An apartment, flat or unit is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building on a single storey. There are many names for these overall buildings; the housing tenure of apartments varies from large-scale public housing, to owner occupancy within what is a condominium, to tenants renting from a private landlord. Both words refer to a self-contained residential unit with its own front door, kitchen and bathroom. In some parts of the world, the word apartment refers to a purpose-built unit in a building, whereas the word flat means a converted unit in an older building a big house. In other places the terms are interchangeable; the term apartment is favored in North America. In the UK, the term apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is used but not for an apartment on a single level. In some countries the word "unit" is a more general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites; the word'unit' is used only in the context of a specific building.
"This building has three units" or "I'm going to rent a unit in this building", but not "I'm going to rent a unit somewhere". Some buildings can be characterized as'mixed use buildings', meaning part of the building is for commercial, business, or office use on the first floor or first couple of floors, one or more apartments are found in the rest of the building on the upper floors. Tenement law rents, it may be found combined as in "Messuage or Tenement" to encompass all the land and other assets of a property. In the United States, some apartment-dwellers own their units, either as co-ops, in which the residents own shares of a corporation that owns the building or development. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are sometimes divided into apartments; the word apartment denotes a residential section in a building. In some locations the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, is not used for a condominium. In England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease.
This arrangement is known as a "share of freehold" flat. The freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building; the freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and restrictions that might apply. This situation does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was unusual, is now impossible. Bachelor apartment, one-bedroom, etc.. Apartment buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent. A high-rise apartment building is referred to as a residential tower, apartment tower, or block of flats in Australia. A high-rise building is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions, it may be only residential, in which case it might be called a tower block, or it might include other functions such as hotel, offices, or shops.
There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is considered a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials, their structural system is made of reinforced concrete and steel. A low-rise building and mid-rise buildings have fewer storeys. Emporis defines a low-rise as "an enclosed structure below 35 metres, divided into regular floor levels." The city of Toronto defines a mid-rise as a building between 12 stories. In American English, the distinction between rental apartments and condominiums is that while rental buildings are owned by a single entity and rented out to many, condominiums are owned individually, while their owners still pay a monthly or yearly fee for building upkeep. Condominiums are leased by their owner as rental apartments. A third alternative, the cooperative apartment building, acts as a corporation with all of the tenants as shareholders of the building.
Tenants in cooperative buildings do not own their apartment, but instead own a proportional number of shares of the entire cooperative. As in condominiums, cooperators pay a monthly fee for building upkeep. Co-ops are common in cities such as New York, have gained some popularity in other larger urban areas in the U. S. In British English the usual word is "flat", but apartment is used by property developers to denote expensive'flats' in exclusive and expensive residential areas in, for example, parts of London such as Belgravia and Hampstead. In Scotland, it is called a block of flats or, if it is a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, a term which has a negative connotation elsewhere. Australian English and New Zealand Engli
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d
A suicide booth is a fictional machine for committing suicide. Suicide booths appear in numerous fictional settings, including the American animated series Futurama and the manga Gunnm/Battle Angel Alita. Compulsory self-execution booths were featured in an episode of the original Star Trek TV series entitled "A Taste of Armageddon"; the concept can be found as early as 1893. When a series of suicides were vigorously discussed in United Kingdom newspapers, critic William Archer suggested that in the golden age there would be penny-in-the-slot machines by which a man could kill himself. Modern writer Martin Amis provoked a small controversy in January 2010 when he facetiously advocated "suicide booths" for the elderly, of whom he wrote: There’ll be a population of demented old people, like an invasion of terrible immigrants, stinking out the restaurants and cafes and shops... There should be a booth on every corner where you could get a medal. Following Archer's statement in 1893, the 1895 story "The Repairer of Reputations" by Robert W. Chambers featured the Governor of New York presiding over the opening of the first "Government Lethal Chamber" in the then-future year of 1920, after the repeal of laws against suicide: "The Government has seen fit to acknowledge the right of man to end an existence which may have become intolerable to him, through physical suffering or mental despair."
He paused, turned to the white Lethal Chamber. The silence in the street was absolute. "There a painless death awaits him who can no longer bear the sorrows of this life." However, as Chambers's protagonist who relates the story is suffering from brain damage, it remains ambiguous whether or not he is an unreliable narrator. In Robert Sheckley's Immortality, Inc. the protagonist wakes up in an unfamiliar future and, while wandering dazed in a starkly changed New York, finds himself in what he thinks might be a bread line, but turns out to be a line for the suicide booths. In the movie Freejack, suicide booths are not shown, but advertisements for suicide-assistance services are visible against the city skyline. In Ivan Efremov's 1968 novel The Bull's Hour, suicide booths are referred to as the "palaces of tender death". They're used on the planet Tormance to control population growth. Kurt Vonnegut's "purple-roofed Ethical Suicidal Parlors" appear in two stories: "Welcome to the Monkey House" and "God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater".
In these Ethical Suicide Parlors, a patron receives a free meal in the adjoining Howard Johnson's diner before committing suicide. It is considered a citizen's patriotic duty to commit suicide, again as a means of population control. In John Christopher's novel The City of Gold and Lead, human slaves in the aliens' domed cities voluntarily use the "Place of Happy Release" when they are no longer able to serve; the slave is killed and cremated. While not a booth, suicide chambers are used to allow people to choose a pleasant form of euthanasia in the movie Soylent Green; the character Sol Roth leaves a note saying that he is "going home," a euphemism for committing state-approved suicide via a large, well-appointed, attended suicide chamber. Music and a video chosen by the client are played while he or she waits for the drugs to take their fatal effect. Roth chooses Ludwig van Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony and a video of Earth's natural wonders and scenes of pastoral beauty. In Arthur C. Clarke's The City and the Stars, set well over a billion years in the future, in the city Diaspar, human beings resort to suicide when they are tired of life, but with the provision of being re-created at some future date.
The computers that store memories of suicided humans decide when. Sometimes they create a person. In the world of Futurama, Stop-and-Drop suicide booths resemble phone booths and cost one quarter per use; the booths have at least three modes of death: "quick and painless", "slow and horrible", "clumsy bludgeoning" though, it is implied that "electrocution, with a side order of poison" exists, that the eyes can be scooped out for an extra charge. After a mode of death is selected and executed, the machine cheerfully says, "You are now dead. Thank you for using Stop-and-Drop, America's favorite suicide booth since 2008", or in Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs, "You are now dead, please take your receipt", at this time many untaken receipts are shown; the first appearance of a suicide booth in Futurama is in "Space Pilot 3000", in which the character Bender wants to use it. Fry at first mistakes the suicide booth for a phone booth, Bender offers to share it with him. Fry requests a collect call, which the machine interprets as a "horrible" death.
It turns out that "slow and horrible" can be survived by pressing oneself against the side of the booth, leading Bender to accuse the machine of being a rip-off. In Futurama: Bender's Big Score, after failing to chase down Fry in the year 2000, Bender wants to kill himself, but mistakes a regular phone booth for a suicide booth. A suicide booth reappeared in Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs where Bender once again attempts to end his life, but is saved when dropped into the League of Robots' lair. During the season 6 episode "Ghost in the Machines", Bender commits suicide in a booth named Lynn, still angry at him over the end of their relationship six months earlier. According to series co-creator Matt Groening, the suicide booth concept was inspired by a 1937 Donald Duck cartoon, Modern Inventions, in which Donald Duck visits a Museum of the Future and is nearly killed by various push button gadgets. T
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser
A protagonist is the leading character of a story. The protagonist is at the center of the story, makes the key decisions, experiences the consequences of those decisions; the protagonist is the primary agent propelling the story forward, is the character who faces the most significant obstacles. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories each subplot may have its own protagonist; the protagonist is the character whose fate is most followed by the reader or audience, and, opposed by the antagonist. The antagonist will provide obstacles and complications and create conflicts that test the protagonist, thus revealing the strengths and weaknesses of the protagonist's character; the earliest known examples of a protagonist are found in Ancient Greece. At first, dramatic performances involved dancing and recitation by the chorus. In Poetics, Aristotle describes how a poet named Thespis introduced the idea of one actor stepping out and engage in a dialogue with the chorus.
This was the invention of tragedy, occurred about 536 B. C; the poet Aeschylus, in his plays, introduced a second actor, inventing the idea of dialogue between two characters. Sophocles wrote plays that included a third actor. A description of the protagonist's origin cited that during the early period of Greek drama, the protagonist served as the author, the director, the actor and that these roles were only separated and allocated to different individuals later. There is a claim that the poet did not assign or create the protagonist as well as other terms for actors such as deuteragonist and tritagonist because he only gave actors their appropriate part. However, these actors were assigned their specific areas at the stage with the protagonist always entering from the middle door or that the dwelling of the deuteragonist should be on the right hand, the tritagonist, the left. In Ancient Greece, the protagonist is distinguished from the term "hero", used to refer to a human who became a semi-divine being in the narrative.
Euripides' play Hippolytus may be considered to have two protagonists. Phaedra is the protagonist of the first half, her stepson, the titular Hippolytus, assumes the dominant role in the second half of the play. In Ibsen’s play The Master Builder, the protagonist is the architect Halvard Solness; the young woman, Hilda Wangel, whose actions lead to the death of Solness, is the antagonist. In Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is the protagonist, he is in pursuit of his relationship with Juliet, the audience is invested in that story. Tybalt, as an antagonist, attempts to thwart the relationship. In Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Prince Hamlet, who seeks revenge for the murder of his father, is the protagonist; the antagonist would be the character who most opposes Claudius. Sometimes, a work will have a false protagonist, who may seem to be the protagonist, but may disappear unexpectedly; the character Marion in Alfred Hitchcock's film Psycho is an example. A novel that contains a number of narratives may have a number of protagonists.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn's The First Circle, for example, depicts a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp. Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace depicts fifteen major characters affected by a war. In some cases, the protagonist is not a human: in Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, a group of anthropomorphised rabbits, led by the protagonist Hazel, escape their warren after seeing a vision of its destruction, starting a perilous journey to find a new home
No man's land
No man's land is land, unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times, it is associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross or seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process. According to Alasdair Pinkerton, an expert in human geography at the Royal Holloway University of London, the term is first mentioned in Domesday Book in the 11th century to describe parcels of land that were just beyond the London city walls; the Oxford English Dictionary contains a reference to the term dating back to 1320, spelled nonesmanneslond, when the term was used to describe a disputed territory or one over which there was legal disagreement. The same term was used as the name for the piece of land outside the north wall of London, assigned as the place of execution.
The term was applied to a little-used area on ships called the forecastle, a place where various ropes, tackle and other supplies were stored. In the United Kingdom several places called No Man's Land denoted "extra-parochial spaces that were beyond the rule of the church, beyond the rule of different fiefdoms that were handed out by the king … ribbons of land between these different regimes of power"; the British Army did not employ the term when the Regular Army arrived in France in August 1914, soon after the outbreak of the Great War. The terms used most at the start of the war to describe the area between the trench lines included'between the trenches' or'between the lines'; the term'no man's land' was first used in a military context by soldier and historian Ernest Swinton in his short story The Point of View. Swinton used the term in war correspondence on the Western Front, with specific mention of the terms with respect to the Race to the Sea in late 1914; the Anglo-German Christmas truce of 1914 brought the term into common use, thereafter it appeared in official communiqués, newspaper reports, personnel correspondences of the members of the British Expeditionary Force.
In World War I, no man's land ranged from several hundred yards to in some cases less than 10 yards. Defended by machine guns, mortars and riflemen on both sides, it was extensively cratered, riddled with barbed wire, rudimentary improvised land mines, as well as corpses and wounded soldiers who were not able to make it through the hail of bullets and flames; the area was sometimes contaminated by chemical weapons. It was open to fire from the opposing trenches and hard going slowed down any attempted advance. However, not only were soldiers forced to cross no man's land when advancing, as the case might be when retreating, but after an attack the stretcher bearers would need to go out into it to bring in the wounded. No man's land remained a regular feature of the battlefield until near the end of World War I, when mechanised weapons made entrenched lines less of an obstacle. Effects from World War I no man's lands persist today, for example at Verdun in France, where the Zone Rouge is an area with unexploded ordnance, poisoned beyond habitation by arsenic and phosgene.
The zone is sealed off and still deemed too dangerous for civilians to return: "The area is still considered to be poisoned, so the French government planted an enormous forest of black pines, like a living sarcophagus", comments Alasdair Pinkerton, a researcher at Royal Holloway University of London, who compared the zone to the nuclear disaster site at Chernobyl encased in a "concrete sarcophagus". During the Cold War, one example of "no man's land" was the territory close to the Iron Curtain; the territory belonged to the Eastern Bloc countries, but over the entire Iron Curtain there were several wide tracts of uninhabited land, several hundred meters in width, containing watch towers, unexploded bombs and other such debris. The U. S. Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba is separated from Cuba proper by an area called the Cactus Curtain. In late 1961, Cuba had its troops plant an 8-mile barrier of Opuntia cactus along the northeastern section of the 28-kilometre fence surrounding the base to prevent economic migrants fleeing from Cuba from resettling in the United States.
This was dubbed the "Cactus Curtain", an allusion to Europe's Iron Curtain and the Bamboo Curtain in East Asia. U. S. and Cuban troops placed some 55,000 land mines across the no man's land, creating the second-largest minefield in the world, the largest in the Americas. On 16 May 1996, the President of the United States, ordered their removal; the U. S. land mines have since been replaced with sound sensors to detect intruders. The Cuban government has not removed the corresponding minefield on its side of the border; the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan were signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on 3 April 1949. Armistice lines were determined in November 1948. Between the lines territory was left, defined as no man's land; such areas existed in Jerusalem, in the area between the western and southern parts of the Walls of Jerusalem and Musrara. A strip of land north and south of Latrun was known as "no man's land" because it was not controlled by either Israel or Jordan in 1948–1967.
In 1885, the United States Interior Department ruled that what was called "The Neutral Strip" was public land and that squatter homesteads were invalid. The Strip began to be called No Man's Land around 1886 after one official stated "no man can own the land". Batman: No Man
Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love of food. Most love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Love is considered to be a virtue representing human kindness and affection, as "the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another", it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species. Ancient Greek philosophers identified five forms of love: familial love, friendly love or platonic love, romantic love, guest love and divine love.
Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, courtly love. Asian cultures have distinguished Ren, Bhakti, Mettā, Ishq and other variants or symbioses of these states. Love has additional spiritual meaning; this diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to define, compared to other emotional states. The word "love" can have a variety of distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as "love". Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love. Love as a general expression of positive sentiment is contrasted with hate; as a less-sexual and more-emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is contrasted with lust.
As an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is applied to close friendships or platonic love.. Abstractly discussed, love refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself. In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed over time; some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry. The complex and abstract nature of love reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the good of another." Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value,".
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another." Meher Baba stated that in love there is a "feeling of unity" and an "active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love." Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness". People can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are committed and value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love and strong spiritual or political convictions. People can "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is involved this feeling is called paraphilia. A common principle that people say they love is life itself. Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings, it is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for a person. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love.
Interpersonal love is most associated with interpersonal relationships. Such love might exist between family members and couples. There are a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania. Throughout history and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology and biology have added to the understanding the concept of love. Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like thirst. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three overlapping stages: lust and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire. Three distinct