Rendering (computer graphics)
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model by means of computer programs. The results of displaying such a model can be called a render. A scene file contains objects in a defined language or data structure; the data contained in the scene file is passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. Though the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. A GPU is a purpose-built device able to assist a CPU in performing complex rendering calculations. If a scene is to look realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the rendering software should solve the rendering equation; the rendering equation doesn't account for all lighting phenomena, but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery.'Rendering' is used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing program to produce final video output.
Rendering is one of the major sub-topics of 3D computer graphics, in practice is always connected to the others. In the graphics pipeline, it is the last major step, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. With the increasing sophistication of computer graphics since the 1970s, it has become a more distinct subject. Rendering has uses in architecture, video games, movie or TV visual effects, design visualization, each employing a different balance of features and techniques; as a product, a wide variety of renderers are available. Some are integrated into larger modeling and animation packages, some are stand-alone, some are free open-source projects. On the inside, a renderer is a engineered program, based on a selective mixture of disciplines related to: light physics, visual perception and software development. In the case of 3D graphics, rendering may be done as in pre-rendering, or in realtime. Pre-rendering is a computationally intensive process, used for movie creation, while real-time rendering is done for 3D video games which rely on the use of graphics cards with 3D hardware accelerators.
When the pre-image is complete, rendering is used, which adds in bitmap textures or procedural textures, bump mapping and relative position to other objects. The result is a completed image intended viewer sees. For movie animations, several images must be rendered, stitched together in a program capable of making an animation of this sort. Most 3D image editing programs can do this. A rendered image can be understood in terms of a number of visible features. Rendering research and development has been motivated by finding ways to simulate these efficiently; some relate directly to particular techniques, while others are produced together. Shading – how the color and brightness of a surface varies with lighting Texture-mapping – a method of applying detail to surfaces Bump-mapping – a method of simulating small-scale bumpiness on surfaces Fogging/participating medium – how light dims when passing through non-clear atmosphere or air Shadows – the effect of obstructing light Soft shadows – varying darkness caused by obscured light sources Reflection – mirror-like or glossy reflection Transparency, transparency or opacity – sharp transmission of light through solid objects Translucency – scattered transmission of light through solid objects Refraction – bending of light associated with transparency Diffraction – bending and interference of light passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the ray Indirect illumination – surfaces illuminated by light reflected off other surfaces, rather than directly from a light source Caustics – reflection of light off a shiny object, or focusing of light through a transparent object, to produce bright highlights on another object Depth of field – objects appear blurry or out of focus when too far in front of or behind the object in focus Motion blur – objects appear blurry due to high-speed motion, or the motion of the camera Non-photorealistic rendering – rendering of scenes in an artistic style, intended to look like a painting or drawing Many rendering algorithms have been researched, software used for rendering may employ a number of different techniques to obtain a final image.
Tracing every particle of light in a scene is nearly always impractical and would take a stupendous amount of time. Tracing a portion large enough to produce an image takes an inordinate amount of time if the sampling is not intelligently restricted. Therefore, a few loose families of more-efficient light transport modelling techniques have emerged: rasterization, including scanline rendering, geometrically projects objects in the scene to an image plane, without advanced optical effects.
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Nintendo game card
A Nintendo game card is a cartridge-based format used to physically distribute video games for certain Nintendo systems. The game cards resemble smaller, thinner versions of the Game Pak cartridges for previous portable gaming consoles released by Nintendo, such as the Game Boy and Game Boy Advance; the mask ROM chips have an access speed of 150 ns. The cards contain flash memory, including game data, a writable portion for saving user data for Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS titles. Cards for the Nintendo DS ranged from 64 megabits to 4 gigabits in capacity The cards contain an integrated flash memory and an EEPROM to save user data such as game progress or high scores. However, there are a small number of games. Based on an IGN blog by the developer of MechAssault: Phantom War, larger cards have a 25% slower data transfer rate than the more common smaller cards. In 2008, the Nintendo DSi was launched; the console offered various hardware improvements and additional functions over previous Nintendo DS iterations, such as the inclusion of cameras.
While many Nintendo DS titles released afterwards included features that enhanced gameplay when played on the Nintendo DSi console, most of these games retained compatibility with the original DS iterations sans enhanced features. However, a select few retail game titles were released that worked for the Nintendo DSi consoles for reasons such as requiring camera functions, these titles have game cards with white-colored casings. Examples of such game cards include Picture Perfect Hair Salon. While these white game cards can be physically inserted into original Nintendo DS consoles, their software did not function due to the missing hardware features; these DSi-exclusive game cards are compatible with the Nintendo 3DS family. Prior to the release of the Nintendo DSi, Nintendo encouraged developers to release DSi-exclusive games as DSiWare downloadables instead of retail game cards that would not function on older Nintendo DS consoles. Despite all iterations of the Nintendo DS line lacking native infrared support, certain titles made use of this type of communication function using game cards with their own infrared transceivers.
These game cards are glossier and darker than common Nintendo DS game cards, reveal their translucency when exposed to light. Examples of such game cards include Personal Trainer: Walking, which connect to the included pedometers, Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver, which connect to the included Pokéwalker accessory, Pokémon Black and White and Pokémon Black 2 and White 2, which connect to other games. Although all iterations of the Nintendo 3DS family support native infrared functions, Nintendo DS games still use the infrared-enabled game cards themselves when played on a 3DS system, reserving the native infrared for Nintendo 3DS-specific software. Game cards for the Nintendo 3DS are with 2 GB of game data at launch, they look similar to DS Game Cards, but are incompatible and have a small tab on one side to prevent them from being inserted into a DS. However, R4 flash cartridges designed for the 3DS still incorporate the same design as the original DS game card. Newer flash cartridges for the 3DS, such as the Gateway or Sky3DS, uses the 3DS card design.
The Nintendo Switch uses Game Cards. This iteration has a larger storage capacity than its previous versions. Despite its similarities, the Switch is not compatible with 3DS cards; the Game Cards used in the Switch are non-writable and save data is stored in the console's internal memory, unlike the DS and 3DS's game cards, which are writable and are able to store save data. Due to their size, Nintendo Switch Game Cards are coated with denatonium benzoate, a non-toxic, bitter-tasting agent, as a safety precaution against accidental consumption by young children. Videos of users intentionally tasting the cartridges became a meme prior to the console's launch, which originated from Jeff Gerstmann's actions on a Giant Bomb webcast; the cartridges come in a variety of capacities: 1GB, 2GB, 4GB, 8GB, 16GB and 32GB. 64GB cartridges were planned to be introduced in the second half of 2018, but due to unspecified circumstances, Nintendo has delayed the launch of this variant until 2019
Arms (video game)
Arms is a fighting game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Switch, which released worldwide on June 16, 2017. The game differentiates itself from standard fighting games as up to four players can choose a fighter and battle using a variety of extendable arms to knock out opponents in a three-dimensional arena. By July 2018, the game had sold over two million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling games on the Switch. Arms is a 3D fighting game in which up to four players can control one of a variety of fighters, with the player able to perform basic fighting actions using extendable arms such as punching, throwing and dodging. Arms features fifteen playable fighters, with some of them being released as downloadable content; each fighter starts with three unique Arms that can be selected in battle, but the use of all other fighters' Arms can be unlocked in the Get Arms mode. All fighters have unique attributes in combat; when the attack meter is charged, players are able to unleash a high-damage "rush attack" against their opponents.
Players can charge their attacks to temporarily increase damage and utilize elemental effects. Each character has unique Arms for different strategies. Players are able to use the system's Joy-Con motion controls or standard button inputs with controllers such as the Pro Controller to operate each Arm individually. Players are able to customize their Arm load outs, with each Arm being able to be selected independently; every Arm is different with varying weights that affect gameplay. Up to four players are able to play in a single match, either in a three or four-way free-for-all, or in a two-on-two mode in which teammates are tethered together. Besides the standard fighting mode, Arms features multiple other modes: Versus, Grand Prix, a variety of Battle modes. In Grand Prix, players take on a set of 10 matches against computer-controlled fighters to win the championship belt. Battle mode consists of volleyball and basketball modes, a target breaking mode, a survival mode. Players can play online in a party match lobby with up to 20 players, or in one-on-one ranked matches.
Arms featured ten playable fighters at its launch: a boxer. Five additional fighters were added via updates between July and December 2017, including Max Brass, commissioner of the Arms League; the game was developed by Nintendo's Entertainment Development division. Early on, the idea of featuring staple Nintendo characters such as Link and Mario was considered. However, the aesthetic of the game with the concept of extendable arms, clashed with them, it was decided that a new cast of characters be created; the possibility of adding characters from Punch-Out!! was considered but the team was concerned about alienating fans of that franchise and confusing new players. Character designs started with the arms first with the team working backwards to decide what type of character would possess it, for instance the character of Helix, started with the idea of a fighter whose arms were DNA strands, although the team did not know much else about him. Most fighters were designed to fill a gameplay need, although there are some exceptions where a design came first.
An early concept for the game had the characters using external devices to punch their opponents. Art director Masaaki Ishikawa said that the game's art style was influenced by Dragon Ball and Akira; the game was announced at the Nintendo Switch presentation on January 12, 2017, was released worldwide on June 16, 2017. Prior to the game's release, a multiplayer demo known as the "Arms Global Testpunch" was made available for download on the Nintendo eShop, with players being able to test the online gameplay during twelve separate hour-long sessions. Irregular post-release updates were released featuring new playable characters and arms; these free releases of additional content followed Splatoon's update model, while the Testpunch demo was available for use multiple times. In December 2017, Nintendo announced that they would no longer be adding new content to the game other than balance updates. Beside balance adjustments, new Party Crash events are planned. In May 2018, a demo of the game was released on the Nintendo eShop for a limited time only.
Unlike the Testpunch events, this demo only featured offline modes of single-player and local multiplayer with a limited selection of characters and Arms to choose from. The game received new characters and stages by way of downloadable content until December 2018. In 2018, a Switch bundle was released in Russia which included the console set, along with Arms and Mario Kart 8 Deluxe. A graphic novel series based on the game is set to be released by Dark Horse Comics in 2019. At its announcement, Arms was compared by critics to the boxing minigame from Wii Sports. Jack Sheperd of The Independent stated after playing it at a Switch hands-on event that it was one of the "most impressive" games on display. Edge compared Arms with other Nintendo titles and thought that "Arms is to the fighting game what Splatoon is to the online shooter or Mario Kart to the driving game"; the game received "generally favorab
Splatoon 2 is a third-person shooter game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Switch, which released worldwide on July 21, 2017. It is a sequel to Splatoon, includes a story-driven single-player mode, the Octo Expansion, an online multiplayer mode. By December 2018, Splatoon 2 had sold over eight million copies worldwide, selling better than its predecessor and making it one of the best-selling Switch games. Like its predecessor, Splatoon 2 is a third-person shooter in which players control characters known as Inklings, Octolings, use colored ink to attack opponents and clear goals. Inklings and Octolings can morph between humanoid form, during which they can fire ink with their weapons, squid form which allows them to swim through ink of their own color to move and replenish ink; the sequel adds new standard and special weapons, including dual-wield pistols called Dualies that allow the player to perform dodge rolls, jetpacks known as Inkjets. Like the previous game, it features the standard Turf War mode in Regular Battles, a rotation of Splat Zones, Tower Control and the new Clam Blitz modes for Ranked Battles, which are now ranked individually.
League Battles allow players to form teams with friends. A new mode, Salmon Run, allows up to four players to team up cooperatively to tackle waves of enemies called the Salmonids. Once per month, a Splatfest occurs, during which players choose a side in a debate and decide the winner through battling. Splatfest topics are announced one week in advance, after which point players can choose their team in the game's lobby. Topics are region-specific and happen at different times of the month, as not all topics make sense in all regions. Splatfest battles are Turf War only and winning battles awards'clout' to the winning team. At the end of the Splatfest, the winning side is decided by evaluating popularity and clout earned in battle. All players who participate earn rare rewards, but players who chose the winning team receive a higher cut; the game features a single-player campaign, Hero Mode, in which the player must battle through various levels fighting the evil Octarians. Unlike the previous game's single-player campaign which had a pre-determined weapon set, the player can now earn various weapons, some of which are required when playing levels for the first time.
In addition to Sunken Scrolls that unlock artwork and in-game lore, players can collect Sardinium to upgrade their Hero Mode weapons and tickets that can be exchanged for temporary reward boosts in multiplayer battles, such as increased experience or money. Using a single weapon to beat all of the Hero Mode levels grants the player a Hero Weapon Replica to use in multiplayer matches. In the Octo Expansion DLC, players play as an Octoling in a new single-player campaign featuring eighty missions. Players can play multiplayer online through an internet connection or play locally, although local play requires multiple consoles and copies of the game; the game features LAN support with an adapter accessory for local private tournaments. The game supports amiibo figures, which allow players to store their character's custom look and unlock additional content, free post-release updates and events are ongoing. Splatoon 2 takes place two years after the final Splatfest event of the first game, in which the pop idol Marie defeated her cousin and fellow Squid Sister, Callie.
After having drifted apart in the months following the event, Marie worries that Callie was negatively affected by the result. After leaving Inkopolis to see her parents, Marie returns home to discover that the Great Zapfish that powers the city has gone missing again, as has Callie. Fearing that the evil Octarians are once more involved, Marie again takes up her role as Agent 2 of the New Squidbeak Splatoon and recruits an Inkling from Inkopolis Square, the player character, to become Agent 4 and investigate. With assistance from Marie and weapons expert Sheldon, Agent 4 makes their way through Octo Canyon fighting Octarians and recovering several stolen Zapfish, including ones powering the Octarians' war machines, such as the Octo Oven and the Octo Shower, they discover that Callie herself has sided with the Octarians after being brainwashed by their leader, DJ Octavio, who has escaped his imprisonment after his defeat in the first game and once more is using the Great Zapfish to power his new DJ stage, the Octobot King II.
Marie arrives with Sheldon and frees Callie from her mind control, together they help Agent 4 defeat Octavio once more. With the Great Zapfish safely returned to Inkopolis, the Squid Sisters reunite and resume their musical career; the game's DLC opens with Cap'n Cuttlefish, the leader of the New Squidbeak Splatoon, discovering an unarmed and unconscious Octoling who has lost their memory. Having lost track of the protagonist of the first game, Agent 3, Cuttlefish decides to help the Octoling instead of attacking them after hearing them humming one of the Squid Sisters' songs while unconscious. Discovering that they are trapped in a subway-like testing facility called the Deepsea Metro, the two come across a talking telephone that identifies the Octoling as'Subject 10,008', which Cuttlefish shortens to'Agent 8'; the Telephone informs them that in order to reach "the promised land", they must traverse through the Metro to collect four objects known as'thangs'. Agent 8 is given assistance via radio by Marina of the pop band Off the Hook.
As Agent 8 clears tests in the underground facility, they obtain sma
A Mii is a customizable avatar used on several Nintendo video game consoles and mobile apps. Miis were first introduced on the Wii, appeared on the Nintendo 3DS, Wii U, Nintendo Switch and various Nintendo smart devices. Miis can be created using different body and clothing features, can be used as characters within games on the consoles, either as an avatar of a specific player, or in the case of certain games, portrayed as characters with their own personalities. Miis can be shared and transferred between consoles, either manually or automatically with other users over the internet and local wireless communications. On the 3DS and Wii U, user accounts are associated with a Mii as their avatar, used as the basis of the systems' social networking features, most prominently the now-defunct Miiverse. On the Nintendo Switch, a Mii can still be used as an account avatar, but avatars depicting various Nintendo characters are available. However, games such as Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, Go Vacation, Super Smash Bros.
Ultimate and New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe use Miis as playable characters. Miis are used as profile pictures for Nintendo Accounts, can be used in Nintendo smart device games such as the now-defunct Miitomo and Super Mario Run. Nintendo's first public debut of free-form personal avatar software was at the Game Developers Conference in 1997, during the Nintendo 64 era. There, Shigeru Miyamoto said that the personal avatar concept had been intended as a Famicom game, where a user could draw a face onto an avatar. Miyamoto commented that the concept could not be turned into a game and the concept was suspended. In 1999, the 64DD, was launched in Japan. Nintendo had produced a short film using the 64DD's Mario Artist: Talent Studio's avatar maker, which includes clothes and a built-in movie editor; the player can optionally utilize the Game Boy Camera and the 64DD's Capture Cassette to put their own face upon the avatar. The next avatar implementation was for GameCube. Along with the Game Boy Camera, it can build an avatar maker.
Miyamoto showed another short film they made with this software, shown at E3 2002 with the name Stage Debut. This software, renamed to Manebito, was discontinued prior to release. Nintendo designer Yamashita Takayuki attributes his work on Talent Studio as having been foundational to his eventual work on the Mii, necessitated by the development of the game Wii Sports. Mii characters are created and stored in the Mii Channel or the Mii Maker, which are pre-installed on the Wii and the Nintendo 3DS/Wii U consoles respectively. While the user can assign a gender, name and favorite color to a Mii, the majority of the interface used for Mii creation focuses on the appearance of its face and head: the user is given a variety of different hairstyles, eye and mouth shapes, other features such as facial hair or wrinkles, to select from. Most of the facial features can be further adjusted, including their size, position and alignment. Accessories such as hats and glasses are available to add, the Mii's height and build can be adjusted.
The Mii Maker installed on the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U can use facial recognition to generate a Mii, which selects facial features based on a photograph of a person's face taken with the system's and GamePad's cameras respectively. The features can be fine-tuned by the user; these versions have more options than their Wii counterpart. Because the selection of facial features is considered by some to be limited, users are encouraged to develop caricatures of real persons instead of accurate depictions. Nintendo periodically releases special Miis during E3 or to commemorate game and franchise anniversaries. For a limited time between March 13 and March 30, 2007, Wii owners in Japan were sent Mii versions of comedian Sanma Akashiya and tennis player Shuzo Matsuoka; the duo had been featured in Japanese promotions for the Wii. Miis of Satoru Iwata and Reggie Fils-Aime were released on the 3DS for the 1st anniversary of the handheld console. During 2013, Nintendo released special Miis of Shigeru Miyamoto and Kensuke Tanabe, during E3 2013 released special Miis for Takashi Tezuka, Koichi Hayashida, Eiji Aonuma, Hideki Konno.
Their Miis feature gold pants, as opposed to a gray pair, cannot be edited or copied. If owners transfer them to another Wii or Wii Remote, they will be removed from their original location, instead of traditionally making another copy. In late 2011, Nintendo released Swapnote/Nintendo Letter Box for the Nintendo 3DS, which features an original female Mii character called Nikki. Nikki gained a small fan base of her own right in Japan, since Nintendo featured the character in a few other games and apps, such as Nikki no tabi suru kuizu, a Nintendo 3DS travel guide app, distributed via the now-defunct Club Nintendo in Japan, it is possible to create special Mii-like characters through the use of third-party software, but Nintendo will force these entrepreneurs to shut down. Sometimes when a customer has needed to return his or her Nintendo Wii for service, a replacement machine must be sent; when that happens, the Mii software recognizes it is a different system and will not allow any editing of Miis created on the original system.
Nintendo, while offering to copy game data and Miis to the new machine, will not alter the Miis so that they can be edited on the replacement machine. The Mii Channel is the app that allows Mii creation on the Wi
New Super Mario Bros. U
New Super Mario Bros. U is a 2D side-scrolling platform video game developed and published in 2012 by Nintendo for the Wii U, it is the fourth title in the New Super Mario Bros. sub-series. An additional campaign for the Year of Luigi, New Super Luigi U, was released as downloadable content in 2013; the game received positive reviews, is one of the best-selling games on the Wii U. An enhanced port, titled New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe, was released for the Nintendo Switch in January 2019. Princess Peach is held captive in her castle by Bowser, Bowser Jr. and the Koopalings who invade and use a giant mechanical arm to throw Mario and two Toads far away. Mario and friends must now travel across this new land returning to Peach's castle in order to save her. On the way, they encounter seven Koopalings each controlling their own worlds, plus Kamek, Bowser Jr. and many minor monsters like Goomba. By conquering them, they get closer to Peach's castle, transformed into an evil reflection of Bowser. By defeating Bowser, the castle returns to normal.
As the heroes celebrate, Bowser Jr. and the Koopalings attempt to escape leaving Bowser behind. He manages to jump up onto the airship, but his weight causes it to crash, they are forced to flee on Bowser Jr.'s Koopa Clown Car. New Super Mario Bros. U iterates on the gameplay featured in New Super Mario Bros. Wii; the objective of each level is to reach the goal flag at the end of each level while avoiding enemies and hazards. The game can be controlled either using Wii Remotes or the Wii U GamePad, the latter of which allows for Off-TV Play, where the game can be played on the GamePad's screen, without the use of a television. Wii U Pro Controller support was added in the 1.3.0 patch. Up to five players can play simultaneously. In multiplayer, the player using the Wii U GamePad cannot control a character, but instead can interact with the environment, such as putting blocks down or stunning enemies; as such, in multiplayer, there must be an equal number of controllers, excluding the GamePad, to the desired number of on-screen characters.
Certain game modes allow players to play Mii characters saved on their console. New to this release is an asymmetric multiplayer experience called Boost Mode. In this mode, the player with the GamePad can aid other players by using the touchscreen to place blocks on the screen or stun enemies; this can be used to allow expert players to perform speed runs. The Koopalings, Kamek, Boom Boom, Bowser Jr. appear as the game's main villains. Along with returning elements, such as Ice Flowers and Yoshis, New Super Mario Bros. U introduces new power-ups, such as a flying squirrel suit that allows players to glide across long distances or descend down vertical paths and cling to the side of the walls. Baby Yoshis can be carried by the individual players; each baby Yoshi has a special ability based on its color, such as inflating in midair, blowing bubbles to attack enemies and illuminating dark areas. Some older power-ups have new abilities. Unlike the previous New Super Mario Bros. games, which have separate maps for each of the games' worlds, New Super Mario Bros.
U features one large map containing all the game's worlds and levels, similar to that of Super Mario World. Some levels have multiple exits; the Super Guide, which takes control of the player's character and moves it automatically through a level, is available in case the player has failed a level many times. The game features a new antagonist named Nabbit, chased after stealing a power-up from Toad. Once Nabbit is caught, Toad rewards the item to the player; the game features two new modes of Challenge Mode and Boost Rush. Challenge Mode adds unique challenges, such as clearing levels or earning as many 1-UPs in a row as possible without touching the ground; the Coin Battles from New Super Mario Bros. Wii return and this time, the player can customize the battles with the GamePad to place the coins and Star Coins on the course. Boost Rush takes place on an automatically scrolling level which increases in speed as players collect coins, with the goal to clear the stage as as possible; the game utilized the now defunct Miiverse, which allowed players to share comments about particular levels with one another.
New Super Mario Bros. U started development shortly after the release of New Super Mario Bros. Wii and took three years to develop; the game's soundtrack was written by Shiho Fujii and Mahito Yokota, with series regular Koji Kondo serving as the sound advisor. The game titled New Super Mario Bros. Mii, was first revealed at E3 2011 as one of several tech demos demonstrating the capabilities of Wii U; the demo's visual style duplicated New Super Mario Bros. Wii, but featured high-definition graphics, Mii characters were notably featured as playable characters alongside Mario and Luigi. Shigeru Miyamoto announced that the Mario demo was going to be released as a full game for the system, would be demonstrated in its revised form at E3 2012; the new game, titled New Super Mario Bros. U, was announced to be released alongside the Wii U console. New Super Mario Bros. U was positively received by critics. GamesMaster magazine called it "a great excuse for families to gather round the TV, an enticing glimpse of Mario's HD future".
IGN stated that "Nintendo's approach here strikes a great balance in all areas, ranging from its difficulty to design to enemies and bosses". Joystiq commented "There's a sense of wonder again, of discovery. I'm not quite prepared to say New Super Mario Bros. U recaptures the spark of Mario's 2D