Sudoku is a logic-based, combinatorial number-placement puzzle. The objective is to fill a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, each row, each of the nine 3×3 subgrids that compose the grid contain all of the digits from 1 to 9; the puzzle setter provides a completed grid, which for a well-posed puzzle has a single solution. Completed games are always a type of Latin square with an additional constraint on the contents of individual regions. For example, the same single integer may not appear twice in the same row, column, or any of the nine 3×3 subregions of the 9×9 playing board. French newspapers featured variations of the puzzles in the 19th century, the puzzle has appeared since 1979 in puzzle books under the name Number Place. However, the modern Sudoku only started to become mainstream in 1986 by the Japanese puzzle company Nikoli, under the name Sudoku, meaning "single number", it first appeared in a US newspaper and The Times in 2004, from the efforts of Wayne Gould, who devised a computer program to produce distinct puzzles.
Number puzzles appeared in newspapers in the late 19th century, when French puzzle setters began experimenting with removing numbers from magic squares. Le Siècle, a Paris daily, published a completed 9×9 magic square with 3×3 subsquares on November 19, 1892, it was not a Sudoku because it contained double-digit numbers and required arithmetic rather than logic to solve, but it shared key characteristics: each row and subsquare added up to the same number. On July 6, 1895, Le Siècle's rival, La France, refined the puzzle so that it was a modern Sudoku, it simplified the 9×9 magic square puzzle so that each row and broken diagonals contained only the numbers 1–9, but did not mark the subsquares. Although they are unmarked, each 3×3 subsquare does indeed comprise the numbers 1–9 and the additional constraint on the broken diagonals leads to only one solution; these weekly puzzles were a feature of French newspapers such as L'Echo de Paris for about a decade, but disappeared about the time of World War I.
The modern Sudoku was most designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place. Garns's name was always present on the list of contributors in issues of Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games that included Number Place, was always absent from issues that did not, he died in 1989 before getting a chance to see his creation as a worldwide phenomenon. Whether or not Garns was familiar with any of the French newspapers listed above is unclear; the puzzle was introduced in Japan by Nikoli in the paper Monthly Nikolist in April 1984 as Sūji wa dokushin ni kagiru, which can be translated as "the digits must be single" or "the digits are limited to one occurrence". At a date, the name was abbreviated to Sudoku by Maki Kaji, taking only the first kanji of compound words to form a shorter version. "Sudoku" is a registered trademark in Japan and the puzzle is referred to as Number Place or, more informally, a portmanteau of the two words, Num Pla.
In 1986, Nikoli introduced two innovations: the number of givens was restricted to no more than 32, puzzles became "symmetrical". It is now published in mainstream Japanese periodicals, such as the Asahi Shimbun. In 1997, Hong Kong judge Wayne Gould saw a completed puzzle in a Japanese bookshop. Over six years, he developed a computer program to produce unique puzzles rapidly. Knowing that British newspapers have a long history of publishing crosswords and other puzzles, he promoted Sudoku to The Times in Britain, which launched it on November 12, 2004; the first letter to The Times regarding Su Doku was published the following day on November 13 from Ian Payn of Brentford, complaining that the puzzle had caused him to miss his stop on the tube. Sudoku puzzles spread to other newspapers as a regular feature; the rapid rise of Sudoku in Britain from relative obscurity to a front-page feature in national newspapers attracted commentary in the media and parody. Recognizing the different psychological appeals of easy and difficult puzzles, The Times introduced both, side by side, on June 20, 2005.
From July 2005, Channel 4 included a daily Sudoku game in their teletext service. On August 2, the BBC's program guide Radio Times featured a weekly Super Sudoku with a 16×16 grid. In the United States, the first newspaper to publish a Sudoku puzzle by Wayne Gould was The Conway Daily Sun, in 2004; the world's first live TV Sudoku show, Sudoku Live, was a puzzle contest first broadcast on July 1, 2005, on Sky One. It was presented by Carol Vorderman. Nine teams of nine players representing geographical regions competed to solve a puzzle; each player had a hand-held device for entering numbers corresponding to answers for four cells. Phil Kollin of Winchelsea, was the series grand prize winner, taking home over £23,000 over a series of games; the audience at home was in a separate interactive competition, won by Hannah Withey of Cheshire. In 2005, the BBC launched SUDO-Q, a game show that combined Sudoku with general knowledge. However, it used only 4 × 6 × 6 puzzles. Four seasons were produced before
Globes is a Hebrew-language daily evening financial newspaper, the largest and the oldest of its kind in Israel. Globes was published in Tel Aviv, Israel, it deals with economic issues and news from the international business worlds. The color of the paper is pink, inspired by the British Financial Times. Globes was one of the first Israeli dailies to publish its contents on the World Wide Web, dating back to April 1995. According to TGI 2017 media survey Globes′ market share is 4.3%. Its main competitors in printed media are TheMarker of the Haaretz group and Calcalist published by Yedioth Ahronoth Group; the daily paper founded by Haim Bar-On, the publisher of the newspaper, on the basis of a small, Haifa-based financial newspaper, in partnership with businessman Eliezer Fishman. Following the success of Globes, it had a competitor in the form of Telegraph, which had a lower subscription price and was printed on Saturday. Telegraph was closed after several years. A few years the Schocken Media Network published TheMarker economic newspaper as a competitor to Globes.
The chief editor of Globes is Naama Sikuler. Among the regular contributors to the newspaper are Yoav Karni, Tal Schneider, Eli Tsipori, Matti Golan, Stella Korin-Lieber, Dror Foer. Globes is distributed each night Sunday through Thursday, with two major parts: Titles – the main news part Capital markets – stock exchange supplementAmong the supplements / inserts: G – Main weekend supplement, including regular columns by contributors such as Yoav Karni, Dror Feuer, Hilik Gurfinkel and Roy Yerushalmi. Nadlan – The weekly real-estate insert. Lady Globes – A monthly magazine insert devoted to women sold separately on newsstands; the publishing house is located in Rishon Lezion. Calcalist TheMarker List of newspapers in Israel Official website
Joshua Simon is an art curator and filmmaker born in Tel Aviv, Israel. In March 2012 he curated the exhibition Iran in opposition to Israeli government plans to go to war with Iran in order to prevent war with Iran. In 2012 he was pointed chief curator of The Bat Yam art Museum in the city of Bat Yam, Israel. Simon has worked with Anri Sala as art critic. In addition he is co-editor of several publications: Maayan dedicated to poetry and ideas, Maarvon dedicated to film, The New & The Bad, a periodical dedicated to art, based in the Middle East, his exhibitions include Sharon, Doron, Come to Israel it's Hot and Wet and we have the Humus, Unreadymade, ReCoCo. Joshua Simon is one of the founders of the Free Academy group in Tel Aviv and curator of the first Herzliya Biennial. Simon has curated most of them political or social, he curated Anihu in Herzliya Museum of Art and Sharon that put parallel lines between Ariel Sharon and the Sharon region in Israel. In May 2006, Simon curated the exhibition Doron, which refers to Doron Sabag, an Israeli art patron and a CEO of O.
R. S. human resources, explored the connection between art and labour rights in Israel. In September 2007 Simon curated the first Israeli biennial, the Herzliya Biennial presenting more than 70 artists. Simon's film The Radicals was screened in numerous festivals worldwide, it tells the story of a group of young people spraying "jerUSAlem" on the western wall. In 2011 Simon began working on a film project called PushUp. Simon is the author of the poetry book National Citizens. In the first issue of Ma'ayan he published a list called "The Prince", exploring his life and views on the world from A to Z. In the business magazine Firma, Simon has published articles since 2002 on various issues, including interviews with Menahem Golan, the former education minister Limor Livnat, the former defence minister Amir Peretz, the Israeli Prime ministers Ehud Ulmert and Benjamin Netanyahu. Simon, Joshua. Neomaterialism. Anna Altman. Berlin: Sternberg Press. ISBN 978-3-943365-08-5. Simon's work is identified with several concepts.
Some of these are: The Curatorial Unreadymade The Overqualified Dividual Joshua Simon on IMDb Maayan Magazine Website the Doron exhibition The Radicals
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, it is owned by David and Frederick Barclay who own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture, its editorial outlook is supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine contains arts pages on books, music and film and TV reviews. Editorship of The Spectator has been a step on the ladder to high office in the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom. Past editors include Boris Johnson and other former cabinet members Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, Nigel Lawson. In late 2008, Spectator Australia was launched; this offers 12 pages of "Unique Australian Content" in addition to the full UK contents. Readership of The Spectator Australia was revealed through a court case as being 3,000; the Spectator's founding editor, the Dundonian reformer Robert Stephen Rintoul, launched the paper in July 1828 with a first issue for the "week ending Saturday July 5, 1828".
He revived the title from the 1711 publication by Addison & Steele. As he had long been determined "to edit a perfect newspaper", Rintoul insisted on "absolute power" over content, commencing a long-lasting tradition of the paper's editor and proprietor being one and the same person; the Spectator’s political outlook in its first thirty years reflected Rintoul’s liberal-radical agenda. Despite its political stance it was regarded and respected for its non-partisanship. Under Rintoul The Spectator came out for the Great Reform Act of 1832, coining the well-known phrase, "The Bill, the whole Bill and nothing but the Bill", in its support, it objected to the appointment of the Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister, condemning him as "a Field Marshal whose political career proves him to be utterly destitute of political principle – whose military career affords ample evidence of his stern and remorseless temperament."The magazine was vocal in its opposition to the First Opium War, commenting: "all the alleged aims of the expedition against China are vague and incapable of explanation, save only that of making the Chinese pay the opium-smugglers." and "There does not appear to be much glory gained in a contest so unequal that hundreds are killed on one side and none on the other.
What honour is there in going to shoot men, certain that they cannot hurt you? The cause of the war, be it remembered, is as disreputable as the strength of the parties is unequal; the war is undertaken in support of a co-partnery of opium-smugglers, in which the Anglo-Indian Government may be considered as the principal partner."In 1853 it published an anonymous and unfavourable review of Charles Dickens’ Bleak House revealed to be by George Brimley, typical of the paper's enduring contempt for him as a "popular" writer "amusing the idle hours of the greatest number of readers. Thereafter, it went into an accelerated period of decline. Records are scarce but it appears that it was owned by a Mr Scott and bought for £4200 in December 1858 by two London-based Americans, James McHenry and Benjamin Moran. McHenry was a businessman and Moran was an Assistant Secretary to the ambassador, George M. Dallas; the editor was Thornton Hunt, a friend of Moran who had worked for Rintoul. Hunt was nominally the purchaser, having been given the necessary monies in an attempt by McHenry and Moran to disguise the American ownership.
Circulation declined with this loss of independence and inspirational leadership, the views of James Buchanan, the president of the US, came to the fore. Within weeks, the editorial line followed Buchanan's pronouncements in being "...neither pro-slavery nor pro-abolitionist. To unsympathetic observers Buchanan's policy seemed to apportion blame for the impasse on the slavery question on pro-slavery and abolitionist factions – and rather than work out a solution to argue that a solution would take time; the Spectator now would publicly support that'policy.'". This set it at odds with most of the British press but gained it the sympathy of ex-patriate Americans in the country. Richard Fulton notes that from until 1861, "... the Spectator's commentary on American affairs read like a Buchanan administration propaganda sheet." And that this represented a volte-face. On 19 January 1861, The Spectator was bought by a journalist, Meredith Townsend, for £2000; the need to promote the Buchanan position in Britain had been reduced as British papers such as The Times and The Saturday Review turned in his favour, fearing the potential effects of a split in the Union.
Abraham Lincoln had replaced the vacillating Buchanan and Moran's position in London was in doubt now that Dallas had been removed as ambassador. In addition, the owners had been pumping money into a loss-making publication and were reluctant to continue the practice. From the outset, Townsend took up an anti-Buchanan, anti-slavery position, arguing that his unwillingness to act decisively had been a weakness and a contributor to the problems apparent in the US, he soon went into partnership with Richard Holt Hutton, a theologian whose friend William Gladstone called him "the first critic of the nineteenth century". Townsend's wri
Edward Joseph Snowden is an American whistle-blower and fugitive. A former Central Intelligence Agency employee and contractor for the United States government, he copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency in 2013, his disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments, prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy. In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. Snowden says he became disillusioned with the programs with which he was involved and that he tried to raise his ethical concerns through internal channels but was ignored. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Ewen MacAskill.
Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including The New York Times. On June 21, 2013, the U. S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property, following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U. S. passport had been cancelled, he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia recognized his right of asylum, with a visa for residence for one year. Repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance; as of 2017, he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow.
Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 1983, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett, a rear admiral in the U. S. Coast Guard, became a senior official with the FBI and was at the Pentagon in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. Snowden's father, was an officer in the Coast Guard, his mother, Elizabeth, is a clerk at the U. S. District Court for the District of Maryland, his older sister, was a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D. C. Edward Snowden said that he had expected to work for the federal government, as had the rest of his family, his parents divorced in 2001, his father remarried. Snowden scored above 145 on two separate IQ tests. In the early 1990s, while still in grade school, Snowden moved with his family to the area of Fort Meade, Maryland. Mononucleosis caused him to miss high school for nine months. Rather than returning to school, he passed the GED test and took classes at Anne Arundel Community College. Although Snowden had no undergraduate college degree, he worked online toward a master's degree at the University of Liverpool, England, in 2011.
He was interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language, worked for an anime company that had a resident office in the U. S, he said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was interested in martial arts. At age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent." Snowden has said that, in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate, though he "believed in Obama's promises." Following the election, he believed President Barack Obama was continuing policies espoused by George W. Bush. In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting Internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project. A week after publication of his leaks began, Ars Technica confirmed that Snowden had been an active participant at the site's online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discussing a variety of topics under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA."
In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the U. S. security state apparatus and said leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls." However, Snowden disliked Obama's CIA director appointment of Leon Panetta, saying "Obama just named a fucking politician to run the CIA." Snowden was offended by a possible ban on assault weapons, writing "Me and all my lunatic, gun-toting NRA compatriots would be on the steps of Congress before the C-Span feed finished." Snowden disliked Obama's economic policies, was against Social Security, favored Ron Paul's call for a return to the gold standard. In 2014, Snowden supported a basic income. Feeling a duty to fight in the Iraq War to help free oppressed people, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve on May 7, 2004, became a Special Forces candidate through its 18X enlistment option, he did not complete the training. After breaking both legs in a training accident, he was discharged on September 28, 2004. Snowden was employed for less than a year in 2005 as a security guard at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a research center sponsored by the National Security Agency.
According to the University, this is not a classified facility, though it is guarded. In June 2014, Snowden told Wired that his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance, for which he passed a polygraph exam and underwent a stringent background check. After attending a 2006 job-fair focused on intelligence agencies, Sno