England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Birmingham Ormiston Academy
Birmingham Ormiston Academy is a regional academy for digital and performing arts located in the centre of Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Birmingham Ormiston Academy is an independent state funded academy for 14- to 19-year-olds, with a curriculum designed to for those with talents in the specialist subjects, their motto is "Imagine Everything". Applicants select a pathway; the academy admits students from Birmingham, the surrounding metropolitan boroughs and the wider West Midlands region. The school is sponsored by Ormiston Trust and Birmingham City University, is partnered with Maverick TV, Birmingham Repertory Theatre and the BRIT School, has been unofficially referred to as the BRIT school in Birmingham; as of 1 September 2014 BOA had taken over the running of the Old Rep Theatre on Station Street in Birmingham. The venue was re-launched on 4 September 2014 with a performance showcasing the skills of their students. Amateur and professional companies will still be able to perform at the theatre as well as the school using the venue for lessons, rehearsal space and performances.
Entry to any pathway is by application if applicants meet the initial entry criteria they will be invited to an aptitude workshop for their chosen pathway at the school. The pathways offered are Dance, Musical Theatre, Music Technology and Design, Games Development and New Media and Production. Admission onto a pathway is considered on the basis of the applicants aptitude for their chosen pathway. For Post 16 students once they have been accepted onto their chosen pathway they are encouraged choose an additional subject to study at A-Level. However, acceptance onto these courses depends on the future student's GCSE results. Official website
Bournville School is a secondary school and primary school with academy status, for students aged 4–16, in Bournville, Birmingham in the United Kingdom. Bournville is a friendly learning community school set in the leafy suburb of Bournville in Birmingham; the school encourages students to fulfil their potential both academically and in order to maximise their opportunities in their adult lives. The school has around 850 pupils on the roll, including a primary provision of around 150 students; the School became an Academy School on 1 November 2014 under the sponsorship of The Fairfax Multi Academy Trust Fairfax School is in the same MAT. Before Bournville became a comprehensive school in the 1970s it was two sibling grammar schools: Bournville Girls Grammar School and Bournville Grammar-Technical School For Boys known as Bournville Boys Technical School; the technical school for boys, the city's first technical school, opened in October 1955. The technical school combined with the girls' grammar school on the same site, its current full title is Bournville School and Sixth Form Centre: a Business and Music College.
Designed and built as two separate schools, the first to be opened was Bournville Girls' Grammar School adjacent to the A38 Bristol Road South south of Bournville village in autumn 1954, housed in a modern building. One year in September 1955, Bournville Boys' Technical School was opened at the top end of the same site, together with the separate and brand new two-storey dining room and a purpose-built technical block between the two school buildings; the twin schools shared the main playing field, with timetables arranged so that activities of the two schools did not clash. The tennis courts were under the control of the girls' school and were not available to the boys' school, except by special arrangement at the weekends; the establishment of Technical Grammar schools was a government initiative under the Tripartite Educational System mapped out in the Education Act 1944 to encourage the development of the skilled senior and middle management engineers and technicians needed by UK industry and science, to replace those lost during World War II.
The new specialist schools were intended to form a bridge between the academic and classical learning practised by traditional grammar schools and the more practical and vocational training that formed the basis of the secondary modern schools. The new school's timetable ensured that through years seven to nine the traditional academic subjects were covered, while in years ten onwards academic studies reduced and more time was spent on the more technical subjects of chemistry, woodwork and technical drawing; the boys' school forged close ties with local industrial and scientific concerns and, in return for cash sponsorship of materials and occasional teaching support by their specialists and foremen, those engineering businesses enjoyed first call on qualified pupils when they left school. The boys' school was organised along'Public School' lines with four houses—Belmont, Griffin and Woodlands—and each of the three forms were divided between the four houses. Griffin House was disbanded, leaving Belmont and Woodlands that became the names of three forms in each year, from first to fifth.
Belmont and Woodlands were named after three large mansions that stood in the area during the 19th century, Griffin was named after the nearby brook. The original "house" system was disbanded when the schools combined and became comprehensive and mixed. During the early years there were no female teachers at the boys' school and only two male teachers at the girls' school. Great efforts were made by the teachers of both schools to keep the boys and girls from becoming distracted by interacting with each other. Lunchtime timetables were arranged so that the girls had the first two sittings and the boys were not allowed into the dining room building until it had been vacated. Sports activities on the sports field took place at different times and at the end of the school day the girls' grammar school was dismissed fifteen minutes earlier; the only joint activities during the 1950s were occasional joint theatrical and musical productions and an after school ballroom dancing society in the boys' school hall, all of which were supervised by the teachers.
"Club Griffin" school dances in the 1960s and 1970s were mixed and popular. A Mrs Cotton was the first Head Mistress at the Girls school when the school opened, a strict disciplinarian. Boys and girls of all ages were required to wear a school uniform and cap for the boys and beret for the girls when travelling to or from school and on school trips; the wearing of caps was made non-compulsory after summer 1968. Team sports played were basketball in winter and cricket in summer. Teams competed in the Birmingham grammar school leagues at all age groups; the boys had a swimming team and an athletics team. The girls' school played hockey in winter and tennis in summer. Both schools held an annual cross-country race. Entry was compulsory for all pupils, who had to complete at least three after-school practice runs over the full course in the weeks preceding the race, with teachers placed on every corner to ensure nobody dropped out or took shortcuts. After school there were a large number of school clubs and societies organised and run by both teachers and senior pupils and everybody was encouraged to join at least one or more.
Every night of the week the extracurricular activities took place in classrooms all over both schools. There was a historical society, chess club, ballroom dancing society, geography club, fil
Heartlands Academy is a coeducational secondary school located in the Nechells area of Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Heartlands Academy offers GCSEs and BTECs as programmes of study for pupils, while students in the sixth form have the option to study from a range of A-levels and further BTECs; the sixth form has now been closed, with current students finishing their course. Known as Duddeston Manor School and Heartlands High School, the school converted to academy status on 1 September 2009 and was renamed Heartlands Academy; the academy is sponsored by E-ACT and moved into a new building in 2012. Heartlands High School had low average percentage for 5+ GCSEs A*-C including English & Mathematics in the past, with the lowest recorded being 11% back in 2003. However, since the average percentage has been going up each year. Before the school turned to an academy in September 2009, the school had a percentage of 40% for the final year as Heartlands High School. Since becoming an academy in 2009, the results have been continuing to increase, reaching over 50% for the first time in 2012.
Despite a new GCSE 9-1 grading system in the UK, Heartlands achieved their highest results in 2016, with 72% of students achieving a grade 4, equivalent to a low C. Heartlands High School was placed into special measures by Ofsted in 2003. Since appointing a new principal and a strong leadership team, the school went to good and improving in three years. In 2009 Heartlands High School was awarded Outstanding, the highest mark achievable in school Ofsted inspections. Since academy conversion, Heartlands Academy has continued to be awarded outstanding in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Principals: 2003 - 2015 Glynis JonesHeadteachers: 2016 - 2016 Richard Tattersfield 2016 - 2017 Helen Tanner 2017 - present Fuzel Choudhury Dennis Seaton, recording artist and record producer Jacob Banks, singer-songwriter Ash Kirnon, singer in Lotto Boyzz Heartlands Academy official website
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements. Most academies are secondary schools; however more than 25% of primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and secondary schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind, they do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted; the following are all types of academy: Sponsored academy: A maintained school, transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are run by a Government-approved sponsor, they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
Converter academy: A maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor. Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition; the majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:Studio school: A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College: A free school for the 14-18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college. Faith academy:An academy with an official faith designation. Co-operative academy: An academy that uses an alternative co-operative academy agreement. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead.
An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure, either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy is governed by the Academy Agreement it makes with the Department for Education, at that point it severs connections with the local education authority; the current advisory text is the Academy and free school: master funding agreement dated March 2018. The governors of the academy are obliged to publish an annual report and accounts, that are open to scrutiny. All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas such as science. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths and science, they are otherwise free to innovate. Like other state-funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, although newly established academies with a faith designation are subject to the 50% Rule requiring them to allocate at least half of their places without reference to faith.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education; the trustees are but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity; the trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team. In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building; the sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body. The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges.
They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations." As of 2018 many academies are running deficits. The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s. Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002; the term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later. Sponsored Academies needed a private sponsor who could be an individual, organisations such as the United Learning Trust, mission-driven businesses such as The Co-operative Group or outsourcing for-profit businesses such as Amey plc); these sponsors were expected to bring "the best o
Cardinal Wiseman Catholic Technology College
Cardinal Wiseman Catholic Technology College is a non-selective comprehensive state secondary school in Great Barr. It is named after Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman; this school accepts both Catholics and non Catholics. Cardinal Wiseman Catholic Technology College official website
George Dixon Academy
George Dixon Academy is a school in north Edgbaston, England. Former names include George Dixon Higher Grade School, George Dixon Grammar School, George Dixon Community School, George Dixon Grant Maintained School and George Dixon International School; the current headmaster is a double gold medal paralympian. Former heads include Robert Dowling. George Dixon was a councillor, MP in Birmingham. One of his first actions after being elected mayor in 1866 was to hold a conference to discuss the lack of education for children; this led to the formation of the Birmingham Education Society in 1867, the National Education League, which he chaired, in 1869. The League in turn was instrumental in the creation of the Elementary Education Act 1870, leading to the formation of the first school boards in England and Wales. In 1884, Dixon created Bridge Street Technical School, he bought the old Cadbury's premises, converted it to a school at his own expense. It taught science and mechanics to 400 boys for two years beyond normal school-leaving age.
In 1888 the school was moved to occupy the Oozells Street Board School building, renamed George Dixon Higher Grade School in 1888, began to include girls. In 1906 the school was renamed once again as George Dixon School after its founder; the new school building included a gymnasium. In 2002, Headteacher Sir Robert Dowling was knighted for "services to special needs education"; the school was re-modelled using funds from the Birmingham City Council's Building Schools for the Future Programme. In September 2012 the school was renamed George Dixon Academy; the television character Dixon of Dock Green may have been named after George Dixon. The character first appeared in the film The Blue Lamp, produced by a former pupil of the school, Michael Balcon. Category:People educated at George Dixon Academy Dixon, James "Out of Birmingham: George Dixon Father of free education Brewin Books, 2013. ISBN 978-1-85858-504-8