Rush'n Attack released in Japan and Europe as Green Beret, is a run and gun arcade game released by Konami in 1985. Rush'n Attack is remembered for its Cold War setting and its reliance on the player using a knife to dispatch enemies; the player takes on the role of a United States special operations soldier infiltrating an enemy military base in order to save multiple POW's from being executed by firing squad. There are four stages: a Harbor, an Air Base and a Siberian Camp; the omnipresent knife can be supplemented with captured arms. By killing certain enemy soldiers, the player can obtain a three-shot flamethrower, a four-shot RPG, or a three-pack of hand grenades. At the end of each stage, the player will face a unique group of enemies specific to that stage: Stage 1 ends with a truckload of running and jump kicking soldiers, Stage 2 with a pack of fierce dogs, Stage 3 with three shooting autogyros and Stage 4 with a skillful multi-shot flamethrower operator; when the mission is accomplished the four rescued POWs salute and the player repeats the game from the first stage on the next difficulty level.
While the player can remain still in one area and rack up points, if he takes too long to proceed, the game will start sending out tougher enemies and a stealth-like bomber will appear to take out the player. There's an invisible time limit that will kill off the player if he takes too long to complete the stage; the in-game music is a looping drum cadence. Under license from Konami, Imagine Software released home versions of the game under the Green Beret title for various home computer formats in Europe in 1986. Versions were released for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore Plus/4, Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC, Atari 8-bit, the MSX, the BBC Micro; the Commodore 64 version was well known for its loading music by Martin Galway. In 1987, the game was included on the compilation Konami Coin-op Hits with Hyper Sports and Yie Ar Kung-Fu. An unrelated IBM PC port was released by Konami for the North American market under the Rush'n Attack name in 1989. A Family Computer Disk System version of Green Beret was released in Japan on April 10, 1987, along with a corresponding version for the Nintendo Entertainment System released during the same month in North America and Europe.
The player's objective in the NES version was changed from rescuing prisoners to destroying a secret weapon being developed in the enemy's headquarters. Additionally, a 2-players co-operative mode was introduced as well, allowing two players to play simultaneously; the play mechanics are identical to the arcade version, however the Flamethrower is removed and two new power-up items are introduced: a Star mark which grants invincibility and a pistol with unlimited ammo, both which are only usable for a limited period. The NES version features two additional stages that were not in the arcade game: an airport set between the Missile Base and the Harbor, where the player faces a group of rocket soldiers at the end; the flamethrower corps at the end of the Warehouse stage was replaced by a paratrooper unit. The Famicom version features a few differences from its NES counterpart by allowing the player to continue up to three times after a game over and if the player loses a life in the Famicom version, his character will respawn at the spot where he died instead of being sent to the last checkpoint.
Moreover, the player can carry up to nine rounds of any secondary weapon he finds instead of just three. To rebalance the difficulty, the NES version gives the player more extra lives when they begin and all weapons dropped by enemies will always have three rounds in them instead of having the player accumulate them one by one; the Famicom version features hidden underground areas which the player could access by destroying certain land mines in Stage 2, 4, 5. An arranged port of the arcade version of Rush'n Attack is included in the 2002 compilation Konami Collector's Series: Arcade Advanced for the Game Boy Advance; the game features the same stages as in the arcade version, as well as two extra stages accessible via the Konami Code that are based on the added stages from the NES version. A two-players versus mode is added; the controls have been changed so that the player presses the A button to jump instead of Up on the d-pad. A second portable is included in the 2007 compilation Konami Classics Series: Arcade Hits for the Nintendo DS.
Unlike the GBA version, the DS version is a direct port of the original arcade game. However, it includes various bonus features such scans of the instruction cards and leaflet, as well as tips. Rush'n Attack was released as an Xbox Live Arcade title for the Xbox 360 on May 23, 2007; this version is another direct port of the arcade game, but features an optional game mode with improved graphics and a remixed soundtrack. This version was developed by Digital Eclipse. Green Beret was released as an i-appli for Mobile phones in Japan in 2006; the mobile version is a direct port of the Famicom version with a new feature: the health bar. The mobile port was re-released in China for normal Java mobile phones on December 26, 2008. Rush'n Attack/Green Beret was well received; the MS-DOS version of Rush'n Attack was reviewed in 1989 in Dragon #142 by Patricia Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" colum
Kung-Fu Master (video game)
Kung-Fu Master is a side-scrolling beat'em up game produced by Irem as arcade game in 1984 and distributed by Data East in North America. The game was released in Japan under the title of Spartan X as a tie-in based on the Jackie Chan film Wheels on Meals; the players control Thomas, the titular Kung-Fu Master, as he fights his way through the five levels of the Devil's Temple in order to rescue his girlfriend Sylvia from the mysterious crime boss Mr. X. Kung-Fu Master is regarded as the first beat'em up video game, it had a NES port titled Kung Fu. The arcade game inspired a 1988 French film of the same name; the player controls Thomas with a four-way joystick and two attack buttons to kick. Unlike more conventional side-scrolling games, the joystick is used not only to crouch, but to jump. Punches and kicks can be performed from a standing, jumping position. Punches award more points than kicks and do more damage. Underlings encountered by the player include Grippers, who can grab Thomas and drain his energy until shaken off.
On even-numbered floors, the player must deal with falling balls and pots, poisonous moths, fire-breathing dragons, exploding confetti balls. The Devil's Temple has each ending with a different boss. In order to complete a floor, Thomas must connect with enough strikes to drain the boss's energy meter. Thomas has a fixed time limit to complete each floor. Upon completing a floor, the player receives bonus points for remaining energy; the boss of the fifth floor is the leader of the gang that kidnapped Sylvia. Once he is defeated, Thomas rescues Sylvia and the game restarts at a higher difficulty level; the game was produced for Irem by Takashi Nishiyama, who created Irem's 1982 arcade-hit Moon Patrol, designed the original 1987 Street Fighter at Capcom before leaving to run SNK's videogame development division, creating the Neo Geo arcade system board and its games like Fatal Fury: King of Fighters, Art of Fighting, The King of Fighters'94, Samurai Shodown there, as well as several of their successors.
The game was based on Bruce Lee's 1972 movie Game of Death, with the five-level Devil's Temple reflecting that movie's setting of a five-level pagoda with a martial arts master in each level. However, the title was changed during development to make it a tie-in to Jackie Chan's Spartan X. Kung-Fu Master was ported to the Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Amstrad CPC, Apple II, Commodore 64, NES/Famicom, MSX, PlayChoice-10, Sinclair ZX Spectrum, it was made for the 8-bit Gameking console, under the name of Nagual. Some of the 8-bit conversions offer degraded performance and image resolution; the NES version was converted and published by Nintendo as Kung Fu in North America and the PAL region. The original arcade version was included along with the arcade versions of 10-Yard Fight and Zippy Race in IAC/Irem Arcade Classics for the PlayStation and Sega Saturn, released in Japan only in 1996 by Irem and I'Max; the arcade version was released to cell phones. The Amstrad CPC and ZX Spectrum versions of the game were included on the 1986 compilation They Sold a Million 3, along with Fighter Pilot and Rambo.
For iPad a homebrew version was released in Kung Fu Master for iPad. There was going to be an arcade sequel called Super Kung-Fu Master. Irem's 1988 Vigilante was intended as a followup; the gameplay is nearly the same, but with a different plot added to it that takes place in the urban areas of New York City, where a nameless titular character must save his girlfriend, Madonna, captured by the Skinheads. One unique feature is the ability to pick up and use the battering weapon: the nunchuks, until either the player gets hurt, finishes a stage or begin battling the final boss. In 1990, the arcade game received a different Game Boy sequel titled as "Kung-Fu Master", which has similar gameplay to the arcade game, but with a different plot and setting with the same protagonist along with a new set of enemies different stages and new bosses including a Chainsaw Man, another Strongman, a Napalm Bomber, a Ninja, a Shinobi and a mysterious and wealthy Kung Fu Master named Zapp Morgan, the leader; some of Thomas's new abilities are back-flip kicks and small bombs dropped by enemies.
The flat levels were modified into stages with different platforms and objects in an urban city style similar to Vigilante's. The English version was modified from the Japanese version, by changing the look of Thomas, renaming him "Bruce Leap", add some small enemies in the final stage before fighting the final boss. In 1991 a Japan-exclusive sequel to the game was released for the Famicom, titled Spartan X 2. Like Vigilante and the Game Boy version of Kung-Fu Master, Spartan X 2's plot is quite different and takes place in an urban area
The Legend of Zelda
The Legend of Zelda is a fantasy action-adventure video game franchise created by Japanese game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. It is developed and published by Nintendo, although some portable installments and re-releases have been outsourced to Capcom and Grezzo; the series' gameplay incorporates action-adventure and elements of action RPG games. The series centers on the elf-like player character and chief protagonist. Link is given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda and the kingdom of Hyrule from Ganon, an evil warlord turned demon, the principal antagonist of the series; the plots involve a relic known as the Triforce, a set of three golden triangles representing the virtues of Courage and Power that together are omnipotent. The protagonist in each game is not the same incarnation of Link, but a few exceptions exist. Since the original Legend of Zelda was released in 1986, the series has expanded to include 19 entries on all of Nintendo's major game consoles, as well as a number of spin-offs.
An American animated TV series based on the games aired in 1989 and individual manga adaptations commissioned by Nintendo have been produced in Japan since 1997. The Legend of Zelda is one of Nintendo's most successful franchises; the Legend of Zelda games feature a mixture of puzzles, adventure/battle gameplay, exploration. These elements have remained constant throughout the series, but with refinements and additions featured in each new game. Games in the series include stealth gameplay, where the player must avoid enemies while proceeding through a level, as well as racing elements. Although the games can be beaten with a minimal amount of exploration and side quests, the player is rewarded with helpful items or increased abilities for solving puzzles or exploring hidden areas; some items are consistent and appear many times throughout the series, while others are unique to a single game. Though the games contain many role-playing elements, they emphasize straightforward hack and slash-style combat over the strategic, turn-based or active time combat of games like Final Fantasy.
The game's role-playing elements, have led to much debate over whether or not the Zelda games should be classified as action role-playing games, a genre on which the series has had a strong influence. Every game in the main Zelda series has consisted of three principal areas: an overworld in which movement is multidirectional, allowing the player some degree of freedom of action; each dungeon has one major item inside, essential for solving many of the puzzles within that dungeon and plays a crucial role in defeating that dungeon's boss, as well as progressing through the game. In nearly every Zelda game, navigating a dungeon is aided by locating a map, which reveals its layout, a magic compass, which reveals the location of significant and smaller items such as keys and equipment. In games, the series includes a special "big key" that will unlock the door to battle the dungeon's boss enemy and open the item chest. In most Zelda games, the player's life meter is represented as a line of hearts.
The life meter is replenished a number of different ways, including picking up hearts left by defeated enemies or destroyed objects, fairies or springs located in specific locations, or consuming items such as potions or food. Fairies can be kept in bottles and act as extra lives, reviving the player if they run out of hearts. Players are able to extend their life meter by finding heart-shaped crystals called "Heart Containers". Full heart containers are received at the end of dungeons and dropped by the dungeon boss. Smaller "Pieces of Heart" are awarded for completing certain side quests or found hidden around the game world in various places, require a certain number to form a full heart container; the games pioneered a number of features. The original Legend of Zelda was the first console game with a save function that enabled players to stop playing and resume later; the Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time introduced a targeting system that simplified 3D combat. Games in The Legend of Zelda series feature in-game musical instruments in musical puzzles, which are widespread.
Instruments trigger game events: for example, the recorder in The Legend of Zelda can reveal secret areas, as well as warp Link to the Dungeon entrances. This warping with music feature has been used in A Link to the Past and Link's Awakening. In Ocarina of Time, playing instruments is a core part of the game, with the player needing to play the instrument through the use of the game controller to succeed. Ocarina of Time is " first contemporary non-dance title to feature music-making as part of its gameplay", using music as a heuristic device and requiring the player to utilise songs to progress in the game – a game mechanic, present in Majora's Mask."The Le
Rad Racer released in Japan as Highway Star, is a racing game developed and published by Square for the Family Computer in 1987. In this game, players drive a Ferrari 328 or a generic Formula One racing machine through a race course; the game was released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in North America and Europe months after its debut on Family Computer. The game was part of an attempt by Square to make 3-D games, was followed by several other games using the same technology; the game sold 2 million copies, is considered one of the best racing games on the NES, but was criticized as being derivative of other racing games from the period. Players can choose between two types of car to race. Rad Racer players can activate a 3D mode during play by pressing the "Select" button and wearing 3D glasses. Players could use the Power Glove to control their vehicle; the idea of Rad Racer is to rally through its checkpoints before the timer expires. The player's car crashes if it collides with a road tree at any speed.
Cars hit from behind slow down and cars hit from the side are jettisoned in that direction. Crashes make it more difficult for the player to reach the check point. There are eight different levels of increasing skill. If time runs out, the vehicle can continue to coast for a while. If time runs out and the car fails to coast through a goal before coming to a stop, the game is over; the game came packaged with 3D glasses which could be worn to give the player the illusion of three dimensions. At the car selection screen, the player can pick one of two cars: a Ferrari 328 or an F1 racing machine, similar in appearance to the 1987 Camel-sponsored Honda/Lotus 99T Formula One car. Both cars have a maximum speed of 255 km/h. In-game, "turbo" can be activated by pressing the up button to boost the car's speed, disengaged at any time by releasing the button. Pushing down on the joypad can allow the player to select between three types of background music or none at all; the main reason for the development of the game was that Square owner Masafumi Miyamoto wanted to demonstrate Gebelli's 3D programming techniques.
It was programmed by Nasir Gebelli and supervised by Hironobu Sakaguchi, featured music by Nobuo Uematsu, all of whom contributed to Final Fantasy in similar roles. In 1987, few racing games existed for the NES, Rad Racer was seen as Square's answer to Sega's Out Run. In Japan, it is one of the few titles for the system designed for use with Nintendo's Famicom 3D System peripheral for 3D experience. In 1990, Square followed up with an exclusive North American sequel, Rad Racer II, it differed little from the first version, players considered the gameplay inferior. As one of the NES's premier racers, Rad Racer was met with favorable reviews and enjoyed commercial success. In their article The History of Square, GameSpot conceded that "Rad Racer bears more than a passing resemblance to Out Run," but went on to say that "it's more than just a clone" and credited the game with "effectively convey the proper sense of speed." Though the 3D effect created some sense of depth to the gameplay, it was hindered by a pronounced screen flickering.
The article concluded that the game "stands on its own as a fine racing game." According to Sakaguchi, Rad Racer and The 3-D Battles of WorldRunner sold "about 500,000 copies, good." Despite the efforts of Square Co. to make unique games with 3D features such as Rad Racer and 3-D Worldrunner, high sales, the company was in financial trouble. These events are, Final Fantasy. Rad Racer was ranked number 57 on IGN's Top 100 Nintendo Entertainment System games, was called "iconic" and one of the NES's premier racing games. Rad Racer appeared in a scene in the movie The Wizard. Rad Racer II was released in 1990. Rad Racer at MobyGames Classic Game Room HD - RAD RACER for Nintendo NES review Classic Game Room - RAD RACER II review for NES
Double Dragon is a beat'em up video game series developed by Technōs Japan and released as an arcade game in 1987. The series stars twin martial artists and Jimmy Lee, as they fight against various adversaries and rivals. Due to the popularity of the game series, an animated series and live-action film adaptation have been produced; the franchise is the property of Arc System Works, the company that had ported the original Double Dragon to the Sega Master System console in 1988. The first game, Double Dragon, was released in the arcades in 1987. A Nintendo Entertainment System version produced by Technōs was released in 1988, followed by a Game Boy version in 1990. Various licensed versions were produced by other developers for gaming platforms such as the Master System, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Atari Lynx and for home computers. Two Double Dragon sequels were released for the arcade: Double Dragon II: The Revenge in 1988 and Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone in 1990. Like the original, Technōs produced versions for the NES.
A fourth game was released for the Super NES in 1992, titled Super Double Dragon. It was the last game produced by the original team at Technōs; the Game Gear game Double Dragon is not a port of the original arcade game, but is instead an new entry in the series that has gameplay elements that are more similar to Streets of Rage. In 1994, Tradewest released Double Dragon V: The Shadow Falls for the Super NES and Genesis in North America and Europe, a competitive fighting game developed by Leland Interactive based on the Double Dragon animated TV series by Bohbot Entertainment. A Jaguar version was released by Telegames as well. Another fighting game was produced by Technōs titled Double Dragon, was released for the Neo-Geo arcade and home console in 1995. A Neo-Geo CD version was released, as well as a PlayStation version by Urban Plant, it was the last Double Dragon game produced by Technōs. In 2003, a remake of the original Double Dragon, titled Double Dragon Advance, was produced by Atlus and Million for the Game Boy Advance.
In 2009, was released a remake for the Zeebo, developed by Brizo Interactive and published by Tectoy. In 2011, another remake was released for the iPhone, developed by Brizo Interactive and published by Aksys Games. On April 4, 2012, WayForward Technologies announced that they would be developing Double Dragon Neon, a self-parody of the series; the game was released September 11, 2012 for PlayStation Network, one day for Xbox Live, was released for PC in the first quarter of 2014. On April 5, 2013, Double Dragon II: Wander of the Dragons, a 3D remake of the original Double Dragon II, was released on the Xbox Live Arcade by game developer Gravity. A compilation of the three arcade titles, titled Double Dragon Trilogy, was released by DotEmu in 2013 for iOS, Android, GOG, Steam platforms. A new title in the series, titled Double Dragon IV, was released on January 30, 2017 for the PlayStation 4 and PC and September 7, 2017 for the Nintendo Switch, it takes place shortly after Double Dragon II: The Revenge and uses an 8-bit artstyle, similar to the NES ports of the earlier entries of the series.
The title is developed by Arc System Works and former Technos staff such as producer Takaomi Kaneko, director Yoshihisa Kishimoto, character designer Koji Ogata, composer Kazunaka Yamane, programmer Kei Oyama. Super Spike V'Ball - The NES version which features Billy and Jimmy as playable characters. WWF Superstars - Features a cameo by Billy as one of the game's spectators. River City Ransom - The Double Dragon theme music plays during the battle against Randy and Andy, two characters based on Billy and Jimmy; the Japanese counterparts of Randy and Andy, Ryūichi and Ryūji, are recurring characters in the Kunio-kun games. Abobo appears as a recurring enemy in River City Ransom Underground. Battletoads & Double Dragon - A crossover game between Double Dragon and the Battletoads. Voltage Fighter Gowcaizer - Burnov from the Neo-Geo Double Dragon game makes a cameo as Captain Atlantis' opponent in his ending. Rage of the Dragons - An unofficial homage to Double Dragon produced by Evoga and Noise Factory.
The main characters are named Jimmy Lewis. Abobo's Big Adventure - An unofficial parody of various Nintendo Entertainment System titles, including Double Dragon, starring Abobo as the main character. River City: Rival Showdown - Both Billy and Jimmy Lee are playable characters in the Double Dragon Duel mode. A Double Dragon comic book limited series loosely based on the games was published by Marvel Comics in 1991, which lasted six issues from July to December; the comic book was written by Dwayne McDuffie for the first four issues and by Tom Brevoort and Mike Kanterovich for the final two. It features original villains, a unique story that explains the brothers parentage. Double Dragon is one of the video games featured in the manga, titled Rock'n Game Boy by Shigeto Ikehara, in Comic BomBom from October 1989 to December 1991. A Double Dragon animated series was produced by DiC Entertainment and Bohbot Productions, which aired in syndication for two seasons from 1993 to 1995, lasting 26 episodes.
A film version of Double Dragon was released in theaters in 1994 directed by James Yukich and starring Scott Wolf and Mark Dacascos as the Lee brothers. For most of the series, players take control of martial artist Billy Lee, who battles against various adversaries such a
Mega Man 2
Mega Man 2 is an action game developed and published by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System. It was released in North America and PAL regions the following years. Mega Man 2 continues Mega Man's battle against his rogue robots; the game features graphical and gameplay changes from the first Mega Man game, many of which have remained throughout the series. Although sales for the original Mega Man were unimpressive, Capcom allowed the team to create a sequel, they worked concurrently on other Capcom projects, using their free time to develop the game, using unused content from the first game. Takashi Tateishi composed the soundtrack, with Yoshihiro Sakaguchi serving as a sound programmer. Mega Man 2 is the bestselling Mega Man game, with more than 1.5 million copies sold. Critics praised its audio and gameplay as an improvement over the first game. Many publications rank Mega Man 2 as the best game in the series and one of the greatest video games of all time, it has been rereleased on several other consoles and made available on mobile phones.
Mega Man 2 takes place one year after the original Mega Man. After his initial defeat Dr. Wily, the series' main antagonist, creates his own set of Robot Masters in an attempt to counter Mega Man: Metal Man, Air Man, Bubble Man, Quick Man, Crash Man, Flash Man, Heat Man, Wood Man, he constructs a new fortress and army of robotic henchmen. Mega Man is sent by his creator, Dr. Light, to defeat Dr. Wily and his Robot Masters. Mega Man crushes the eight new Robot Masters and challenges Wily himself. During the final fight, Dr. Wily flees into the caves beneath his fortress and when Mega Man follows, attempts to trick Mega Man into thinking he is a space alien, but Mega Man defeats the alien revealing it to be a holographic projection device which malfunctions showing Dr. Wily at the controls. After the scientist begs for mercy, Mega Man spares Wily and returns home. Mega Man 2 is a action game like its predecessor, Mega Man; the player controls Mega Man as he traverses eight stages to defeat the bosses, Dr. Wily's Robot Masters: Metal Man, Air Man, Bubble Man, Quick Man, Crash Man, Flash Man, Heat Man, Wood Man.
Each Robot Master features a stage related to their weapon's power. For example, Air Man shoots small tornadoes and is fought in a sky-themed level, while Wood Man can use a shield of leaves and is found in a forest-themed stage. After defeating a boss, their signature weapon becomes available to the player; the Robot Masters have weaknesses to the weapons of certain other Robot Masters. After completing certain stages, Mega Man receives a special item; these items create platforms. After defeating the eight Robot Masters, the player proceeds to Dr. Wily's fortress, which consists of six levels that are played linearly; as in the first game, the player is required to fight each Robot Master a second time in Dr. Wily's fortress. However, these battles take place in a single room rather than a series of linearly connected rooms; the room contains teleportation devices. The devices are not labeled. Once the bosses are defeated again, the player must fight Dr. Wily. Mega Man 2 features a few gameplay changes from the original Mega Man.
A new item, the Energy Tank, allows a player to refill Mega Man’s health at any time. Introduced is a password system. After defeating each Robot Master a password is displayed, allowing the player to return to that particular point in the game after restarting the system; the password stores the particular list of completed Robot Masters, as well as the number of accumulated Energy Tanks. Unlike the first game, Mega Man 2 does not feature a score counter, the player is unable to return to Robot Master levels once completed; the first Mega Man game—released in 1987—was not successful enough to justify the immediate development of a sequel. According to Roy Ozaki, director Akira Kitamura had wanted to make a sequel to Mega Man, but producer Tokuro Fujiwara was against it. Kitamura went to Capcom Vice-President to get permission to make the game. Capcom allowed the development team to create a sequel on the condition that they work concurrently on other projects as well; the staff spent their own time on the project to improve upon the original by adding more levels and weapons, as well as improving the graphics.
The project supervisor of the first Mega Man invited Inafune to the sequel's development crew. On the previous game, Inafune worked as an artist and character designer but became more involved in the production process of the sequel. "Working on marked my second year at this, I got to mentor a'new kid', which opened up a whole new world of stress for me," Inafune recounted. The development time for the game was only three to four months. Due to the limited amount of cartridge space available for the first game, elements such as planned enemy characters were omitted from the final product; the unused content was transferred to Mega Man 2. The team was limited by the graphical capabilities of the console, designed characters as pixel art to maintain consistency between the designs and final product; the gameplay system from the original game was kept for Mega Man 2, but the team included more traps for the player to navigate. The game's three support items were added to aid the player because of complaints from consumers and Capcom's marketing department regarding the original game's high difficulty.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling. "a commando" was a type of combat unit, as opposed to an individual in that unit. In other languages and kommando denote a "command", including the sense of a military or an elite special operations unit. In the militaries and governments of most countries, commandos are distinctive in that they specialize in assault on unconventional high-value targets. However, the term commando is sometimes used in relation to units carrying out the latter tasks. Commandos differ from other types of special forces in that they operate in overt combat, front-line reconnaissance, raiding, rather than long range reconnaissance and unconventional warfare. In English to distinguish between an individual commando and the unit Commando, the unit is capitalized; the word stems from the Afrikaans word kommando, which translates to "mobile infantry regiment". This term referred to mounted infantry regiments, who fought against the British Army in the first and second Boer Wars.
It is possible the word was adopted into Afrikaans from interactions with Portuguese colonies. Less it is a High German loan word, borrowed from Italian in the 17th century, from the sizable minority of German settlers in the initial European colonization of South Africa; the officer commanding an Afrikaans kommando is called a kommandant, a regimental commander equivalent to a lieutenant-colonel or a colonel. The Oxford English Dictionary ties the English use of the word meaning " member of a body of picked men..." directly into its Afrikaans' origins: 1943 Combined Operations i. Lt. Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke... produced the outline of a scheme.... The men for this type of irregular warfare should, he suggested, be formed into units to be known as Commandos.... Nor was the historical parallel far-fetched. After the victories of Roberts and Kitchener had scattered the Boer army, the guerrilla tactics of its individual units... prevented decisive victory.... His ideas were accepted. During World War II, newspaper reports of the deeds of "the commandos" led to readers thinking that the singular meant one man rather than one military unit, this new usage became established.
After the Dutch Cape Colony was established in 1652, the word was used to describe bands of militia. The first "Commando Law" was instated by the original Dutch East India Company chartered settlements and similar laws were maintained through the independent Boer Orange Free State and South African Republic; the law compelled Burghers to equip themselves with a firearm when required in defense. The implementation of these laws was called the "Commando System". A group of mounted militiamen were organized in a unit known as a commando and headed by a Commandant, elected from inside the unit. Men called up to serve were said to be "on commando". British experience with this system led to the widespread adoption of the word "commandeer" into English in the 1880s. During the "Great Trek", conflicts with Southern African peoples such as the Xhosa and the Zulu caused the Boers to retain the commando system despite being free of colonial laws; the word became used to describe any armed raid. During this period, the Boers developed guerrilla techniques for use against numerically superior but less mobile bands of natives such as the Zulu who fought in large, complex formations.
In the First Boer War, Boer commandos were able to use superior marksmanship, fieldcraft and mobility to expel an occupying British force from the Transvaal. These tactics were continued throughout the Second Boer War. In the final phase of the war, 75,000 Boers carried out asymmetric warfare against the 450,000-strong British Imperial forces for two years after the British had captured the capital cities of the two Boer republics. During these conflicts the word entered English, retaining its general Afrikaans meaning of a "militia unit" or a "raid". Robert Baden-Powell recognised the importance of fieldcraft and was inspired to form the scouting movement. In 1941, Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke of the British Imperial General Staff, suggested the name Commando for specialized raiding units of the British Army Special Service in evocation of the effectiveness and tactics of the Boer commandos. During World War II, American and British publications, confused over the use of the plural "commandos" for that type of British military units, gave rise to the modern common habit of using "a commando" to mean one member of such a unit, or one man engaged on a raiding-type operation.
Since the 20th century and World War II in particular, commandos have been set apart from other military units by virtue of their extreme training regimes. The British Commandos were instrumental in founding many other international commando units during World War II; some international commando units were formed from members who served as part of or alongside British Commandos, such as the Dutch Korps Commandotroepen, the Belgian 5th Special Air Service, or Greek Sacred Band. In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS, the Belgian 5th SAS; the French Army special forces still use the