The Arusha people are an ethnic and linguistic group based in Arusha Region in northern Tanzania. The Arusha people are not to be confused by Arusha residents who are Tanzanian people of different ethnic backgrounds that are born and reside within the borders of Arusha Region; the Arusha people are said to be of Pare origin in from Arusha Chini area in Kilimanjaro Region. In about 1830 they settled in Selian area on the southwestern slopes of Mount Meru under Maasai authority; the Arusha are distinct from, but related to, the Maasai. They speak the maasai language however unlike the maasai the Arusha people are agriculturalists. During the 1880s a series of disasters forced the Arusha further up Mount Meru. Bovine pleuropneumonia and Rinderpest swept the lands killing many of the Waarusha livestock and the famines and droughts of 1883-6, 1891-2 and 1897-1900 were hard of the people, thus weakening them. During the German occupation of Tanganyika, German colonial administrator Kurt Johannes declared war on the Arusha people in 1895.
On October 19, 1896 the waarusha retaliated at attacked Johannes and two German missionaries were killed. In revenge Johannes with the help of the Mangi Rindi of the Chagga kingdom to the east, Johannes defeated the brave Arusha warriors on October 31, 1886. Johannes killed many Arusha and Wameru people, confiscated the people's weapons and cattle, burned their home and food reserves to the ground to further weaken them. Three years in 1899 Kurt Johannes wanted to further humiliate and demoralize the Arusha people, he ordered them to build a fort for him, the fort was to be built in the heart of Waarusha territory. The building marked the end of the Waarusha kingdom; the German fort was built where the clock tower now stands in the heart of the City of Arusha.. After the defeat and pacification of the Arusha and Meru populations, the Germans confiscated much of the best land from the people and allocated it to a number of German settlers and 100 Afrikaner families from South Africa. During the first world war the British managed to capture Arusha territory in 1916.
By 1917 the British expelled the German settlers confiscating their farms and redistributing them to Greek and British settlers. Under the British controlled Tanganyika territory, through indirect rule the United Waarusha Community was founded and Chief Simeon Laiseri was inaugurated as the new leader of the Waarusha people on January 14, 1948; the city of Arusha and the Arusha Region was named after The Waarusha people. Chief Simeon Laiseri List of ethnic groups in Tanzania Mount Meru Arusha Region Arumeru District Wameru
You may be looking for Bende, Nigeria The Bende are an ethnolinguistic group based in the Mpanda District of Rukwa Region in western Tanzania. In 1999 the Bende population was estimated to number 27,000. List of ethnic groups in Tanzania Yuko Abe A Bende Vocabulary. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. 2006
Songea is the capital of Ruvuma Region in southwestern Tanzania. It is located along the A19 road; the city has a population of 203,309, it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Songea. Between 1905 and 1907, the city was a centre of African resistance during the Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa; the city is poised to experience significant economic growth in the near future as the Mtwara Corridor opens up in a few years. Songea was a great Ngoni warrior, hanged in 1906 during the time of German repression of the Maji Maji rebellion. Songea had been spared the death sentence; however he demanded to be hanged along with the other Ngoni leaders. The Germans complied. After the Second World War, the area was marked for rapid agricultural development linked to the disastrous groundnut scheme. A railway had been planned from the coast to Songea and appeared in 1950s high school geography text books. During the liberation war with Mozambique the Songea area was a restricted zone and suffered aerial attacks by Portuguese forces.
Its remoteness made it vulnerable to ivory poaching, communications remained unreliable until 1985 when a new British funded road was opened linking it northwards to the road and rail hub of Makambako. Songea became a municipality in 2006. Songea is the home to many educational institutions including The St. Augustine University. Songea is divided into wards, it is managed by the Songea Municipal Council
The Datooga, known as the Mang'ati in Swahili, are a pastoralist Nilotic people of Manyara Region, Arusha Region, Mara Region, Singida Region of Tanzania. In 2000 the Datooga population was estimated to number 87,978. There are at least seven Datooga tribes: Bajuta Gisamjanga Barabayiiga Asimjeeg Rootigaanga Buraadiiga Bianjiida The dialects of the Datooga language are divergent enough to make comprehension difficult, though Barabayiiga and Gisamjanga are close
The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. The Makonde developed their culture on the Mueda Plateau in Mozambique. At present they live throughout Tanzania and Mozambique, have a small presence in Kenya; the Makonde population in Tanzania was estimated in 2001 to be 1,140,000, the 1997 census in Mozambique put the Makonde population in that country at 233,358, for an estimated total of 1,373,358. The ethnic group is divided by the Ruvuma River; the two groups share a common origin and culture. A group of 300 Makonde people trekked from Kwale to Nairobi; the group was accompanied by other human rights supportive stakeholders. They headed to the State House in Nairobi to persuade the President to push their recognition as Kenyan citizens. President Kenyatta gave them a warm welcome. After a well-prepared meal on Thursday 13 October 2016, the President ordered the relevant ministry to give the A-Makonde identity cards by December 2016; the Makonde resisted predation by African and European slavers.
They did not fall under colonial power until the 1920s. During the 1960s the revolution which drove the Portuguese out of Mozambique was launched from the Makonde homeland of the Mueda Plateau. For a time the revolutionary movement FRELIMO derived some of its financial support from the sale of Makonde carvings, the group became the backbone of the revolutionary movement; the Maconde of Mozambique, due to their role in the resistance to Portuguese colonial rule, remain an influential group in the politics of the country. They speak Makonde known as ChiMakonde, a Bantu language related to Yao. Many speak other languages such as English in Tanzania, Portuguese in Mozambique, Swahili and Makua in both countries; the Makonde are traditionally a matrilineal society where children and inheritances belong to women, husbands move into the village of their wives. Their traditional religion is an animistic form of ancestor worship and still continues, although Makonde of Tanzania are nominally Muslim and those of Mozambique are Catholic or Muslim.
In Makonde rituals, when a girl becomes a woman, Muidini is the best dancer out of the group of girls undergoing the rituals. The Makonde are best known for their wood carvings made of blackwood, their observances of puberty rites; the Makonde traditionally carve household objects and masks. After the 1930s, Makonde art has become part of the important contemporary art of Africa today; the most internationally acknowledged such artist was George Lilanga. Benjamin Mkapa, third President of Tanzania George Lilanga, Tanzanian artist Filipe Nyusi, fourth President of Mozambique Major General Makame Nnalihinga Rashid, former Chief of National Service, Tanzania John Stoner. Makonde; the Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2016-7. Art Gallery Ntaluma's homepage Blog on Makonde culture
The Kwere (Ngh'were) of Tanzania
The Kwere are a matrilineal ethnic and linguistic group based in the Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region of coastal Tanzania. The primary language spoken is Ngh'wele, called Kikwere in Swahili. In 1987, the Kwere population was estimated to number 98,000; the government of Tanzania released data for the 2012 census, but it was not by ethnic group and such detail may not be published in the near future. In the country's 1967 population census, 48,132 people on the mainland identified themselves as belonging to the Ngh’wele ethnic group; the overwhelming majority of them lived in their traditional residential areas in Bagamoyo district, with another 3,857 people living in neighboring Kisarawe district. In addition, small groups of Ngh’wele people were said to be residents of the Morogoro Region and Dar es Salaam. Reliable census data since 1967 are not available, as subsequent government demographic collections no longer record ethnicity; the total population of the Pwani Region for 2012 was 1,098,668.
In the past, the overwhelming majority of the Kwere lived in their traditional residential areas in Bagamoyo district on the coast. The pervasive dominance of the Swahili language in coastal affairs throughout East Africa for many centuries have led to most peoples indigenous in the area to be at least bilingual, the Ngh'were are no different; this was confirmed in 2002 by Bagamoyo elders who attended a conference held in the city championing its nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Bagamoyo was reported as the recipient of Tanzania’s seventh world heritage site. What impact this award will have on Ngh'were residency in the city is not yet known, but the tour handlers are advertising globally
The Gogo are a Bantu ethnic and linguistic group based in the Dodoma Region of central Tanzania. In 1992 the Gogo population was estimated to number 1,300,000; the Gogo have been predominantly pastoralist and patrilineal, but many contemporary Gogo now practice settled agriculture, have migrated to urban areas, or work on plantations throughout Tanzania. Their name was invented sometime in the 19th century by the Nyamwezi caravans passing through the area while it was still frontier territory. Richard Francis Burton claimed a small population for it, saying only that a person could walk for two weeks and find only scattered Tembes. There was and remains the problem of inadequate rain for crops and humans, the rainy season being short and erratic with frequent drought. In the 18th century the Wagogo were pioneer colonists from Unyamwesi and Uhehe, are confused with the Sandawe and the Kaguru. Half the ruling group came from Uhehe, they had a long tradition of hunting and gathering, allowing the Wanyamwezi to carry the ivory to the coast, but had become agriculturalists with cattle by 1890.
They continued, however, to have a low regard for working the land and are said to have treated their agricultural slaves badly. The Wagogo experienced famine in 1881, 1885, 1888–89 and again in 1894–95, 1913–14; the main reason for the exceptional series of famines in Ugogo was its unreliable rainfall and the ensuing series of droughts. Ugogo has had a mixed economy of agriculture and herding, but most depended on grain from agriculture. Traditionally, cultivation work parties of about twenty men and women were held from January through March, lasted all day with a beer party at the end. People came from an area less than five miles. However, agricultural cultivation played a secondary role to the livestock cycle. Since grain can be extensively damaged by birds, bush pigs, wart hogs, baboons and boys have the responsibility of protecting the fields at night. Several medicinal and supernatural methods were used for protecting fields against wildlife and the evil influence of men. In traditional agricultural practices, the average Wagogo did not possess a large herd of cattle.
Patterns changed, but it must be remembered that these cattle belonged to relatives and clan members. Influenced by the Nyamwezi and Hehe, the Wagogo have been described as rude and boundlessly inquisitive herders, with manners and fierce looks from a rough, raw way of life, physically intermixed with slaves from the west, they had a miserable reputation among Europeans traveling through Ugogo, being considered suspicious, deceitful liars and cowardly. Emin Pasha, writing to his sister, reported, "We are now on the boundary of Ugogo, a country notorious for its winds, scarcity of water and the impudence of its inhabitants". Wagogo clans moved around a good deal, dropping ties to older groupings, adopting new links and family, new clan names, things to avoid and new ritual functions; the Gogo, in short, became different from. While early European writers emphasized the political chiefs of the Wagogo, calling them'Sultans' as was customary on the coast, stressed their collection of the profitable taxes, on scarce food and water, it was the ritual leaders who influenced the entire country.
They controlled rainmaking and fertility, medicines to protect against natural disasters or hazards, prevented certain resources from being overly used. They were not to leave their "country," they were to be rich in cattle, decided on circumcision and initiation ceremonies, give supernatural protection for all undertakings and be arbitrators in homicide, witchcraft accusations, serious assault; the Wagogo placed considerable value on neighborliness. After having his physical needs met, a strange traveler would be accompanied many miles by the young men of a homestead in order to place him safely on his way; the homestead group was so fundamental to Gogo society that people who had died peculiarly, were thrown into the bush or the trunk of a baobab tree, for such a person had no homestead and could become an "evil spirit" who associated with sorcerers or witches. Most brothers went to great lengths to assist their sisters, who lived with their brothers in sickness until they recovered, for brothers have strong moral and legal obligations to fulfil these duties in cooperation with their sisters' husbands.
In life and brothers continue to visit each other, a wife never being incorporated into her husband's group. While the majority of Wagogo have only one wife at any given time, most found polygyny to be valued and carrying a high priority, it was the prerogative of older, well-established men. A reasonably prosperous man could hope to have two and sometimes three wives, sometimes together. Most marriages took place within a day's walking distance after agreement is reached on the number of livestock to be included in the bridewealth, only is the transfer made. A hundred years bridewealth is still given in livestock and a high proportion of court cases involve the giving or return of bridewealth; the divorce rate in Ugogo was low, for few marriages ended in divorce. After divorce, all children born during the marriage belonged to the ex-husband, "where the cattle came from." "