István Szabó is a Hungarian film director and opera director. Szabó is the most internationally famous Hungarian filmmaker since the late 1960s. Working in the tradition of European auteurism, he has made films that represent many of the political and psychological conflicts of Central Europe's recent history, as well as of his own personal history, he made his first short film in 1959 as a student at the Hungarian Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts, his first feature film in 1964. He achieved his greatest international success with Mephisto, which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Since most of Szabó's films have been international co-productions filmed in a variety of languages and European locations, he has continued to make some films in Hungarian, in his international co-productions, he films in Hungary and uses Hungarian talent. Szabó became involved in a national controversy in 2006 when the Hungarian newspaper Life and Literature revealed that he had been an informant of the Communist regime's secret police.
Born in Budapest, Szabó is the son of Mária and István Szabó, the latter of whom was a doctor from a long line of doctors. Szabó came from a family of Jews who had converted to Catholicism, but were considered Jews by the Arrow Cross Party, they were forced to separate and hide in Budapest sometime between October 1944, when Nazi Germany occupied Hungary and installed the Arrow Cross in power, February 1945, when the Soviets defeated the German Army in Budapest. Szabó survived by hiding at an orphanage, but his father died of diphtheria shortly after the German defeat. Memories of these events would appear in several of his films. In 2006 the Hungarian newspaper Life and Literature revealed that Szabó had been an informant of the Communist regime's secret police. Between 1957 and 1961, he submitted forty-eight reports on seventy-two people classmates and teachers at the Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts. According to historian Istvan Deak, only in one case did Szabó's informing cause significant damage, when an individual was denied a passport.
After the article was published, over one hundred prominent intellectuals, including some of the people Szabó had denounced, published a letter of support for him. Szabó's initial response to the article was that informing had been an act of bravery intended to save the life of former classmate Pál Gábor; when this claim turned out not to be true, Szabó admitted that his true motive had been to prevent his own expulsion from the Academy. In a 2001 interview, Szabó revealed that he believes in God, but considers the subject personal and does not like to talk about it; as a child, Szabó wanted to be a doctor like his father. By the age of 16, however, he had been inspired by a book by Hungarian film theorist Béla Balázs to become a film director. Upon graduation from high school, he became one of 11 applicants out of 800 who were admitted to the Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts. At the Academy, he studied with the famous director Félix Máriássy, who became something of a father figure to Szabó.
Among his classmates were Judit Elek, Zsolt Kézdi-Kovács, Janos Rozsa, Pál Gábor, Imre Gyöngyössy, Ferenc Kardos, Zoltán Huszárik. While at the Academy, Szabó directed several short films, culminating in his thesis film, which won a prize at the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen. Thanks to János Herskó, head of the Hunnia Film Studio at which he apprenticed, Szabó was given his first opportunity to direct a feature film at the age of 25, rather than being required to spend ten years working as an assistant director; the beginning of Szabó's career coincided with the beginning of a “new wave” in Hungarian cinema, one of several new wave cinemas that occurred around this time throughout Western and Eastern Europe. The Eastern European new waves were caused by political liberalization, the decentralization of film industries, the emergence of films as valuable commodities for export to Western European markets; the resulting films were more formally experimental, politically anti-establishment, in the case of Szabó, psychologically probing than the films of the previous generation.
Hungarian filmmakers in particular experienced a significant increase in freedom of expression due to the reforms of the Kádár government. Szabó's first feature film, The Age of Illusions, is a autobiographical film about the struggles of Szabó's generation in starting a career, encountering the obsolescence of the older generation, establishing romantic relationships; the appearance of a poster for François Truffaut's The 400 Blows in the background of a scene suggested Szabó's artistic compatibility with Truffaut and the French New Wave. The film won the Silver Sail for Best First Work at the Locarno International Film Festival and a Special Jury Prize for Best Director at the Hungarian Film Festival. Father is a coming of age story that displays Szabó's increasing fascination with history and memory; the main character copes with the childhood loss of his father against the backdrop of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and memories of the Arrow Cross dictatorship. The film won the Grand Prix at the 5th Moscow International Film Festival and the Special Jury Prize at Locarno, established Szabó as the most internationally famous Hungarian filmmaker of his time, as well as an auteur in the European film tradition.
In 2000, Father appeared as number 11 on a list of the 12 best Hungarian films according to a group of Hungarian film critics. Lovefilm focuses on a young man's relationship with his childhood sweetheart, told through flashbacks that include the Arrow Cross dictatorship and 1956, rende
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón is a Spanish screenwriter and film director. His 1973 film Habla, mudita was entered into the 23rd Berlin International Film Festival. In 1977, he won the Silver Bear for Best Director for Camada negra at the 27th Berlin International Film Festival, his 1979 film El corazón del bosque was entered into the 29th Berlin International Film Festival. Two years his film Maravillas was entered into the 31st Berlin International Film Festival, his 1982 film Demons in the Garden was entered into the 13th Moscow International Film Festival where it won the FIPRESCI Prize. In 1991 he was a member of the jury at the 17th Moscow International Film Festival. In 1995 his film King of the River was entered into the 45th Berlin International Film Festival. Gutiérrez Aragón was elected to Seat F of the Real Academia Española on 16 April 2015, he took up his seat on 24 January 2016. Director and Screenwriter only Screenwriter Official site Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón on IMDb
Jean-Pierre Blanc was a French film director and screenwriter. He directed six films between 1972 and 1993, he won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 22nd Berlin International Film Festival for La Vieille Fille. La Vieille Fille Un ange au paradis D'amour et d'eau fraîche Le devoir de français L'Esprit de famille Caravane Jean-Pierre Blanc on IMDb
Makronisos, or Makronisi, is an island in the Aegean sea, in Greece, notorious as the site of a political prison from the 1940s to the 1970s. It is located facing the port of Lavrio; the island has an elongated shape, 13 km north to south, around 500 m east to west, its terrain is arid and rocky. It is the largest uninhabited Greek island, it is part in the municipality of Kea. In ancient times the island was called Helena, was situated so as to protect the harbours of Thoricus and Sunium, it was called Macris, from its length. Strabo describes it as 60 stadia in length, it was uninhabited in antiquity. Both Strabo and Pausanias derive its name from Helen of Troy, the wife of Menelaus: the latter writer supposes that it was so called because Helen landed here after the capture of Troy. There can not, however, be any doubt; the Kea Channel between Makronisos and neighbouring Kea was the site of the sinking, in 1916, of HMHS Britannic, sister ship of the RMS Titanic. Makronisos was used as a military prison island from the time of the Greek Civil War until the restoration of democracy, following the collapse of the Regime of the Colonels in 1974.
Because of its history, it is considered as a monument of the civil war era. Among the prisoners of Makronisos were Apostolos Santas, Nikos Koundouros, Mikis Theodorakis, Leonidas Kyrkos and Thanasis Vengos. Le Nouveau Parthénon by Kostas Chronopoulos and Giogos Chryssovitsianos. Happy Day by Pantelís Voúlgaris. Makronissos, by Ilias Giannakakis and Evi Karabatsou. Like Stone lions at the gateway into night, by Olivier Zuchuat Hamilakis, Yannis, "The Other'Parthenon': Antiquity and National Memory at Makronisos", Journal of Modern Greek Studies 20:2, pp. 307–338. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Helena". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Segeln bei Makronisos http://www.abettergreece.com/Makronissos_en.html
Carlos Saura Atarés is a Spanish film director and writer. His name, with those of Luis Buñuel and Pedro Almodóvar, forms a triad of Spain’s most renowned filmmakers, he has a prolific career that spans over half a century. Several of his films have won many international awards. Saura began his career in 1955 making documentary shorts, he gained international prominence when his first feature-length film premiered at Cannes Film Festival in 1960. Although he started filming as a neorealist, Saura switched to films encoded with metaphors and symbolism in order to get around the Spanish censors. In 1966, he was thrust into the international spotlight when his film La Caza won the Silver Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. In the following years, he forged an international reputation for his cinematic treatment of emotional and spiritual responses to repressive political conditions. By the 1970s, Saura was the best known filmmaker working in Spain, his films employed complex narrative devices and were controversial.
He won Special Jury Awards for La Prima Cría Cuervos in Cannes. In the 1980s, Saura was in the spotlight for his Flamenco trilogy – Bodas de Sangre, Carmen and El Amor Brujo, in which he combined dramatic content and flamenco dance forms, his work earned numerous awards. He received two nominations for Academy Awards for Carmen and Tango, his films are sophisticated expression of time and space fusing reality with fantasy, past with present, memory with hallucination. In the last two decades of the 20th century, Saura has concentrated on works uniting music and images. Saura was born in Huesca, Aragón, Spain on 4 January 1932, his father, Antonio Saura Pacheco, who came from Murcia, was civil servant. His mother, Fermina Atares Torrente, was a concert pianist; the second of their four children, Carlos had an older brother, Antonio Saura, two younger sisters and Angeles. Antonio became a well-known abstract expressionist painter. From their parents, the four siblings received a liberal understanding education.
Because his father worked for the Ministry of the Interior, the Saura family moved to Barcelona, and, in 1953, to Madrid. Saura’s childhood was marked by the Spanish Civil War, during which the Nationalists fought against the Republicans. Saura has vivid recollection of his childhood during the war, he evoked some of them in his films – the games he played, the songs he sang, as well as darker memories of bombings and hunger and death. He was taught to read by a priest – a relative whom his parents sheltered from anticlerical extremists. At the war’s end, Saura was separated from his parents and sent back to Huesca to live with his maternal grandmother and aunts, he described these relatives as “right wings and religious” who imposed in the child the antithesis of the liberal education he had received in the republican zone. In 1957-1958, Saura created Cuenca. In 1962 his film Los Golfos was recognized for its strong sociological impact, to aid Spanish youth by tackling the issue of juvenile delinquency in Madrid's poorest districts.
Four years he was honored at the 16th Berlin International Film Festival, where he received the Silver Bear for Best Director for his film La caza. In 1967, his film Peppermint Frappé received the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 18th Berlin International Film Festival, he won the Golden Bear in 1981 at the 31st Berlin International Film Festival for his film Deprisa, Deprisa. The films La prima Angélica of 1973 and Cría cuervos of 1975 received the special prize of the jury at the Cannes Film Festival, his film Mama cumple 100 años was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 1980 Academy Awards. Saura become known for movies featuring flamenco and other traditional dances, his Flamenco Trilogy of the 1980s includes Bodas de Sangre, El amor brujo featuring the work of Spanish flamenco dancer Cristina Hoyos. He made the movies Flamenco and Fados, his 1989 film La noche oscura was entered into the 39th Berlin International Film Festival. Saura considers his film on surrealist master Luis Buñuel to be his best cinematic work.
In an interview to an online film magazine, he says about Buñuel y la mesa del rey Salomón: “That’s the greatest film I’ve made. I like the film but nobody else seems to like it. I'm sure, but only he would have loved it. Everything you see in the film is based on conversations I had with him.” In 1990, he received the Goya Award for the best director and best script for ¡Ay, Carmela!. He was chosen as director for the official film of the 1992 Olympic Games of Marathon. In 2008, Carlos Saura was honoured with a Global Life Time Achievement Award at the 10th Mumbai International Film Festival, organized by the Mumbai Academy of the Moving Image. In 2013, he was given a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 18th International Film Festival of Kerala. Carlos Saura was married three times, he first married Adela Medrano in Barcelona in 1957. They had two sons and Antonio. On 27 December 1982 he married Mercedes Pérez, they had three sons, Adrián and Diego. Bet
Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, music composer, graphic artist and author regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century. Ray was born in Calcutta into a Bengali Kayastha family, prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films and shorts, he was a fiction writer, illustrator, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.
This film, along with Apur Sansar, form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting and editing, designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, an Academy Honorary Award in 1992; the Government of India honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray gained a prestigious position over his life time. In 2004, Ray was ranked number 13 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations. Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, philosopher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal, he set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic.
Ray was born to Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name'Ray' from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were'Vaishnavas' as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were'Shaktos'. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was three, the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta affiliated with the University of Calcutta,though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan, his mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art, he admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. He produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee.
His visits to Ajanta and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art. In 1943, Ray started work at D. J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design and he was treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm; the British were better paid, Ray felt that "the clients were stupid." Ray worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India, he worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu. Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was influenced by the work.
He used it as the subject of his first film, featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film. Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, they screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city, he came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films and western classical music. In 1949, Ray married his first cousin and long-time sweetheart; the couple had a son, now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir came to Calcutta to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D. J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films.
Jean Marie Maurice Schérer or Maurice Henri Joseph Schérer, known as Éric Rohmer, was a French film director, film critic, novelist and teacher. Rohmer was the last of the post-World War II French New Wave directors to become established, he edited the influential film journal, Cahiers du cinéma, from 1957 to 1963, while most of his colleagues—among them Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut—were making the transition from film critics to filmmakers and gaining international attention. Rohmer gained international acclaim around 1969 when his film My Night at Maud's was nominated at the Academy Awards, he won the San Sebastián International Film Festival with Claire's Knee in 1971 and the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for The Green Ray in 1986. Rohmer went on to receive the Venice Film Festival's Career Golden Lion in 2001. After Rohmer's death in 2010, his obituary in The Daily Telegraph described him as "the most durable filmmaker of the French New Wave", outlasting his peers and "still making movies the public wanted to see" late in his career.
Rohmer was born Jean-Marie Maurice Schérer in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle department, France, the son of Mathilde and Lucien Schérer. Rohmer was a Catholic, he was secretive about his private life and gave different dates of birth to reporters. He fashioned his pseudonym from the names of two famous artists: actor and director Erich von Stroheim and writer Sax Rohmer, author of the Fu Manchu series. Rohmer received an advanced degree in history, he studied literature and theology as a student. Rohmer first worked as a teacher in Clermont-Ferrand. In the mid-1940s he quit his teaching job and moved to Paris, where he worked as a freelance journalist. In 1946 he published Elisabeth under the pen-name Gilbert Cordier. In about 1949, while living in Paris, Rohmer first began to attend screenings at Henri Langlois's Cinémathèque Française, where he first met and befriended Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette and other members of the French New Wave. Rohmer had never been interested in film and always preferred literature but soon became an intense lover of films and switched from journalism to film criticism.
He wrote film reviews for such publications as Révue du Cinéma, Temps Modernes and La Parisienne. In 1950, he co-founded the film magazine La Gazette du Cinéma with Rivette and Godard, however its existence was short-lived. In 1951 Rohmer joined the staff of André Bazin's newly founded film magazine Cahiers du Cinéma, of which he would become the editor in 1956. There, Rohmer established himself as a critic with a distinctive voice. Rohmer was known as being more politically conservative than most of the staff at Cahiers, his opinions were influential on the direction of the magazine during his time as editor. Rohmer first published articles under his real name but began using "Éric Rohmer" in 1955 so that his family would not find out that he was involved in the film world, of which they would have disapproved. Rohmer's best-known article was "Le Celluloid et le marbre" in 1955, which examines the relationship between film and other arts. In the article, Rohmer states that in an age of cultural self-consciousness, film is "the last refuge of poetry" and the only contemporary art form from which metaphor could still spring and spontaneously.
In 1957 Rohmer and Claude Chabrol wrote Hitchcock, the earliest book-length study of Alfred Hitchcock. It focuses on Hitchcock's Catholic background and is described as "one of the most influential film books since the Second World War, casting new light on a film-maker hitherto considered a mere entertainer". Hitchcock helped establish the auteur theory as a critical method and contributed to the re-evaluation of the American cinema, central to that method. By 1963 Rohmer was becoming more at odds with some of the more radical left-wing critics at Cahiers du Cinéma, he continued to admire US films while many of the other left-wing critics had rejected US films and were championing cinéma vérité and Marxist film criticism. Rohmer was succeeded by Jacques Rivette. In 1950 Rohmer made his first 16mm short film, Journal d'un scélérat; the film was made with a borrowed camera. By 1951 Rohmer had a bigger budget provided by friends and shot the short film Présentation ou Charlotte et son steak; the 12-minute film starred Jean-Luc Godard.
The film was not completed until 1961. In 1952 Rohmer began collaborating with Pierre Guilbaud on a one-hour short feature, Les Petites Filles modèles, but the film was never finished. In 1954 Rohmer made and acted in Bérénice, a 15-minute short based on a story by Edgar Allan Poe. In 1956 Rohmer directed, wrote and starred in La Sonate à Kreutzer, a 50-minute film produced by Godard. In 1958 Rohmer made a 20 minute-short produced by Chabrol. Chabrol's company AJYM produced Rohmer's feature directorial debut, The Sign of Leo in 1959. In the film an American composer spends the month of August waiting for his inheritance while all his friends are on vacation and becomes impoverished, it included music by Louis Sagver. The Sign of Leo was recut and rescored by d