Lilla Bommen is a part of Gothenburg harbor used for visiting boats and the name given to the land surrounding the harbor. The eponymous building along with The Göteborg Opera house and the barque Viking are all located at Lilla Bommen; the names Lilla Bommen and Stora Bommen, further to the west along the Göta älv, come from the booms that blocked the way for boats going in and out of the Gothenburg canals and where a government tax was collected. The harbor was located between two bastions: the Gustavus Primus at the present-day opera house, the S:tus Ericus west of the Lilla Bommen high-rise. Completed in 1860, with a quay 525 m and 3.5 m deep, Lilla Bommen soon became the main port in Gothenburg for canal boats, domestic shipping. It was the starting point for cargo and passenger ships going up the Göta älv, through the Göta Canal across lakes Vänern and Vättern to Stockholm and Norrköping. Demolition of the old gunpowder house at Lilla Bommen started on 7 October 1862. In 1899, a station house was built at Lilla Bommen at the end of the line for the Västergötland–Göteborgs Järnvägar.
In 1936, the Östra Hamnkanalen, running from Lilla Bommen between the two lanes of the Östra Hamngatan and ending at Brunnsparken was filled in in 1937–38, a third of the Lilla Bommen harbor was filled in. An option considered at the time was to fill in the entire dock and move shipping to the Gullberg quay northeast of the dock. Lilla Bommen is a part of the Gothenburg harbor on the shore of the Göta älv. Said to have been constructed in the 1640s, as of 2015 it is used as a marina and operated by the Gothenburg Municipality through the Liseberg company, for visiting pleasure craft. Lilla Bommen is the name of the land surrounding the harbor. On the west side of the dock is The Göteborg Opera house, completed in 1994 while on the east is an office complex that includes a high-rise with the same name as the area, the Lilla Bommen; the building is locally known as "The Lipstick" or "The Skanska Skyscraper". The barque Viking is moored between the high-rise; the former Lilla Bommen Bridge crossed the Östra Hamnkanalen at its outlet in the Lilla Bommen harbor.
It connected the Kanaltorget with the S:t Eriks Torg. It was a wide and trafficked bridge with railway tracks, it became part of the landfill. East of the harbor is Lilla Bommen Square, named in 1883; the square was created in 1878 when part of the Vallgraven, from Lilla Bommen harbor to the Fattighusån was filled in to create an extended land area northeast of the harbor. Another part of Lilla Bommen outside the Vallgraven was the Stadstjänareholmen; this area was leased by master carpenter Hultman, who gave his name to Hultmans Holme a district in modern Gothenburg. In July 2001, when digging was done at S:t Eriksgatan in Lilla Bommen, in connection to the construction of the Götatunneln, a boat wreck from the mid 1700s was found, it was designated the Götabåten. The boat was buried under more than 3 m of heavy landfill, at a depth, about 0.6 m below the current water level of the Göta älv. What was left of the boat was a 10 m × 3 m section of the hull, consisting of the keel, the sternpost and parts of the hull sides.
The boat was made from oak and pine, was estimated to have been 12 m long. On 15 April 1908, the steamboat Göta Elf and sank in the Lilla Bommen harbor; the steamer was loaded with cargo and passengers, twentysix people died and the accident was publicized in national press. The somewhat gruesome salvage operation was filmed by photographer Charles Magnusson and was shown, uncensored, as part of one of Sweden's first newsreels; the boat was built in 1884 at Thorskogs wharf and operated the route Gothenburg–Lilla Edet–Trollhättan. Fredberg, Carl Rudolf A:son. Det gamla Göteborg: lokalhistoriska skildringar, personalia och kulturdrag. D. 2. Göteborg. Pp. 625–640. Aurel, Birgitta, ed.. Lilla Bommen. Göteborg: Skanska Fastigheter Väst. 360° VR panorama of Lilla Bommen "The salvage of Göta Elf" newsreel video, 1908
A bus terminus is a designated place where a bus or coach starts or ends its scheduled route. The terminus is the designated place. Termini can be located at bus stations, bus garages or bus stops. Termini can both start and end at the same place, or may be in different locations for starting and finishing a route. Termini may not coincide with the use of bus stands. For operational reasons and passenger routes to be their bus garage, where the legal terminus is just outside or nearby. For the purposes of integration of different public transport modes, termini may be located in a transportation hub or'interchange'. Minor termini may be a bus stop or loop in a residential street, used by few or just one. While it may be of prime importance to the passenger, the location of a terminus may be made for reasons other than convenience of passengers. In rare cases, where the bus operator is commercially separate from the bus station owner, the bus company may choose to terminate services outside the station, so as not to incur usage fees.
Additionally, counter to the idea of integration, competing bus operators may use different locations as intermediate termini, to discourage passengers use of competitors services. A factor in the location of a terminus is how to turn the bus around to start the route in the other direction, which may be difficult in areas where road space is an issue, or the road layout prevents U-turns; this does not apply for true circle routes, where buses operate permanently in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. Termini in bus stations will include reversing/run-around space, negating the turning issue. Another consideration about the location of a terminus is the need to lay over before resuming in service. In busy locations, such as main streets or bus stations, allowing the bus the space to lay over may not be appropriate, the bus may have to run out of service, to a quieter layover point, before returning to the terminus to start the route again. To allow layover at a terminus, many routes run through busy centres terminating either side in quiet termini, where a bus can lay over without causing an obstruction.
In the one-stop case, this can cause problems for passengers when an in-service bus parks at a bus stop with the doors closed, waiting until the timetabled departure time, or when an arriving bus is not forming a departing service. This can be mitigated by using a bus stand. In the two-stop type, the arrival stop can be used as the layover point. Layover time is time built into a schedule between arrival at the end of a route and the departure for the return trip, used for the recovery of delays and preparation for the return trip. Terminus location may be positioned to allow driver changes, although this may be less of a factor than the location of the bus garage. Centrally located termini may be more convenient for driver changes; some operators operate pool cars to allow drivers to drive to and wait at a quiet terminus, swapping the car with the bus when it arrives. Many routes avoid the need to accommodate turning by having the end of the route form a small circuit as an official part of the route.
The terminus is designated as one stop on this circuit, with the bus starting and finishing in the same orientation. This is necessary in many town centres with one-way traffic systems. Space permitting, the terminus may be a purpose built run-around Bus turnout, which allows the bus to change direction by entering and leaving the turnout; the infrastructure for this remains from a previous tram or trolleybus system. In rare cases, to allow a one stop terminus, routes may be arranged to start and finish at the same terminus, with buses arriving as one scheduled route, leaving as a different route; this can be done to allow a formal midpoint to split up a long route, reducing the knock-on effect of delays. As opposed to a one stop arrangement, some routes that need to reverse direction at a terminus will start and finish in different stops, the pair of stops locations forms the terminus; this necessitates running the bus out of service along other streets in order to position in the bus for the reverse direction.
In the UK this is achieved by locating the terminus near a roundabout. In this case, the arrival point can be designated as a'set down only' stop, where passengers are not permitted to board. One bus route will follow a core main route, but towards the termini, the bus may branch off and terminate in different locations; this may be indicated by different route numbers, or with the same route number but a different destination name on the headsign/rollsign. Routes may have a number of different termini on the same numbered route, again shown only by different destinations; these may be used at different times according to operational need to reflect different demand at the different times of the day. Bus station Bus garage Bus stop Dead mileage Train terminus Inter State Bus Terminals
Nettbuss express is a long distance intercity coach service in Norway and Sweden with regular services between the countries' major cities. Other bus services that run similar routes include NOR-WAY Bussekspress in Norway and Swebus Express in Sweden. Säfflebussen was acquired by the Norwegian bus company Nettbuss in March 2006. In January 2009 the name was changed to GoByBus, in spring of 2013 to Nettbuss express. On 1 May 2013, several routes in Norway that were operated as NOR-WAY Bussekspress were included into the Nettbuss express network
Heating and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. "Refrigeration" is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation, as HVAC&R or HVACR or "ventilation" is dropped, as in HACR. HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family homes, apartment buildings and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, vehicles such as cars, airplanes and submarines, in marine environments, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. Ventilating or ventilation is the process of exchanging or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, removal of moisture, smoke, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, other gases.
Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, prevents stagnation of the interior air. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building, it is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into natural types; the three major functions of heating and air conditioning are interrelated with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can be used in both commercial environments. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, maintain pressure relationships between spaces; the means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution. In modern buildings, the design and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For small buildings, contractors estimate the capacity and type of system needed and design the system, selecting the appropriate refrigerant and various components needed.
For larger buildings, building service designers, mechanical engineers, or building services engineers analyze and specify the HVAC systems. Specialty mechanical contractors fabricate and commission the systems. Building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are required for all sizes of building. Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces, the equipment involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating or district cooling network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance aspects are simplified and metering becomes necessary to bill for the energy, consumed, in some cases energy, returned to the larger system. For example, at a given time one building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning and the warm water it returns may be used in another building for heating, or for the overall heating-portion of the DHC network. Basing HVAC on a larger network helps provide an economy of scale, not possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat, winter's cold, the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.
HVAC is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Edwin Ruud, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, many others. Multiple inventions within this time frame preceded the beginnings of first comfort air conditioning system, designed in 1902 by Alfred Wolff for the New York Stock Exchange, while Willis Carrier equipped the Sacketts-Wilhems Printing Company with the process AC unit the same year. Coyne College was the first school to offer HVAC training in 1899; the invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, system control are being introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. Heaters are appliances; this can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building; the heat can be transferred by conduction, or radiation.
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels and gases. Another type of heat source is electricity heating ribbons composed of high resistance wire; this principle is used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems; the heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s in the United States. Heat pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a building, or from the ground. Heat pump HVAC systems were only used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in cooler climates. In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat
Fortifications of Gothenburg
The fortifications of Gothenburg were embankments along the newly dug city moat, with construction beginning in 1624 under the leadership of 2 engineers, Captain Johan Schultz and Johan Jacobssen Kuyl, following a design by chief engineer Johan Rodenburg. The works were based upon the well-established Dutch school of fortification; when Erik Dahlberg took responsibility for Sweden's fortifications in 1676 he implemented Karl XI's wishes for modern bastions of high wall construction. The ramparts were lined with walls of blasted rock and the fortified town of Gothenburg developed with 13 polygonal bastions and accompanying moat, ravelins and 3 city gates; the demolition of the fortifications began in 1807, was completed within ten years. The only surviving piece of bastion is Carolus Rex, on the side of the Lilla Otterhällan hill
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Gothenburg commuter rail
Gothenburg commuter rail is the commuter rail system associated with Gothenburg, Sweden. The trains go on the main-line tracks, shared with long-distance trains and freight trains, they are operated with X61 electric multiple units. There are three lines in the Gothenburg commuter rail system; the first line opened to Alingsås. In 1992 another line to Kungsbacka was opened; the railway to Trollhättan was being rebuilt as a double track railway and completed in 2012, with both a third commuter rail connection to Älvängen and a denser regional schedule to Trollhättan introduced. In addition there are some regional rail lines, going to cities further away, with a higher speed and more sparse stops. In opposite to Stockholm, Västtrafik allow their monthly tickets to be used on SJ inter-city trains. From 2010 all Västtrafik regional trains are part of the Västtrafik pay-per-ride ticket system; the regional trains to Borås, Vänersborg and Skövde go in addition to the long-distance trains, filling up gaps between them, to create one-hour schedule.
The trains to Strömstad are kind of long-distance train by themselves, but the county authorities has responsibility, since it was inside one county before the county reform 1998. The railways to Borås and Strömstad are single track, which makes it hard to have denser schedule than once per hour, without having too many slow train meetings, there are freight trains as well; the Gothenburg-Stenungsund line has extra departures creating half-hour schedule in rush hour. To Vänersborg there is from sometimes two trains per hour. A fifth rail line that can be counted as a regional rail line is the Öresundståg Gothenburg-Malmö-Copenhagen. Västtrafik monthly passes are valid to Kungsbacka, but this is not considered a Västtrafik line; the most used connection on these lines is the connection to Borås, if including the about 60 daily buses that go since the railway can't support the demand. There are plans to build a new railway here, as part of Götalandsbanan, going to be a super-highspeed railway; the first part, Mölnlycke-Bollebygd, is planned to be opened around 2020-2025, extended to Stockholm