporary commission was established to manage the university as part of the rector and the four senior professors in Moscow; the buildings for the temporary placement of the university were found not far from Mokhovaya Street. In May 1813, the last professors and convoys with the property of the university returned from Nizhny Novgorod. In August 1813, the classes of all four faculties of the university resumed. In the same year, 129 students were accepted; the final restoration of the university was completed in 1819 with the completion of the reconstruction of the main building on Mokhovaya. University buildings were rebuilt again by 1819. By 1826 the library and the Mint-cabinet had been restored.
Since the beginning of the 1820s, the number of students has increased: The visit of Emperor Nicholas I to Moscow University in 1826 resulted in the dismissal of the rector, who in his opinion did not implement the government's decisions with sufficient vigor. Under the ban was put the teaching of philosophy at the university, resumed only in 1845; the Emperor's dissatisfaction with the appearance of the Moscow students he met near the Kremlin entailed the introduction of a compulsory wearing of student uniforms, which students had to wear outside the university. From the reaction of the 1820s, Moscow University suffered less than other universities of the Russian Empire. In 1833, a second building was purchased for the University of Moscow, located next to the main building on Mokhovaya Street, rebuilt in 1835 and named «Auditor Corps»; the University Statute of 1835 was the first general statute for all universities that introduced uniform rules for their existence. The new charter restricted university autonomy, abolished the university court that existed since the opening of the university, strengthened the general dependence of universities
Russians are a nation and an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Moldova and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany and Canada; the Russians share many cultural traits with other East Slavic ethnic groups Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion; the Russian language is official in Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as "Russians". One is "русский", which most means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне", which means "citizens of Russia"; the former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in and irrespective of whether or not they hold Russian citizenship. Under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union.
The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, does not include ethnic Russians living outside Russia. Translations into other languages do not distinguish these two groups; the name of the Russians derives from the Rus' people. According to the most prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden, is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times; the name Rus' would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. According to other theories the name Rus' is derived from Proto-Slavic *roud-s-ь, connected with red color or from Indo-Iranian; until the 1917 revolution, Russian authorities never called them "Russians", calling them "Great Russians" instead, a part of "Russians". The modern Russians formed from two groups of East Slavic tribes: Northern and Southern.
The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Radimichs and Severians. Genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ from Belarusians and Ukrainians; some ethnographers, like Dmitry Konstantinovich Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians are to northern Russians. Russians in northern European Russia share moderate genetic similarities with Uralic peoples, who lived in modern north-central European Russia and were assimilated by the Slavs as the Slavs migrated northeastwards; such Uralic peoples included the Muromians. The territory of Russia has been inhabited since 2nd Millennium BCE by Indo-European, Ural-Altaic, various other peoples. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records, it is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern and eastern branches. The eastern branch settled between the Dnieper Rivers in present-day Ukraine.
Both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground. From the 6th century onwards, another group of Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod; the same Slavic ethnic population settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Ilmen Slavs. Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of states. Modern Russians derive their name and cultural ancestry from Kievan Rus'. In 2010, the world's Russian population was 129 million people of which 86% were in Russia, 11.5% in the CIS and Baltic countries, with a further 2.5% living in other countries. 111 million ethnic Russians live in Russia, 80% of whom live in the European part of Russia, 20% in the Asian part of the country. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union an estimated 25 million Russians began living outside of the Russian Federation, most of them in the former Soviet Republics.
Ethnic Russians migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing the central authority. After the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, millions became refugees. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement, although the term is broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regime. Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside Russia live in former