Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan. Locally, it is called Puro Yakyū, meaning Professional Baseball. Outside Japan, it is just referred to as "Japanese baseball"; the roots of the league can be traced back to the formation of the "Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club" in Tokyo, founded 1934 and the original circuit for the sport in the Empire two years – Japanese Baseball League, continued to play through the final years of World War II. The league, today's NPB for Japan was formed when that sports organization reorganized in 1950, creating two leagues with six teams each in the Central League and the Pacific League with an annual season-ending Japan Series championship play-off series of games starting that year for the JPB along the lines of the American World Series tournament. Nippon Professional Baseball consists of two leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League, which both have six teams in each league. There are two secondary-level professional minor leagues, the Eastern League and the Western League, that play shorter schedules for developing players.
The season starts in late March or early April, ends in October, with two or three all-star games in July. In recent decades prior to 2007, the two leagues each scheduled between 130 and 140 regular season games, with the 146 games played by the Central League in 2005 and 2006 being the only exception. Both leagues have since adopted 73 each at home & on road. In general, Japanese teams play six games a week, with every Monday off. Following the conclusion of each regular season the best teams from each league go on to play in the "Nippon Series" or Japan Series championship play-off tournament along the lines of the American World Series since 1903. In 2004, the Pacific League played five fewer games than the Central League teams during the regular season and used a new playoff format to determine its champion; the teams in third and second place played in a best-of-three series with the winner of that series going on to play the first place team in a best-of-five format at its home ground.
In 2006, the Central League adopted the Pacific League's tournament as well, the tournament became known as the Climax Series with the two winners, one from each league, competing in the Japan Series. The NPB rules are those of the American Major League Baseball, but technical elements are different: The Nippon league uses a smaller baseball, strike zone, playing field; the Japanese baseball is wound more than an American baseball. The strike zone is narrower "inside" than away from the batter. Five Nippon league teams have fields whose small dimensions would violate the American Official Baseball Rules; the note set out at the end of Rule 1.04 specifies minimum dimensions for American ballparks built or renovated after 1958: 325 feet down each foul line and 400 feet to center field. American Major League Baseball players and sabermetricians describe play in the NPB as "AAAA". Play in the Pacific League is similar to that in American League baseball, with the use of designated hitters, unlike the Central League, which has no DH rule and is closer to National League baseball.
Unlike North American baseball, Japanese baseball games may end in a tie. If the score is tied after nine innings of play, up to three additional innings will be played. If there is no winner after 12 innings, the game is declared a tie. Similar to the current structure of the World Series, a team must win four games to clinch the Japan Series title. If the series must be extended, all games beyond game 7 are played with no innings limit, with game 8 being played in the same venue as game 7, game 9 and beyond played in the opposing team's venue following a moving day. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, special rules were implemented for the 2011 NPB season: For power conservation reasons, besides the usual 12-inning limit, no extra innings were allowed to commence during the regular season once 3 hours, 30 minutes had elapsed from the game start time; this time included delays due to weather. Due to the delayed start of the season and because of post-season commitments to the champion, the Japan Series' extension rules were modified in 2011 if the series was tied after seven games, only one extra game would be played.
Most Japanese teams have a six-man starting rotation. Although each team roster has 28 players, similar to other professional sports, there is a 25 player limit for each game. Managers scratch three players before each game including the most recent starting pitchers, similar to professional basketball. Financial problems plague many teams in the league, it is believed that with the exception of the Yomiuri Giants and the Hanshin Tigers, all teams are operating with considerable subsidies as much as ¥6 billion, from their parent companies. A raise in the salaries of players is blamed, from the start of the professional league, parent c
The Mandalay University of Foreign Languages ), located in Mandalay, is one of two specialized universities for the study of foreign languages in Myanmar. The university offers Master of Arts program, full-time four-year bachelor's degree programs run by Ministry of Education, part-time diploma programs in the study of several Asian and European languages; the university is located on the 62nd Street, between 22nd and 23rd Streets, Aungmyethazan Township, Mandalay. Over 1600 students from Upper Myanmar and foreign countries are studied various languages in this university. Languages that are studied at this university are: English, Japanese, Korean, Russian and Myanmar for international students. Yangon University of Foreign Languages
Alexandre Paulikevitch is a Lebanese artist living in Beirut, Lebanon. He is one of few male Arab belly dancers, is known for his thought provoking work and the social issues he tackles through his art, he studied at the University of Paris VIII majoring in Dance. He returned to Beirut in 2006, where he is now permanently based, has since "been creating spaces of reflection on Middle-Eastern dance through his work as a choreographer, a teacher and a performer". Today he specializes in contemporary Baladi dance, a new dance form he has divulged. Paulikevitch was born in Lebanon where he grew up in a conservative Armenian Christian neighborhood of Beirut, he embraced his sexuality early-on and came out as a homosexual man to his friends and family at the age of 16. His solo debut in Beirut was in 2009 with “Mouhawala Oula” with which he begins to challenge gender stereotypes. Although a progressive country in the Middle East, homosexuality has not yet been decriminalized in Lebanon; as a male with a feminine demeanor, he is the target of derogatory catcalls when in public.
In one of his first solo shows, entitled Tajwal, Paulikevitch dances to a compilation of insults directed at him on the streets of Beirut, turning his suffering into art. Paulikevitch's work redefines "gender roles through oriental dance"; as a male dancer of Baladi, he uses his body to question gender stereotypes in the Middle East. One of the main missions Paulikevitch claims for himself is to battle what he describes as'the colonial designation' of'Belly Dance'. In describing his work, he aims to reclaim the native significance and original Egyptian appellation Baladi — Arabic for my country or land, his main critique is that the term'Belly Dance' was created through the colonial gaze to eroticize this dance, condemning it as female and suggestive. As a male Arab dancer within this tradition, he combats these stereotypes, thus reclaiming a space for a male figure in a female dominated world. Paulikevitch was internationally in many outlets; this includes an episode of the Netflix series We Speak Dance, hosted by Vandana Hart and filmed in Beirut.
“Mouhawala Oula”, Debut: 2009 Tajwal, Debut: 2011 ELGHA ، Debut: 2013 Baladi ya Wad Debut: 2015 SKINOUT, a collaboration with Cecilia Bengolea, François Chaignaud, Ylva Falk, Elisa Yvelin, Naïs Haidar, Alex Mugler, Debut: 2012 Palais de Femme, a collaboration with Joelle Khoury and Chaghig Arzoumanian, Debut: 2014 Dresse le Pour moi, a collaboration with Nancy Naous, Debut: 2018 The Last Distance, a collaboration with Leen Hashem, Debut: 2018 LGBT rights in Lebanon