The Hassanamiscos were living in what is today Grafton, when in 1647 the Reverend John Elliot came to the village and converted the Hassanamiscos to Christianity. The Hassanamisco Nipmuc, from whom the four and a half acre Hassanamesit Reservation in Grafton, Massachusetts takes its name, are a group of Nipmuc Indians native to Central Massachusetts, Northeastern Connecticut, parts of Rhode Island. "Native American Indian Fairs" have been held annually at Hassanamisco Reservation location since 1924. The Hassanamisco Nipmuc known in past centuries as the Hassanamesit Nipmuc or more as the Grafton Nipmuc, are along with the Webster/Dudley Band of Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck, the part of the group that identifies itself as the Nipmuc Nation. While the Nipmuc are recognized by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in 2004 the Bureau of Indian Affairs decided that this group does not meet four of the seven mandatory requirements for Federal acknowledgment as a "nation". Chaubunagungamaug Reservation State recognized tribes List of Indian reservations in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Massachusetts
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor
The Nipmuc or Nipmuck people are descendants of the indigenous Algonquian peoples of Nippenet,'the freshwater pond place', which corresponds to central Massachusetts and adjacent portions of Connecticut and Rhode Island. The tribe were first encountered by Europeans in 1630, when John Acquittamaug arrived with maize to sell to the starving colonists of Boston, Massachusetts; the colonists introduced pathogens, such as smallpox, to which the Native Americans had no prior exposure. They were exposed to alcohol for the first time, which led to huge numbers of natives succumbing to the effects of alcoholism. With the passage of harsh laws against Indian culture and religion, the loss of land and illegally, to growing English colonies, many of the Nipmuc joined Metacomet's rebellion in 1675, the results of which were disastrous. Many of the Nipmuc were interned on Deer Island in Boston Harbor and perished, others were executed or sold into slavery in the West Indies; the Reverend John Eliot arrived in Boston in 1631 and began an ambitious project to learn the Massachusett language understood throughout New England, convert the Native Americans, published a Bible and grammar of the language.
His efforts, with colonial government backing, established several'Indian plantations' or'Praying towns'—predecessors to the Indian Reservation—where the Native Americans were coerced to settle and instructed in English customs, but governed and preached to by other Native Americans and in their own dialects. By the 19th century, the Nipmuc were reduced to wards of the state that were administered by state-appointed commissioners; the passage of the Massachusetts Enfranchisement Act of 1869 effectively'detribalised' the Nipmuc, the last of the remaining Indian plantation lands were sold. Nipmuc communities continued to survive, the tribe received state recognition in 1979, but efforts at federal recognition have not yet met with success; the tribe is first mentioned in a 1631 letter by Deputy Governor Thomas Dudley as the Nipnet,'people of the freshwater pond' due the inland location. This derives from Nippenet and includes variants such as Neipnett, Nepmet, Nibenet and Nipneet. In 1637, Roger Williams records the tribe as the Neepmuck, which derives from Nipamaug,'people of the freshwater fishing place,' and appears as Neetmock, Nippimook, Nipmoog, Nepmet, Neepmuk as well as modern Nipmuc.
Colonists and the Native Americans themselves used this term extensively after the growth of the Praying towns. The French referred to most New England Native Americans as Loup,'the Wolf People,' but the name ȣmiskanȣakȣiak, the'beaver tail-hill people,' was recorded as self-appellation of Nipmuc refugees that had fled to French Colonial Canada amongst the Abenaki. Nipmucs spoke Loup A, a Southern New England Algonquian language. Daniel Gookin, Superintendent to the Native Americans and assistant of Eliot, was careful to distinguish the Nipmuc, Wabquasset and Nashaway tribes; the situation was fluid since Native Americans unhappy with their chiefs were free to join other groups, shifting alliances were made based on kinship and tributary relationships with other tribes. The formation of the Praying towns broke tribal divisions as the Native Americans were settled together, but four groups that are associated with the Nipmuc peoples survive today: Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck or Dudley Indians Descendants of the Praying town of Chaunbunagungamaug, now located in the town of Webster on lands ceded by the town of Dudley, Massachusetts.
The tribe uses several acres held in Webster and across the border in Thompson, Connecticut. Hassanamisco Nipmuc or Grafton Indians Descendants of the Praying town of Hassanamessit, now located in Grafton, Massachusetts; the Cisco family maintained their four acres from the final Hassamessit land sales and this is the current reservation. Natick Massachusett or Natick Nipmuc The descendants of the Praying town of Natick, Massachusetts do not retain any of their original lands; the Natick are descended from the Massachusett as well as Nipmuc ancestry, qualify for state services as Nipmuc. Connecticut Nipmuc Descendants of various Nipmuc that survived or re-located to Connecticut; the Nipmuc of Connecticut, unlike in Massachusetts, are not recognized by their state. Governor Michael Dukakis issued Executive Order #126 which proclaimed that'State agencies shall deal directly with... Nipmuc... on matters affecting the Nipmuc Tribe' as well as calling for the creation of a state'Commission on Indian Affairs.'
The subsequent establishment of the all-Indian Commission conferred state support for education, health care, cultural continuity, protection of remaining lands for the descendants of the Wampanoag and Massachusett tribes. The state calls for the examination of all human remains and to notify the Commission, who after the investigation of the State Archaeologist, decide the appropriate course of action; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts cited the continuity of the Nipmuc with the historic tribe and commended tribal efforts to preserve their culture and traditions. The state symbolically repealed the General Court Act of 1675 that banned Native Americans from the City of Boston during King Philip's War; the tribe works with the state to undergo various archaeological excavations and preservation campaigns. The tribe, in conjunction with the National Congress of American Indians were against the construction of the sewage treatment plant on Deer Island in Boston Harbor where many graves were desecrated by its construction, annually hold a remembrance service for members of the tribe l
Webster is a town in Worcester County, United States. The population was 16,767 at the 2010 census. Named after statesman Daniel Webster, the town was founded by industrialist Samuel Slater, was home to several early American textile mills, it is home to the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of the Nipmuc, as well as Lake Chaubunagungamaug, the third largest body of freshwater, largest natural lake, in Massachusetts. Webster was first settled in 1713 and was incorporated on March 6, 1832; the area forming the town had been divided among the town of Dudley, the town of Oxford and an unincorporated gore. The primary founder was the manufacturer Samuel Slater, who came to the area after his celebrated activities in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, founded several textile mills, one of, taken over by the Cranston Print Works in 1936, he named the town after his friend Daniel Webster. Slater died and is buried there in Mount Zion Cemetery. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.5 square miles, of which 12.5 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles, or 14.10%, is water.
The town is bounded on the north by Oxford. The town is home to Lake Chaubunagungamaug known as "Webster Lake", a body of water with a surface area of 1,442 acres. Lake Chargoggagoggmanchauggagoggchaubunagungamaugg, a 45-letter/fourteen syllable alternative name for this body of water, is cited as the longest place name in the United States and one of the longest in the world. Today, "Webster Lake" may be the name most used, but some residents of Webster take pride in reeling off the longer versions; as of the census of 2000, there were 16,415 people, 6,905 households, 4,274 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,314.2 people per square mile. There were 7,554 housing units at an average density of 604.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.82% White, 1.11% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 1.49% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.95% of the population. About 60% of the Latinos were Puerto Ricans.
The town is known for incorporating many Polish-American immigrants. Persons of Polish descent may constitute as much a third of the town's population. St. Joseph Basilica, the oldest Polish-American Catholic parish church in New England, is located in Webster; as of 2000, there were 6,905 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.94. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,169, the median income for a family was $48,898.
Males had a median income of $37,863 versus $26,912 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,410. About 8.1% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. Chaubunagungamaug Reservation, a state-recognized Nipmuc Indian reservation, is located within the town. There are over 500 tribe members recognized by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, but they are not recognized as a tribal government by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Public schools in Webster include Park Avenue School, Webster Middle School, Bartlett High School. Webster Middle School opened in 2005, replacing the former Anthony J. Sitkowski Middle School, a building attached to Town Hall, now an apartment building for senior citizens. Three of Webster's Catholic churches support elementary schools: St. Anne's, St. Joseph's and St. Louis. In 2016, St. Anne's and St. Louis's were combined to form All Saints Academy, which has two buildings: a middle school campus, an elementary school campus.
Mapfre Insurance is based in Webster. Indian Ranch is a summer concert venue located on Webster Lake, has hosted musical acts such as Charlie Daniels, Thomas Rhett, the Barenaked Ladies, Scotty McCreery, Third Eye Blind, Huey Lewis & the News, Gavin DeGraw, many more, it is home to the Indian Princess, a riverboat that once rode the Mississippi River, where guests can take a tour of the lake. Goya Foods has its Massachusetts division in Webster. Webster Times, published every Friday Telegram & Gazette The Boston Globe Boston Herald WGFP-AM 940 The Webster public library began in 1889. In fiscal year 2008, the town of Webster spent 1.07% of its budget on its public library—some $17 per person. The Chester C. Corbin Library opened in 1921 and served the town until being demolished in the fall of 2016, with its contents temporarily moved to the Webster Town Hall while a new building was constructed; the new library, named for Gladys E. Kelly, opened in 2018. Andrew J. Bates and founder of the Bates Shoe Company Bette Boucher, retired profes
The Chaubunagungamaug Reservation refers to the small parcel of land located in the town of Thompson, close to the border with the town of Webster and within the bounds of Lake Chaubunagungamaug to the east and the French River to the west. The reservation is used by the descendants of the Nipmuck Indians of the previous reservation, c. 1682-1869, that existed in the same area, who now identify as the Webster/Dudley Band of the Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck. Together with the Hassanamisco Nipmuc, both have received state recognition under the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs; the reservation only consists of 2.5 acres, does not support a permanent population. It does serve as ceremonial center and celebration area for the current tribe; the land is used as a place for the re-interment of local Native American remains. The tribe, its reservation, are recognized in Massachusetts, but both lack recognition in Connecticut and at the federal level; the first attempt at providing land for the Indians was the'Praying towns' established by the missionary John Eliot, starting with Natick in 1651.
Eliot petitioned the Great and General Court to provide land for the formation of townships, which the colonial government awarded in 1651, in response to the growing population of English settlers, which had doubled through natural increase and large-scale migration. Eliot, instrumental in learning the language, translating the Bible, advocating for the Indians and teaching them literacy, settled Indian converts, known as'Praying Indians,' in these communities; the Praying towns fell under colonial jurisdiction and laws, the Praying Indians were forced to adopt many English customs, civil systems Christianity, but were self-governing with most administrative positions filled by the tribal elite, operated in their own language and were able to maintain Native customs. In 1672, son of the Hassanamessit sachem Petavit known as Robin, began preaching to the Indians of Chabanakongkomun, as Eliot referred to it. Eliot and Major-General Daniel Gookin, representing the colonial government, visited the area four times between 1668 and 1674.
In 1673, Gookin installed Willymachin known as Black James, the sachem of Chabanakongkomun as Constable over four new Praying towns being established nearby. They returned in 1674, to recognize the Praying town with Joseph as its teacher; the new town did not receive an official land grant as it was still far from English settlements and due to the outbreak of King Philip's War 1675-1676 during Metacomet's uprising against the English. Chabanakongkomun was abandoned, as many fled to join Metacomet, others served the English as scouts and guides and those that remained were forcibly marched to Deer Island where many died of exposure and illness. Nipmuc Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck Nipmuc Nation State recognized tribes List of Indian reservations in the United States Webster man keeps Nipmuc tradition alive - Worcester Telegram "Proposed Finding Against Acknowledgment of the Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck" - Bureau of Indian Affairs "Through songs and artifacts, tribe revives a long-lost culture" - Boston "Living in Two Worlds" - Boston Harbor Islands "Nipmuc History" - First Nations "Nipmuc say BIA got the facts wrong" - Indian Country Today "Nipmucs will appeal US tribal rejection" - Boston "Nipmuc group adds to T&G Santa’s gifts" - Telegram & Gazette
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service; the department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, concurrently serves in the Department as Deputy Secretary; the Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are responsible for police matters and internal security.
In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State; the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do, he noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, the Patent Office, part of the Department of State.
Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, spent just over two weeks in the Senate; the department was established on March 3, 1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill; the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the domestic concerns the department dealt with were transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which became the Department of Agriculture; however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee; the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin; the department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury, in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit.
Some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases; the $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009; as important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell. Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis National Invasive Species Council Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance and Acquisiti