SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nipple

The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which, in females, milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts to feed an infant. The milk can flow through the nipple passively or it can be ejected by smooth muscle contractions that occur along the ductal system; the nipple is surrounded by the areola, a darker color than the surrounding skin. A nipple is called a teat when referring to non-humans. Nipple or teat can be used to describe the flexible mouthpiece of a baby bottle. In humans, nipples of both males and females can be stimulated as part of sexual arousal. In many cultures, human female nipples are sexualized, or "regarded as sex objects and evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics and sexiness." In mammals, a nipple is a small projection of skin containing the outlets for 15–20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the tip. Marsupials and eutherian mammals have an number of nipples arranged bilaterally, from as few as two to as many as 19.

The skin of the nipple is rich in a supply of special nerves that are sensitive to certain stimuli: these are slowly-adapting and rapidly-adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors are identified by Type I slowly-adapting with multiple Merkel corpuscle end-organs and Type II slowly-adapting with single Ruffini corpuscle end-organs, as well as Type I rapidly-adapting with multiple Meissner corpuscle end-organs and Type II rapidly-adapting with single Pacinian corpuscle end-organs; the dominant nerve supply to the nipple comes from the lateral cutaneous branches of fourth intercostal nerve. The nipple is used as an anatomical landmark, it rests over the approximate level of the diaphragm. The arterial supply to the nipple and breast originates from the anterior intercostal branches of the internal thoracic arteries; the venous vessels parallel the arteries. The lymphatic ducts that drain the nipple are the same for the breast; the axillary nodes are the lateral group and the anterior group.

75% of the lymph is drained through the axillary lymph nodes located near the armpit. The rest of the drainage leaves the nipple and breast through infroclavicular, pectoral, or parasternal nodes. Since nipples change throughout the life span in men and women, the anatomy of the nipple can change and this change may be expected and considered normal. All mammals have nipples. Why males have nipples has been the subject of scientific research. Differences among the sexes within a given species are considered by evolutionary biologists to be the result of sexual selection, directly or indirectly. There is a general consensus that the male nipple exists because there is no particular advantage to males losing the trait; the physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation. During breastfeeding, nipple stimulation by an infant will simulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is a hormone that increases during pregnancy and acts on the breast to help produce the milk-ejection reflex.

Oxytocin release from the nipple stimulation of the infant causes the uterus to contract after childbirth. The strong uterine contractions that are caused by the stimulation of the mother's nipples help the uterus contract to clamp down the uterine arteries; these contractions are necessary to prevent post-partum hemorrhage. When the baby suckles or stimulates the nipple, oxytocin levels rise and small muscles in the breast contract and move the milk through the milk ducts; the result of nipple stimulation by the newborn helps to move breast milk out through the ducts and to the nipple. This contraction of milk is called the “let-down reflex.” Latching on refers to the baby fastening onto the nipple to breastfeeding. A good attachment is when the bottom of the areola is in the baby's mouth and the nipple is drawn back inside his or her mouth. A poor latch results in insufficient nipple stimulation to create the let down reflex; the nipple is poorly stimulated. This poor attachment can cause sore and cracked nipples and a reluctance of the mother to continue to breastfeed.

After the birth of the infant, the milk supply increases based upon the continuous and increasing stimulation of the nipple by the infant. If the baby increases nursing time at the nipple, the mammary glands respond to this stimulation by increasing milk production. Nipple pain can be a disincentive for breastfeeding. Sore nipples that progress to cracked nipples is of concern since many woman cease breastfeeding due to the pain. In some instances an ulcer will form on the nipple. One reason for the development of cracked and sore nipples is the incorrect latching-on of the infant to the nipple. If a nipple appears to be wedge-shaped and flattened, this may indicates that the attachment of the infant is not good and there is a potential of developing cracked nipples. Herpes infection of the nipple is painful. Nipple pain can be caused by excessive friction of clothing against the nipple that causes a fissure. Nipple discharge refers to any fluid. Discharge from the nipple does not occur in lactating women.

And discharge in non-pregnant women or women who are not breastfeeding may not cause concern. Men that have discharge from their nipples are not typical. Discharge from the nipples of men or boys may indicate a problem. Discharge from the nipples can appear without squeezing or may only be noticeable if the

Martin Taylor (businessman)

Martin Taylor is a businessman and former chief executive of Barclays Bank. He is an external member of the Bank of England's Financial Policy Committee, he joined Reuters as a journalist in 1974, before moving to the Financial Times in 1978, where he edited the paper's "Lex" column. In 1984, he joined the board of Courtaulds, becoming chief executive of Courtaulds Textiles by 1990, he became chief executive of Barclays four years in 1994, remaining there until 1998. He joined the board at retail chain W H Smith in 1999 becoming chief executive before departing in 2003, he was a member of the UK Parliament select Committee for Technology for five years. He joined the Institute for Public Policy Research and compiled their 2001 Commission on Public/Private Partnerships report, he has attended many meetings of the Bilderberg Group and served as Secretary General for several years. Taylor is vice-chairman of the board of RTL Group, and was chairman of Syngenta AG and of the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture.

He was an international adviser to Goldman Sachs until 2005. He was appointed to the Bank of England Financial Policy Committee in March 2013. Taylor was born in Burnley and educated at Eton and Balliol College, where he earned a degree in Oriental languages. Taylor has a son, he is an avid traveller and is interested in art, music and architecture. Bramwell G Rudd COURTAULDS and the HOSIERY & KNITWEAR INDUSTRY Profile at the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture

30 June Stadium stampede

During the 30 June Stadium stampede, 20 football fans died on 8 February 2015 in a confrontation with the police at the gates of 30 June Stadium during a league match between two Cairo clubs, Zamalek and ENPPI. The death toll was expected to rise. Most of the dead were suffocated when the crowd stampeded after police used tear gas to clear the fans trying to force their way into the stadium; the Cabinet of Egypt decided to stop the league for an indefinite period. FIFA – FIFA president Sepp Blatter sent a letter to Mohamed Gamal, the President of the Egyptian Football Association, in which he expressed his sorrow for the occurrence of a number of victims as a result of events before the game. Port Said Stadium riot Zamalek disaster